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date: 03 June 2020

(p. 443) Index

(p. 443) Index

Note: Page references followed by “f” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

A
A-B-A-B design, 28, 29–30, 30f
data collection within, 30
limitations of, 30
A-B-A design, 28–29, 29f
A-B-C-B design, 31
A-B design, 27–28, 28f
follow-up period and booster treatment, 28
with follow-up, 27
with multiple target measures and follow-up, 27–28
traditional, 27
Abrams and Taylor Scale for Emotional Blunting, 170
acceptability
in DI research, 73
of experiment treatment, 34
acceptance
-based psychotherapies, 421
of participants, 200–201
accessibility, of observational coding, 122–123
accuracy, of assessment in experimental psychopathology, 17
acrophobia, virtual environments for, 88–89
actigraphy devices, for children with ADHD, 197
actimeters, 195
action theory, in mediation/moderation models, 269–270, 273, 275, 280, 282
adaptation, treatment, 81
in DI research, 74, 75
adaptive clinical trials, in DI research, 70–71
adaptive interventions
models for, 281–282
treatment design, 55–56
treatment switching, 71
adequately powered α-level test, 217
adherence. See also competence
treatment, 30, 74, 143, 150, 154, 157, 200
therapist, 145, 146
adolescents. See also children/childhood
antisocial behavior, 277
depression, observational coding of, 125
problem behavior, 270
as special cases, 405
Adopting Innovation Instrument, 79
adoption, in DI research, 73
Affect Adjective Check List, 368
data, 368
exploratory item factor analysis, 368
Affect Intensity Measure, 190
affective instability
in BPD, 190, 192, 204, 205f
in bulimia nervosa and PTSD, 197
in depression, 192
graphical description of, 204, 205f
affective risks, 396–397
Affect Lability Scales, 190
aggression
in children, 244–245
physical, effects of a school-based intervention for, 133
agoraphobia, panic disorder with/without, 91–92, 438–439
AIC criterion, 368
Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, 134
alcohol addiction/dependence, 266, 274–275
and PTSD, 302
treatment outcome, anger effect on, 265
virtual environments for, 93, 95
women with, 264
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 266, 271
alcoholism, depression in, 44
alliance, client–therapist, 144, 150, 152, 154, 155, 420
youth psychotherapy, 145, 156–157
alpha I/II tests, 104
Ambulatory Assessment, 189
American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Research on Psychiatric Treatments, 182
American Psychological Association, 10, 330, 414
ethics code, 401–410
Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards, 330
2005 Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice, 418
AMOS, 292, 386
analogue observation, 124–126
analogue samples, 46
analogue studies, 416–417
analysis of covariance, 256–259, 261
multivariate, 258–259
analysis of surface contours, in MRI, 173, 174
analysis of variance, 203, 227, 255–256, 261, 310
multivariate, 256
analytic issues, in experience sampling method, 203–204
analytic models, 155
anger
effect on alcohol dependence treatment outcomes, 265
relationship between anxiety disorders and, 14–15
anonymous research, 405
antecedents, of dysfunctional behavior, 192–193
bulimia nervosa, 193–194
borderline personality disorder, 194, 194f
anterior cingulate hyperactivity, 168
antidepressants, 56
for depression, 233–234, 265
for MDD, 168, 169
antisocial behavior. See also behavior
of adolescents, 277
of children, 124
developmental models for, 135
peer dynamics role in development of, 131
(p. 444) anxiety disorders, 249–250, 438
children with, 44
observational coding of, 125
origins and maintenance of, 19–20
relationship between anger and, 14–15
virtual environments for, 88–91
for social phobia, 89–91
for specific phobias, 88–90
apathy, 32
Apple iPod touch, 202
appropriateness, in DI research, 73
a priori hypothesis, 71, 214, 218, 219–220, 225
in neuroimaging, 182
arachnophobia, 88
virtual environments for, 89
archival data research, 405, 419
Asimov, Isaac, 220
assessment approach in experimental psychopathology, 15–17
determining assessment value, 16–17
drawing inferences, 16
level of analysis, 15
methods, 15–16
assignment by stratified blocks. See randomized blocks assignment
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
children with, 197
continuous performance tests in VE for, 93
within-subtype differences in, 107
attention-placebo control condition, 42–43
ethics in, 42
attitudes, of provider, 75, 77
Attitudes Toward Standardized Assessment Scales, 77
attribute-by-treatment interaction, 265, 429
attributional style, and depression vulnerability, 12
attrition, in randomized controlled trials, 49–50
atypical depression, 170
audio recordings, of therapy sessions, 151
audiovisual analogue studies, 417
authorship, 409
autism
children with, 266
drooling in children with, 31
social interactions in children with, 31
autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), virtual environments for, 92
autocorrelation, in idiographic designs, 114
autoregressive cross-lagged models. See multivariate autoregressive models
autoregressive model, 277–278, 303–304, 310
auxiliary variables, 242, 243, 244
Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity model, 68
aviophobia, 88
virtual environments for, 88
B
B-A-B design, 30–31, 31f
back-filling, of diaries, 201, 202
background variables, 230–232
backward power calculations, 223–224
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 347
6-item BIS, 364–368
baseline phase, in single-case experimental designs, 27
baseline predictors of prognosis and treatment outcome, identification of, 168–169, 168t
Bayesian mediation analysis, 281
Bear–fish habitat cycle, 375
Beck Depression Inventory, 50, 352
behavior. See also antecedents, of dysfunctional behavior; experimental psychopathology, laboratory methods in
antisocial. See antisocial behavior
assessment, 108
client, 132–133, 145
complexity, moderation analysis for acknowledging, 268
counts of, 250–251
of individual practitioner, 67
intensity, measurement of, 128
observational coding, approaches, 126–128
parameters, measurement of, 127–128
parent–child, 125
problems, early disruptive, 438
therapist, 145
behavioral avoidance tests, 120
behavioral parent training, for early disruptive behavior problems, 438. See also parent training interventions
benchmarking, 54, 154
between-group comparisons, 26, 44. See also randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
between-subject interactions, 259, 379
bias. See also real-time assessment
defined, 234
publication bias, 320, 327–329
selection bias, 43, 69
recall bias, 189–190
retrospective bias, 189–190
valence-dependent bias, 190
bifactor models, 359–360, 366
parameter estimates for six BIS items, 366t
in PROMIS pediatric emotional distress measures, 362–364, 365t
binary logistic regression, 247–249, 250. See also logistic regression; ordinal logistic regression
binomial distribution, 247
biology, 112
experimental psychopathology and, 18–19
integration into psychology, 107, 108
risks, 397–398
biomarkers, 2, 297, 298
identification, in neuroimaging, 169–170, 182
biomedical research scandals, 408
biosensor technology, 195, 206
bipolar disorder, 55, 167, 198, 199
bivariate autoregressive model, 303f, 304
black-and-white digital picture, in neuroimaging, 171
black box problem, 427
blockage design, 279, 280
blood-oxygen-level-dependent response, 178, 178f
blood pressure, and office hypertension, 191–192
Bonferroni correction, 180
bootstrapping, 271, 272, 276
borderline personality disorder (BPD), 199
affective instability in, 190, 192, 197, 204, 205f
dissociation–stress association in, 196
dysfunctional behavior effect on affect and tension, 194, 194f
experience sampling method for, 190–191
branching, in experience sampling method, 196–197, 202
bubble hypothesis, 416, 419
buffering interaction, 238f
bulimia nervosa
affective dysfunction in, 197
cognitive-behavioral treatment for, 28
emotional antecedents and consequences of binge/purge behavior in, 193–194
burden, of participants, 200–201
Butcher Treatment Planning Inventory, 110
C
CABLES (Cognitive, Affective, Biological, Legal, Economic, Social/Cultural), 396, 397t, 399
affective risks, 396–397
biological risks, 397–398
cognitive risks, 396
economic risks, 398
legal risks, 398
social and cultural risks, 398–399
callous-unemotional traits, 132, 137
capnometer device, for panic disorder, 198
case studies, clinical, 415–416
categorical independent variables, 233–234
categorical moderator variables, 273, 329
causality of treatment effects, 156
issues, 159
causal-oriented hypothesis testing, theory-driven, 11
causal steps method, 271–272
(p. 445) causation, structural equation modeling and, 303
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 75
certificates of confidentiality, 401
CES-D, 352
change agents, 68
change considerations in psychotherapy research, assessment and measurement of, 103–117
context and assessment technology, 116–117
future directions, 117
integration across nosologies and research, 104–108
measurement of psychotherapy benefits, 108–116
test construction, 104
change process
evaluation of, 51–52
mediation analysis for, 267
screening for, 184
therapy process research, 144
change-sensitive measures, 109, 110
items, 111t
modification of, 115–116
chemical shifts, in MRS, 178
cherry picking, 220–221, 225
Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), 110
childhood callous-unemotional traits, 132
child-rearing environment, 135–136
children/childhood. See also adolescents
adjustment level of, 246
aggression in, 244–245
with anxiety disorders, 44
observational coding of, 125
antisocial behavior of, 124
assessment of, 48–49
with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 197
with autism, 266
bullying, observational coding for, 122
classroom attention, observational coding of, 129
with conduct problems, 121, 125, 132–133, 138
disorders, classification schemes, 105t
effects of classroom-based intervention to reduce behavior problems in, 133
emotion in, 136
empathy in, 137
externalizing problems, observational coding for, 122
peer interactions of, 130
psychotherapy, mechanisms of change in, 263
reactivity to interparental conflict, 136
as special cases, 405
temperament of, 121
Children's Depression Inventory, 51
chi-square test (χ2), 215, 290–291
citalopram, 55, 69
civilian-related posttraumatic stress disorder, 91
“classic” psychometric model, 16
claustrophobia, virtual environments for, 89
clients. See also participants
behavior, 145
-centered psychotherapy, theoretical base of, 109
data collection from, 151–152
involvement, 144
level, DI measures specific to, 79–80
nesting with therapists, 155
Clinic/Community Intervention Development model, 68
clinical assessment tools, evaluation of, 104
clinical case studies, 415–416
clinical equipoise
ethical considerations in, 404
in RCTs, 69
statistical hypothesis testing, 214
clinical practice, interconnection of experimental psychopathology research with, 17–18
clinical processes, in experimental psychopathology, 19–20
clinical research, neuroimaging considerations for, 181–183. See also research
clinical severity rating (CSR), 54
clinical significance, 50–51
defined, 51
Cochrane Collaboration, 319, 418
Cognitive Ability Test, 12
cognitive-based treatments, for generalized anxiety disorder, 320–330
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 321
for agoraphobia, 438–439
for bulimia nervosa, 28
for childhood anxiety, 44, 42
for depression, 54, 233–234, 265, 438
in alcoholism, 44
with experience sampling method, 197
for major depressive disorder, 44, 168, 169
multicomponent, for child anxiety, 268
for OCD, 170
for panic disorder, 92, 197–198, 438–439
plus sertraline, 45
for social phobia, 90–91
virtual environments as part of, 89–90, 92
for youth anxiety, 146
youth involvement in, 160
for youth depression, 158
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Knowledge Quiz, 78
cognitive case formulation, 109–110
cognitive functioning
processes, direct observation for, 121
role in psychopathology, 10
cognitive remediation therapy, for schizophrenia, 170
cognitive risks, 396
Cognitive Therapy Adherence and Competence Scale, 145
Cognitive Therapy Scale, 74, 78
cognitive training programs, embedded into virtual environments, 93
co-learning, 404
Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Ratings Scale, 78
Columbia Impairment Scale, 79, 80
combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder, 91
combined sampling protocols, 199
implications/recommendations regarding, 200
communalities, 296
community participation, in DI research, 74
comorbidity, 273
of psychiatric disorders, 268
comparative fit index, 290–291
comparative psychiatry/psychopathology, 9
comparison mediators, 280, 283
compatibility, defined, 67
compensation of participants, 404–405
competence. See also adherence
to conduct research, 399
measures, commonly used in therapy process, 149t
treatment, 74
therapist, 143–144, 158
complexity, defined, 67
compliance, of participants, 200–201, 202, 206
comprehensive dissemination and implementation models, 63–66
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, 319
computations, statistical hypothesis testing, 217–218
computed tomography, 171–172
Computer Administered Panel Survey, 339
computer-assisted psychotherapy
for aviophobia, 88
conceptual equivalence, 425, 426
Conceptual Model of Implementation Research, 66
conceptual theory, in mediation/moderation models, 269–270, 273, 275, 280, 282
conditional independence, 338
conditional inferences, 324
conditional latent growth curve modeling, 305f, 308–310, 308t309t, 310f
condition-by-time interaction, 256–257
conditioning. See Pavlovian conditioning
confidence interval, 219, 249
in equivalency design, 53–54
fixed-effects, 324
confidentiality
certificates of, 401
(p. 446) participants
in data collection, 152
planning, 401
in virtual environments, 95
configural invariance, 426
confirmation, role in innovation, 67
confirmatory factor analysis, 79, 288, 289f, 292–300, 358–360
bifactor models, 359–360
“correlated simple structure” or “independent clusters” models, 358–359
for disorder nosology, 296–297
higher-order, 297–298, 298f
model with two correlated factors, 292–296
multitrait–multimethod matrices, 298–300
to study etiology of psychopathology, 300
testlet response model, 360
conflicts of interest, 405–406
confounder, 264. See also mediators; moderators
conjugated gradient algorithm, 177
consciousness, 9
consents, to participate, 401–404
Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), 65, 69
CONSORT, 52
flow diagram, 53f
construct validity, 104, 109, 111, 151, 288, 298, 427
consumer. See also clients; participants
characteristics, 66
satisfaction, defined, 144
content, of assessment in experimental psychopathology, 16
content validity, 150, 151
context, of observational coding, 125
context-specific relationship, investigation of, 196
context-triggered sampling, 197
continuing education workshops, 67
continuous × categorical variable interactions, 240–241, 240f
continuous × continuous variable interactions, 238–240
buffering interaction, 238f
continuous moderator variables, 273, 274, 329
contrast, of neuroimages, 171
contrast coding, 234, 241
control conditions
duration of, 42
selection in RCTs, 41–43
types in treatment outcome research, 41t
controlled trials. See randomized controlled trials
convergent validity, 134, 151, 157, 299
analysis, 109
coping theory, 266
correlated method factors, 299, 299f
“correlated simple structure” model, 358–359
correlated uniqueness model, 299
correlational analyses, 227
in therapy process research, 154
correlation coefficients, 223
intraclass, 150, 155
Pearson, 150
cortisol response, in preschoolers at risk for conduct problems, 138
counts, of behavior, 250–251
couples
relationship problems, observational coding for, 122, 123
couples therapy vs. individual therapy, for alcohol use disorder, 264
covariance model, missing data in, 386–391
covariates, 264, 265. See also mediators; moderators
covert behaviors, 145, 151
criterion problem, 418
criterion-referenced inference approach, in experimental psychopathology, 16
critical effect size, 216–217, 218, 222–223, 222f, 224, 225. See also effect sizes
Cronbach alpha coefficients, 147, 150
cross-cultural competencies in therapy, 418–419
cross-cultural issues in clinical research, 413–414
analogue and simulation studies, 416–417
archival and secondary data research, 419
clinical case studies, 415–416
confounds and intersectionality, 429
culture-specific approaches to treatment research, 419–423
differential research infrastructure, 430–431
measurement equivalence, 424–427
meta-analysis, 423
race and ethnicity as demographic vs. psychological variables, 427–428
randomized controlled trials, 417–419
sample selection, 423–424
cross-diagnostic treatments, comparison with single-disorder treatment protocols, 53
cross-sectional neuroimaging analysis, of adults with TS, 169, 169f
Cultural Accommodation model, 419–422
Cultural Adaptations of Therapies approach, 419–420, 422–423
Cultural Formulation model, 415–416
cultural identity, 415
cultural responsiveness hypothesis, 419
culture
approaches to, 414
culture assimilation approach, 420
culture-specific approaches to treatment research, 419–423
curvilinear models, 236–238, 236f
centering predictors with higher-order terms, 237–238, 237f
cyclotrons, 177
D
data analysis. See meta-analysis
experience sampling method, 203
neuroimaging, 183
in randomized controlled trials, 49–52
addressing missing data and attrition, 49–50
change mechanisms, evaluation of, 51–52
persuasiveness of therapeutic outcomes, assessment of, 50–51
in therapy process research, 153–155
correlational approaches, 154
data preparation, 153–154
descriptive approaches, 154
hierarchical approaches, 154–155
measuring outcomes, 155
data collection
within A-B-A-B design, 30
internet-based, 405
in therapy process research, 151–152
working with recordings, 151
working with therapists and clients, 151–152
and recordkeeping, ethical considerations in, 406
data preparation, in therapy process research, 153–154
data presentation. See also reporting of results
graphical display of experience sampling method data, 204
data-processing functions, documentation of. See also preprocessing, in neuroimaging
in neuroimaging, 183
data safety monitoring, ethical considerations in, 406
Data Safety Monitoring Boards, 401
data sharing, ethical considerations in, 409–410
data stability, in single-case experimental designs, 27, 28
data storage and disposal issues, 401
data torturing, 407
deblurring, 176, 177
deception paradigm, 396
decision, role in innovation, 67
deoxyhemoglobin, 178
Department of Defense
(p. 447) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR), 95
dependent variable, 227
specification of relationship between IVs and, 234
in RCTs, assessment, 48–49
depression, 54, 55, 56, 233–234, 249–250, 279, 298–299, 303–314, 438
adolescents, observational coding of, 125
affective variability in, 192
in alcoholism, 44
behavioral therapy for, 266
chronic, 183
etiology of, 263
latent variable of, 288
treatment outcome
dysfunctional attitude change effect on, 265–266
personality disorder effect on, 265
descriptive approaches for data analysis, 154
descriptive psychopathology research, 10, 14–15
design
experience sampling method, 198–204, 205
choosing sampling design, 198–200
in randomized controlled trials, 40–45
evaluating treatment response across time, 43–44
multiple treatment comparisons, 44–45
random assignment, 43
selection of control conditions, 41–43
in therapy process research, 155–156
causality and direction of effects, 156
nesting, 155–156
responsiveness critique, 156
therapist main effects, 156
developmental disorders, virtual environments for, 92–93
diagnosis
neuroimaging in, 166
prior, effects of, 229, 230f
redefining diagnostic categories, 166–167
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 10, 18, 167, 415
DSM-5, 104–105, 107
DSM-IV, 196
Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills training, 197
diaries, 201–202, 205. See also electronic diaries
dichotomization, in statistical hypothesis testing, 217
dichotomous responses
data, 338–339
impulsivity, 338–344
multidimensional logistic model, 357–358
one-parameter logistic model, 338, 340–341
Rasch model, 338
special model with equality constraints, 341–343
two-parameter logistic model, 337–338, 339–340
differential item functioning (DIF), 349–357, 425
in items with dichotomous responses, 349–351
in items with polytomous responses, 351–352
randomized groups experimental analysis of item positioning, 352–357
differential research infrastructure, 430–431
differentiation, treatment, 143, 157–158
diffusion, defined, 67
Diffusion of Innovation framework, 67–68
diffusion tensor imaging, 174. See also magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
digital wristwatches, 196, 199, 201
dimensional personality traits, 336
dimensions, of therapy process, 145–147
focus, 145
inference level, 147
perspective, 145
stimulus materials, 147
target, 145
theoretical foundation, 145
type of measurement, 146–147
unit of measurement, 146
direct conditioning, 20. See also Pavlovian conditioning
directness of assessment in experimental psychopathology, 16
discriminant validity, 151
analysis, 109
discrimination (slope) parameter, in item response theory, 337
dissemination and implementation (DI) science, 2, 62–82, 160
measures, 75–80, 76t
models, 63–69, 64t
outcomes relevant to, 72–75
research designs, 69–72
Division 12 (Society of Clinical Psychology) Task Force, 418
DNA, 107, 135
double bootstrap method, 27
driving phobia, virtual environments for, 89
dummy codes, 233–234, 233t
Dyadic Parent–Child Interaction Coding System, 132, 133, 138
dyadic relationships, 131
dynamic systems theory, 125–126, 130, 131
dysfunctional attitude change, effect on depression treatment outcomes, 265–266
E
eating disorders, virtual environments for, 93
ecological momentary assessment, 116, 189
economic risks, 398
effectiveness designs, 70
effect sizes, 36, 44, 215–216, 319
for meta-analysis, calculating, 321–322, 322t, 323t
electroencephalograph (EEG), 166, 168, 176–177, 180
electronic databases, 320, 321
electronic diaries (e-diaries), 192, 193, 196–197, 199, 200, 201–202, 204, 205
emotion
emotion-recognition paradigm, 137
regulation, deficits in, 105
response, assessment of, 19
risks, 396
in young children, 136
emotional distress model, 360–362
empathy
in children, 137
virtual environments for, 93
empirically supported treatments, 418, 422
defined, 63
empirically underidentified models, 290
for evaluating efficacy of psychosocial treatments, 112–113
empiricism, and mental disorders, 2
endophenotypes, 136–137, 297
English cost calculator, 73
enhancement design, 279, 280
environment, 121–122, 144. See also virtual environments
child-rearing, 135–136
external environment, 66
risk factors, for psychological disorders, 300
social, direct observation for, 121
EQS (software), 275, 292
equipoise. See clinical equipoise
equivalency designs, 51, 53–54
error structure, of analysis, 247
error variance, 47, 188, 257, 288, 307, 329, 366, 440
estimated effect size, 222–223, 222f. See also effect sizes
(p. 448) ethics considerations, in research, 395–411
anonymous, naturalistic, or archival research, 405
children and adolescents as special cases, 405
clinical equipoise, 404
compensation of participants, 404–405
confidentiality planning, 401
conflicts of interest and research funding, 405–406
data collection and recordkeeping, 406
data safety monitoring, 406
data sharing, 409–410
goodness-of-fit ethics, 404
in RCTs, 42
participant debriefing, 410
participators’ consents, 401–404
project planning, 396–399
regulatory compliance and institutional approval, 399–401
research-conducting competency, 399
scholarly publishing disputes, 408–409
scientific misconduct, 406–408
and statistical hypothesis testing, 214
and therapeutic misconception, 404
ethnically diverse samples, 46
ethnic gloss, 424
ethnicity. See race and ethnicity
event-contingent sampling protocols, 198–199, 202
implications/recommendations regarding, 199–200
event records, 128
evidence-based practice (EBP), 2, 62, 68, 72, 73
community deployment efforts of, 68
Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale, 73, 75, 77
evidence-based practice in psychology, 418, 423
evidence-based treatments (EBTs), 142, 143, 143t, 154, 158, 160, 422
execution, of statistical hypothesis testing, 218–219, 225
exercise, for depression, 279
expectation-maximization maximum-likelihood, 177
expected a posteriori value, 345
expected parameter change (EPC) values, 291
experience sampling method, 49, 188–206
advantages of, 205
data, graphical display of, 204
future directions, 205–206
generalizability, enhancing, 191–192
hardware and software solutions, 201–203
holistic picture of symptomatology, 206
interactive assessment, 196–198
investigations of setting -or context-specific relationships, 196
multimodal assessment, 194–195
participants’ acceptance, burden, compliance, and reactivity, 200–201
real-time assessment, 189–191, 196–198
repeated assessments in, 192–194, 193f, 196
statistical and analytic issues, 203–204
studies, issues in planning and designing, 198–204
use in clinical psychology, 206
Experiencing Scale, 146
experiential cognitive therapy, for panic disorder, 92
experimental conditions. See control conditions
experimental designs, 279. See also design
dissemination and implementation science, 69–71
adaptive clinical trials, 70–71
clinical equipoise, 69
hybrid models, 71
practical clinical trials, 70
randomized controlled trials, 69
standardization, 69–70
experimental neurosis, 8, 10
experimental psychopathology, laboratory methods in, 7–21
assessment approach in, 15–17
vs. basic psychological research, 8
defined, 7–8
origin, 8–11
research, key challenges to, 17–20
research classifications and definitions, 11t
Type I research, 11–13
Type II research, 13–14
Type III research, 14
Type IV research, 14–15
experimental tasks, use in Type IV descriptive psychopathology research, 15
experimental treatments, 113
exploratory item factor analysis, 302
6-item BIS, 367–368
Affect Adjective Check List, 368
exposure-based treatments, 396
for anxiety disorders, 88, 438
“extensiveness” ratings, 154
external environment, characteristics, 66
external mediators, 270. See also mediators
eye-tracking paradigms, 137
Eysenck Personality Inventory, 339
Form A Extraversion scale, 339
F
fabrication, scientific misconduct, 407
face validity, 150–151, 439
facial emotion processing task, in neuroimaging, 184
factor analysis, 367–368
factor loadings, 288, 289–290, 293, 296, 304–305, 307, 311–312, 358, 363t, 368, 369t, 426
false discovery rate, 180
falsification, scientific misconduct, 407
family
discussions, 124
cohesion, role in alcohol addiction treatment, 275
dynamics, direct observation for, 121–122
functioning, assessment of, 49
family education, support, and attention, 42
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 400
“faulty” mediators, 267
F-distribution, 218
fear
conditioning, Pavlovian, 20
of dying, 190
of flying. See aviophobia
of heights. See acrophobia
of open spaces. See agoraphobia
of spiders. See arachnophobia
feasibility, in DI research, 73
feedback, moment-specific, 201
interactive assessment with individually tailored, 197
feedback loops, in implementation programs, 65
fidelity
in DI research, 73, 74, 75
of provider, 78
file-drawer problem, 320
finite impulse response model, 180
fixed-effect general linear model, 155
fixed-effects intraclass correlation coefficients model, 150
fixed-effects model, 323–324
“flexibility within fidelity,” 47
fludeoxyglucose, 177
fluoxetine, for major depressive disorder, 44
focus, in therapy process, 145
follow-up assessments, in RCTs, 44, 45. See also A-B designs
forest plot, 327, 328f, 330
four-dimensional model of measurement equivalence, 425
frequency of behavior, measurement of, 128
full information maximum likelihood, 242–243, 244
functional communication training, effect on nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, 29
functional connectivity, 180–181
functional equivalence, 425, 426–427
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 166, 176, 178–180. See also structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
(p. 449) preprocessing steps in, 179, 179t
research, task development, and psychological measurement, 108
statistical analysis for, 179–180
functional neuroimaging, 19, 175–181
analytic strengths and limitations, 180–181
defined, 175
electroencephalograph, 166, 168, 176–177
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 166, 176, 178–180
functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 176, 178
magnetoencephalography, 176, 177
modalities, measures, strengths, and weaknesses, 176t
paradigm, description of, 183
positron emission tomography, 166, 168, 170, 176, 177, 181
relevant use, 180
single photon emission computed tomography, 166, 176, 177
funnel plot, 327–328, 329f
G
Gaussian blur, 173
generalizability
of assessment in experimental psychopathology, 16
data, from idiographic and nomothetic approaches, 26
in experience sampling method, 191–192
model, 16–17
moderation analysis for enhancing, 268
theory, 150
generalized anxiety disorder, 320–330
generalized estimating equation, 228, 246
generalized least squares, 329
generalized linear model, 227, 247, 249
generalized partial credit model, 349
general linear model, 247–251
general mixed models. See multilevel models
genetics
and mental health disorders, 221–222
and psychological disorders, 300, 303
studies, measurement in, 107–108
genuine clinical samples, 46
global coding systems, 127, 146
good-fitting model, 292
goodness of fit
ethics, 404
in structural equation models, 290–291
graded model, 347–348
graphical display of experience sampling method data, 204
graphical user interfaces, 320
green screen environment, 96
group brain scans vs. individual brain scans, comparison, 173
group data, multilevel modeling, 244–246, 245f
group dimension, of human identity, 420, 421
growth curve modeling, 246
growth trajectory models, 228
H
habituation, 88, 310, 311, 312
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 170
handheld computers. See personal digital assistants
hardware solutions, for experience sampling method, 201–203
Harris-Lingoes Subjective Depression Subscale, 351, 352
head-mounted displays, 87, 96
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 400–401
heart rate monitors, 201
Hedges-Vevea method, 324, 330
Helping Skills System, 146
Heywood cases, 292
hierarchical approaches for data analysis, in therapy process research, 154–155
hierarchical linear modeling. See multilevel modeling
high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging, 174
higher-order confirmatory factor analysis, 297–298, 298f
higher-order polynomial terms, including in regression equation, 238
higher-order terms, 241
centering predictors with, 237–238, 237f
highly select samples, 46
homoscedasticity, 235, 235f
Hopkins Symptom Checklist, 352
Hunter-Schmidt method, 324
hybrid approach, for therapy process research, 160
hybrid models
in DI research, 71
1PL and 2PL, 341, 342, 344, 345
hyperfrontality, and OCD, 167
hypotheses
a priori hypothesis, 214
defined, 214
-generating studies, 224
in neuroimaging, defining, 183
for therapy process research, 159–160
I
iatrogenic effects, moderation analysis for identifying, 268
ICD-11, 104
idiographic designs, 26, 113–114. See also single-case experimental designs
integration with nomothetic elements, 114–116
moving to nomothetic designs, 34–36
outcome measures, 115t
image, 170–171. See also neuroimaging
impact models, 63. See also models, dissemination and implementation
implementation
cost, in DI research, 73
outcomes, defined, 72. See also outcomes
process, 64–65, 66
core components, 65
role in innovation, 67
impulsiveness, 347–349
data, 347
graded model, 347–348
impulsivity, 338–344
data, 338–339
special model with equality constraints, 341–343
inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, deciding, 321
“independent clusters” model, 358–359
independent variables, 227
categorical, 233–234
in randomized controlled trials
checking integrity of, 47–48
defining, 47
measurement error in, 234–235
specification of relationship between dependent variable and, 234
individual behavior, studying changes in, 25
individual brain scans vs. group brain scans, comparison, 173
individual characteristics, in implementation process, 65
individual differences
imaging technique to capture, 168
theory-driven measurement of, 136–137
individual dimension, of human identity, 420, 421
individual practitioners, DI models emphasizing, 66–67
individual therapy vs. couples therapy, for alcohol use disorder, 264
inferences
conditional, 324
criterion-referenced inference approach, 16
level, in therapy process, 147, 153
norm-referenced inference approach, 16
person-referenced inference approach, 16
unconditional, 324
informed consent, 402. See also confidentiality
infrastructure, implementation, 66
inner setting, in implementation process, 65
innovation, 67–68
(p. 450) Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), 400, 403
integrated data analysis. See meta-analysis
intellectual disabilities, virtual environments for, 92–93
intelligence tests, 104
intensity of behavior, measurement of, 128
intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings, 116
intentions, defined, 67
intent-to-treat sample, 49–50
interactions
attribute-by-treatment, 265
between-subject, 259, 379
condition-by-time, 256–257
models, 238–241
continuous × categorical interactions, 240–241
continuous × continuous variable interactions, 238–240
moment-to-moment interactions, observational coding of, 126, 131
parent–adolescent, 135
parent–child, 137, 138, 266
peer interactions of children, 130
relationship interactions, recording of, 130
social interactions in children with autism, 31
time-by-condition interaction test, 255–256
VR-tangible, for autism spectrum disorders, 93
interactive assessment, in experience sampling method, 196–198
with individually tailored moment-specific feedback, 197
with treatment components, 197–198
interactive effect, 273
interactive sampling approaches, 199
internal consistency, 150
internal mediators, 270. See also mediators
International Personality Item Pool, 352
internet-based data collection, 405
interparental conflict, children's reactivity to, 136
interpersonal psychotherapy, 265
for depression, 43
for MDD, 169
interpretability of structural equation modeling parameter estimates, 292
interrater reliability, 150, 153, 302
interrupted time-series analyses, 27
intersectionality, confounds and, 429
interval-based recording, 128–129
interval scales, 146
interventions, 143. See also treatment
characteristics, 65
fidelity, of provider, 78
research, observational measurement in, 131–134
intraclass correlation coefficients, 150, 155
invariance of unique variances, 426
invariant covariance matrices, 425–426
IRTPRO, 338, 339, 364
ISI Web of Knowledge, 320
item factor analysis, 358
item-level missing data, 378–381
item positioning, differential item functioning analysis in, 352–357
data, 352–353
“E” items, 353–354
“I” items, 354–356
item response theory, 336–370
differential item functioning, 349–357
essential ideas, 337
graded model, 347–348
multidimensional item response theory, 357–368
one-parameter logistic model, 338
Rasch model, 338
RMSEA, 340
scales for response pattern, 344–345
scales for summed scores, 345–347
two-parameter logistic model, 337–338
items of measures, selection rules, 110t
J
James, William, 8, 9
job stress, and psychological functioning in workplace, 229–233, 230f, 231t
background variables, effects of diagnosis and stress over and above, 230–232
diagnosis, unique effects of, 230
job stress, effects of, 229–230
prior diagnosis, effects of, 229
redundant predictor, adding, 232–233
joint significance test, 272
journaling, daily, 267. See also diaries
Journal of Abnormal Psychology), 10, 228
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology, 10
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 228
judges, in therapy process research, 152–153
just-identified models, 290
justification, for statistical hypothesis testing, 214
K
Kappa coefficient, 150
knowledge
of provider, 77–78
role in innovation, 67
Knowledge of Evidence Based Services Questionnaire, 77
L
Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery, 136
landmarks, in magnetic resonance imaging, 173
language gap, in experimental psychopathology research, 17
Lanweber algorithm, 177
last observation carried forward analysis, 50
latent change score model, 278, 282
latent growth curve modeling, 155, 278–279, 303–315. See also linear growth curve modeling
applications and extensions of, 310–315
conditional, 305f, 308–310, 310f
multivariate growth models, 313–315, 314f
nonlinear growth models, 310–313, 311f
unconditional, 304–308, 305f
latent variables, 289
defined, 288
directional relationships among, 300–302
outcomes, LGM with, 313–315, 314f
software programs, 292
LD X2 statistics, 340, 342
legal capacity, 402–403
legal risks, 398
life satisfaction, 14
light-sensitive sensors, in diaries, 201
likelihood ratio chi-square test, 249, 250
linear growth curve modeling, 259. See also latent growth curve modeling; nonlinear growth models
linear modeling, in structural neuroimaging, 175
linear regression, assumptions of, 234–236
linguistic equivalence, 425, 426
link function, 247
LISREL (software), 276, 292
listwise deletion, 242
literature search, in meta-analysis, 320–321
local independence, 338
location of observational coding. See observational coding, settings for; Poisson regression
logistic regression analysis, 247–250
binary outcomes, 247–249, 248t
multiple categories, 249–250
logistic trace line equation, 337
logit, 247, 337, 338
longitudinal/repeated-measures studies, missing data in, 381–386
longitudinal analysis, for experience sampling method data, 203
longitudinal models, 272, 276–279, 281, 283
autoregressive models, 277–278
(p. 451) experimental designs, 279
latent growth models, 278–279
two-wave models, 277
love task paradigm, 137, 138
LOWESS smoother, 238
lowpass filtering, 173
M
macroprocess measures, 146
macrosocial coding systems. See global coding systems
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), 176, 178
magnetoencephalography, 176, 177
major depressive disorder, 44, 55, 56, 168, 169–170, 191, 279
diurnal symptom patterns in, 196
with melancholic features, 195
theoretical mechanisms of, 266
and workforce impairments, 2
manipulation check
mediation analysis for, 266
moderation analysis for, 268–269
Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, 215, 217
manual-based treatments, 47
marital communication, dynamics of, 130
marker indicator approach, 289
maximum a posteriori estimate, 345
maximum likelihood, 246, 289, 292, 337, 381
measurement
considerations, in RCTs, 48–49
assessment of dependent variables, 48–49
equivalence, 424–427
error, in IVs, 234–235
improvement, mediation analysis for, 267
invariance, 425
issues, in therapy process research, 158–159
types, 146–147
in therapy process, 146
units
of observational coding, 127–128
in therapy process, 146
Measure of Disseminability, 75
measures, dissemination and implementation, 75–80, 76t
at client level, 79–80
at organization level, 78–79
at provider level, 75–78
specific to DI processes, 79
measures, therapy process, 158–159
reliability of, 147, 150, 153, 157
selection and evaluation, 147, 148–149t
validity of, 150–151, 157
mediated effect, 271
mediation model, 301–302, 302f
mediators, 51, 52, 262–264. See also moderators
examples of, 266
exemplar clinical study, 279–281
future research, 282–283
influences in clinical mediating mechanisms, 269–273, 269f
multiple, 274–276
new developments, 281–282
reasons for mediation analysis in treatment research, 266–268
third variables, definitions of, 264–265
Medline, 321
memory heuristics, 188
mental disorders, 1–2
comorbidity of, 1–2
developmental patterns of, 2
mental health services research, 68, 81
meta-analysis, 225, 317–333, 423
advanced, 327–330
basic, 326–327
computer software for, 319–320
effect sizes, calculating, 321–322, 322t, 323t
entering data into R, 325–326, 327f
history, 319
inclusion criteria, deciding, 321
initial considerations, 322
literature search, 320–321
mediation/moderation, 282
method, choosing, 324–325
model, choosing, 323–324
number of studies using, 318f
reporting, 330–332, 331t
Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards, 330
metabolic disease, genes and, 303
metabolites, measured in MRS, 178
method for meta-analysis, choosing, 324–325
methodological challenges, for clinical research, 423
confounds and intersectionality, 429
differential research infrastructure, 430–431
measurement equivalence, 424–427
race and ethnicity as demographic vs. psychological variables, 427–428
sample selection, 423–424
methodological strategies, for clinical research, 414–415
analogue and simulation studies, 416–417
archival and secondary data research, 419
clinical case studies, 415–416
culture-specific approaches to treatment research, 419–423
meta-analysis, 423
randomized controlled trials, 417–419
metric equivalence, 425, 426
metric invariance, 426
microprocess measures, 146
microsocial coding systems, 146. See also molecular coding systems
Microsoft Excel
Mix/MetaEasy, 319
mindfulness intervention, 272
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), 110, 439
MMPI-2, 350–351, 352
mirtazapine, 55
misfit in structural equation models, identifying specific areas of, 291
missing at random data, 242, 377–391
missing completely at random data, 242, 377–391
missing data, 374–391
in covariance model, 386–391
item-level missing data, 378–381
in longitudinal or repeated-measures studies, 381–386
in multiple regression, 241–244
potential solution, 375–376
problems, 374–375
availability, 375
interest, 375
priorities, 375
in RCTs, 254
addressing, 49–50
step-by-step procedure using R, 376–391
missing not at random data, 242, 244
mixed-effects modeling. See multilevel modeling
mixed-media virtual environments, 96
mixed-method approach, to DI processes, 72
Mobility Inventory, 190
models. See also individual models
for adaptive interventions, 281–282
analytic models, 155
bifactor models, 359–360, 366
“correlated simple structure” or “independent clusters” models, 358–359
curvilinear models, 236–238, 236f
developmental models for antisocial behavior, 135
dissemination and implementation, 63–69, 64t, 80
comprehensive models, 63–66
emphasizing individual practitioners, 66–67
emphasizing social and organizational processes, 67–68
selection of, 69
empirically underidentified models, 289–290
growth trajectory models, 228
impact models, 63
interaction models, 238–241
just-identified models, 289
longitudinal models, 272, 276–279, 281, 283
(p. 452) for meta-analysis, choosing, 323–324
multidimensional logistic models, 358
multivariate autoregressive models, 304
multivariate growth models, 313–315, 314f
nonlinear growth models, 310–313, 311f
overidentified models, 289–290
person-oriented models, 279
piecewise growth models, 311f, 312–313
process models, 63
quadratic regression models, 236–237, 236f
structural equation modeling
evaluation, 290–292
identification, 288–290
representation, 288, 289f
structural regression models, 300–302, 301f
underidentified models, 290
univariate autoregressive model, 303–304, 303f
moderation analysis, 329–330, 330f
moderator effect, 273
moderators, 51–52, 262–264, 439. See also mediators
examples of, 265–266
exemplar clinical study, 279–281
future research, 282–283
influences in clinical moderating mechanisms, 273–274
moderation of mediated effect, 274
multiple, 274–276
new developments, 281–282
of prognosis and treatment outcome, identifying, 168–169
reasons for moderation analysis in treatment research, 268–270
third variables, definitions of, 264–265
modification indices, 291–292
Modified Practitioner Attitude Scale, 77
molar coding systems. See global coding systems
molecular coding systems, 126–127
momentary time sampling, 129
moment-to-moment interactions, observational coding of, 126, 131
monoamine oxidase A, and risk for conduct disorder in children, 135
monoamine oxidase inhibitor, 55
Monte Carlo method, 280, 293, 324
mood, and BPD, 190, 192
mood-congruent memory effect, 188
and panic disorder, 191
mood disorders, structural neuroimaging of, 183
Moody Me, 201
morphological differences, magnetic resonance imaging for, 172, 173–174
morphological scaling, 175
motion sickness, in virtual environments, 94
Motivational Interviewing Skill Coding, 78
Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale, 74
Mplus, 271, 276, 281, 282, 292, 293, 294t295t, 296, 302, 305, 306t307t, 307–308, 308t309t, 386
multicollinearity, 233
multidimensional item response theory, 357–368
Affect Adjective Check List, 368
confirmatory factor analysis, 358–360
data and parameter estimation, 358
item factor analysis, 358
multidimensional logistic model for dichotomous responses, 357–358
multidimensional logistic models for polytomous responses, 358
PROMIS pediatric emotional distress measures, 360–364
6-item BIS, 364–368
multifaceted cross-cultural model, 420
multi-informant strategy, in dependent variables assessment, 48–49
multilevel modeling, 50, 228, 244–246, 245f, 259, 310, 324, 377, 381, 383, 384–385, 386
for data analysis, 203–204
multilinear models. See multilevel modeling
multimodal assessment, in experience sampling method, 194–195, 202
multimodal strategy, in dependent variables assessment, 49
multinomial logistic regression, 249–250. See also binary logistic regression; ordinal logistic regression
multiple anxiety disorders
relationship between anger and, 14
multiple-baseline designs, 31–34. See also single-case experimental designs; small pilot trial designs
advantages of, 33
across behaviors, 32–33, 32f
across settings, 32, 33, 33f
across subjects, 32, 33, 33f
multiple-groups crossover design, 56
multiple imputation, 242, 243–244, 243f
multiple imputation, 50, 381
Multiple Imputation with Chained Equations, 382
multiple mediators/moderators, 274–276, 274f276f
testing, 275, 276
multiple regression (MR), 227–251
categorical IVs, 233–234
curvilinear models, 236–238
interaction models, 238–241
linear model, 228–233
linear regression, assumptions of, 234–236
missing data, 241–244
noncontinuous dependent variables, 247–251
nonindependent data, 244–246
multiple testing, 221, 225
multiple treatment comparisons, 44–45
multipurpose multichannel devices, 202
multitrait multimethod approach, 415
multitrait–multimethod matrices, 298–300, 299f
multivariate analysis of covariance, 258–259
comparisons between posttreatment and follow-up, 258–259
multivariate analysis of variance, 256
multivariate autoregressive models, 304
multivariate growth models, 313–315, 314f
mutual interest model, in experimental psychopathology, 18
mutually exclusive measurement systems, 146
mutually responsive orientation, in parent–child relationship, 127
My Diet Diary, 201
MyExperience, 202
N
N-acetyl-aspartate, 178
National Institute of Drug Abuse, 24
National Institute of Health, 95
National Institute of Mental Health, 80, 105, 113, 167, 265
Strategic Plan (2008), 2
naturalistic observation, 123–124
advantage of, 124
defined, 123
naturalistic research, 405
natural settings, physiological data in, 114
negative affect, 136, 192, 193, 193f, 194, 301, 313
in bulimia nervosa, 193
negative binomial regression, 251
negative cognitive processes, and depression, 266
negative reinforcement theory, 266
nesting, in therapy process research, 155–156
neural areas of interest, in neuroimaging, 183
neuroimages, 170–171
neuroimaging, 108, 165–184
balancing promises and limitations, 170
challenges and future directions, 182–184
considerations for clinical research, 181–182
in diagnosis and assessment, 166
functional neuroimaging, 175–181
identifying baseline predictors and moderators of prognosis and treatment outcome, 168–169
(p. 453) identifying biomarkers of change, 169–170
image, 170–171
redefining diagnostic categories, 166–167
structural neuroimaging, 171–175
techniques, 19
neuroplasticity, and neuroimaging, 180
neuroticism, 136, 192, 193, 193f, 194, 301, 313
Nintendo DS, 202
noise
in structural magnetic resonance imaging, 172–173
in functional neuroimaging, 177, 178
Nokia StepCounter, 201
nominal model, 349
nominal scales, 146
nomothetic designs, 26, 113
integration with idiographic elements, 114–116
moving from idiographic designs to, 34–36
theoretical approach, 109
noncompliance, of participants, 201
noncontinuous dependent variables, 247–251
logistic regression analysis, 247–250
Poisson regression, 250–251
nonindependent data, 244–246
generalized estimating equation, 246
group data, multilevel modeling, 244–246
growth curve modeling, 246
nonlinear growth models, 310–313, 311f
nonnormal distribution, 153
nonnormal population distribution, shape estimation, 338
nonpatient psychopathology research, 14
nonspecific hypothesis, 221–222
nonspecific treatment condition. See attention-placebo control condition
nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior
in bulimia nervosa, 193–194
functional communication training effect on, 29
normative sample comparison, 51
norm-referenced inference approach, in experimental psychopathology, 16
nosologies
integration across research and, 104–108
genetic studies, measurement in, 107–108
use of CFA for, 296–297
no-treatment control condition, 41–42, 41t
null hypothesis, 36, 214, 218, 220, 222, 255, 320
number needed to treat, 215–216, 223
Nuremburg code, 401
O
oblique CF-Quartimax, 367
observability, defined, 67
observational coding, 120–138, 159
approaches to coding behavior, 126–128
approaches to recording of codes, 128–131
future directions, 134–138
measurement in intervention research, 131–134
preliminary issues in use of, 122–123
reliability and validity, 134
settings for, 123–126
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 19
neural changes in, 167, 170
odds ratio, 248–249
office hypertension, 191–192
Office of Research Integrity, 408
Ohio Scales, 79–80
one-parameter logistic model, 338, 340–341
one-tailed hypothesis, 214, 215, 216f, 217
oppositional defiant disorder, childhood callous-unemotional traits in children with, 132
ordinal logistic regression, 250. See also binary logistic regression; multinomial logistic regression
ordinary least squares, 242–243, 248
organizational process, 80–81
characteristics, 65–66
DI models emphasizing, 67–68
level, DI measures specific to, 78–79
Organizational Readiness for Change, 78
Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment, 79
Organizational Social Context, 78–79
outcomes, treatment, 109, 144
assessment of change on relevant constructs, 110–112
defined, 142
effects, causality and direction of, 156
evaluation methodologies, specific considerations for, 112
measurement, 155
relevant to dissemination and implementation science, 72–75
short-term/proximal, 133
outer setting, in implementation process, 65
outliers, 153
overidentified models, 289–290
overt behaviors, 145
P
pairwise deletion, 242
panic attacks, 91, 189
panic disorder, 13, 197–198
experience sampling method for, 189–190
targeting respiratory functions in, 198
with/without agoraphobia, 438–439
virtual environments for, 91–92
paper-and-pencil diaries, 191, 199, 201, 202, 205. See also diaries
paradigms in neuroimaging, development of, 184
parallel process latent growth curve modeling, 313, 314f
parametric tests, assumptions necessary when using, 254
paranoia, virtual environments for, 93
parceling, in MRI, 173
parent–adolescent interactions, 135
parental deficits, direct observation for, 121
parent–child behaviors, 125
parent–child emotional behavior patterns, 133
parent–child interactions, 137, 138, 266
observational coding of, 132, 133
partial interval time sampling of, 129
SSG analysis to code observations of, 131
Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), 132
for separation anxiety disorder, 33
parenting
associated with risk for child anxiety, 125
understanding of autism, 266
parent training interventions
behavioral parent training, 438
for child conduct problems, 132, 134
partial interval time sampling, 129
participants. See also clients
acceptance of, 200–201
burden of, 200–201
characteristics, 121
compensation of, 404–405
compliance of, 200–201, 202, 206
confidentiality, in data collection, 152
consents, 401–404
criteria, in neuroimaging, 182
debriefing, 410
reactivity of, 200–201
patient
characteristics of, 54
diversity, and sample selection, 46
preferences of, 56
Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, 80
adult depression scale, 352
pediatric depressive symptoms scale, 351
pediatric emotional distress measures, 360–364
bifactor analysis, 362–364
data, 360
independent clusters, 360–362
testlet response model, 364
Pavlov, Ivan, 8–9, 19, 20
Pavlovian conditioning
fear conditioning, 20
origins and maintenance of anxiety-related disorders, 19–20
(p. 454) peak-end rule, 188, 190
Pearson correlation coefficients, 150, 321
pedometers, 201
peer
dynamics, role in development of antisocial behavior, 131
relationships, direct observation for, 122
-reviewed journals, 52
penetration, in DI research, 73
Penn State Worry Questionnaire, 321
perfusion studies, in neuroimaging, 174
permanent products of behavior, measurement of, 128
personal digital assistants (PDAs), 202. See also diaries
personality, connections between psychopathology and, 105
Personality Assessment Inventory, 417
Borderline Features Scale, 190
personality disorder, effect on depression treatment outcomes, 265
Personal Report of Confidence as a Public Speaker Questionnaire, 89, 90
person-oriented models, 279
person-referenced inference approach, in experimental psychopathology, 16
perspective, of therapy process, 145
persuasion, role in innovation, 67
persuasiveness of outcomes in randomized controlled trials, assessment of, 50–51
pervasive developmental disorders, continuous duration of stereotypy among children with, 129
phenotypic-level assessment, in experimental psychopathology, 15
phobias, virtual environments for, 88–90
physical aggression, effects of a school-based intervention for, 133
physical injury, psychological sequelae of, 240–241, 240f, 248, 248f
physiological ambulatory monitoring solutions, 203, 205
physiological data, in natural settings, 114
physiology-triggered assessment, 198
implications/recommendations regarding, 200
physiology-triggered sampling, 197
piecewise growth models, 311f, 312–313
pilot testing. See also small pilot trial designs
pixel, 170–171
planning, experience sampling method, 198–204, 205
Poisson regression, 250–251. See also logistic regression analysis
polynomial growth factors, latent growth curve modeling with, 311f, 312
polytomous responses, 347–349
data, 347
graded model, 347–348
multidimensional logistic models, 358
nominal model, 349
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, 192
positron emission tomography, 166, 168, 170, 176, 177
post hoc hypothesis testing, 219–220
post hoc power, 224
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
and alcohol/drug use problems, 302
affective dysfunction in, 197
combat-related, 91
civilian-related, 91
cognitive impairment in, 321–322
diagnosis of, 13
structure of, 296–297
symptoms of, 91
virtual environments for, 91–92, 95
posttreatment assessments, in randomized controlled trials, 44
power, 216, 222f, 225
backward calculations, 223–224
post hoc, 224
in RCTs
defined, 36
calculations, pilot data misuse for, 35–36
Practical, Robust Implementation, and Sustainability Model, 65–66
practical clinical trials, in DI research, 70
practical significance vs. statistical significance, 218–219, 219f
pragmatic clinical trials. See practical clinical trials
pramipexole, 56
precision, of assessment, 103, 107
predictive validity, 104, 125, 151
predictors, 52, 439
centering with higher-order terms, 237–238, 237f
redundancy, in regression equations, 233
preferential treatment design, 56
pregenual cingulate cortex hyperactivity, 168
preprocessing, in neuroimaging, 179, 179t, 183
prescriptive indicator, 265
prescriptive treatment design, 54–55
pretreatment, posttreatment, follow-up (PPF) paradigm
RCTs using, statistical methods for analysis of, 253–259
pretreatment data, as posttreatment data, using, 50
Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training program, 51
PRISMA guidelines, 330
-recommended flowchart, 332t
probably efficacious treatments, 113
procedural considerations, in randomized controlled trials, 45–48
checking integrity of independent variable, 47–48
defining independent variable, 47
sample selection, 46
study setting, 46–47
process models, 63. See also models, dissemination and implementation
process-oriented experimental psychopathology, across response systems, 18–19
Process Q-Set, 146
process research. See therapy process research
product of coefficients method, 271
prognostic indicator, 265
programs, to evaluate structural equation models, 292
project planning, ethical considerations in, 396–399
Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services, 63
protected health information (PHI), 400–401
provider level, dissemination and implementation measures specific to, 75–78
attitudes, 75, 77
intervention fidelity, 78
knowledge, 77–78
psychiatric nomenclature, relationship of Type I experimental psychopathology research with, 12
Psychological Bulletin, 324
psychological disorders, studying structure of, 297–298
psychological research vs. experimental psychopathology, 8
psychological treatments, issues in comparison of, 45
psychology, integration of biology into, 107, 108
psychopathology
connections between personality and, 105
etiology of, 300
investigating emerging models of, 135–136
structure across diagnostic constructs, evaluation of, 297
psychopharmacological treatments, issues in comparison of, 45
psychotherapy. See also interventions; treatment
benefits, measurement of, 108–116
assessment of change on relevant outcome constructs in intervention, 110–112
empirically supported methodologies, 112–113
idiographic designs, 113–114
(p. 455) integration of nomothetic and idiographic elements, 114–116
measurement of psychotherapy change, theoretical base, 109–110
nomothetic designs, 113
physiological data in natural settings, 114
specific considerations for treatment outcome evaluation methodologies, 112
children, mechanisms of change in, 263
for depression, 54
inputs, therapy process research, 143
interpersonal, 265
outcomes, therapy process research, 144
research, assessment and measurement of change considerations in, 103–117
PsycInfo, 320, 321
publication bias, 320
estimation of, 327–329
publication credit, ethical problems in, 409
public health relevance, of clinical research, 2–3
Public Health Service Act, 401
public policy, implications of DI research, 81
public-speaking fears. See also anxiety disorders, virtual environments for; social phobia
virtual environments for, 89–90, 94–95
PubMed, 320
“pure insertion” hypothesis, 181
p values, post hoc hypothesis testing, 220
Pygmalion in the Classroom, 398
Q
Q-ball vector analysis, 174
q-q plot, 235f, 236
Q-sort, 146–147
quadratic growth model, 311f, 312
quadratic regression models, 236–237, 236f
qualitative methods, dissemination and implementation science, 71–72
qualitative process research, 144
quality
in therapy process, 145
treatment, evaluation of, 48
quantitative process research, 144
quasi-experimental designs, 28
in dissemination and implementation science, 71
quasi-experimental psychopathology research, 13–14
quasi-intervention analogue, 417
QUORUM guidelines, 330
R
R (software), 292, 319–320
entering meta-analysis data into, 325–326, 327f
metafor, 319, 329, 332
race and ethnicity
as surface-level and deep-level diversity, 428
as demographic vs. psychological variables, 427–428
radiotracer, in positron emission tomography, 177
random assignment, in randomized clinical trials, 43
purpose of, 254
random-effects intraclass correlation coefficients model, 150
random-effects model, 323
randomized blocks assignment, in randomized clinical trials, 43, 45
Randomized Care Pathways, 55–56
randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 25, 40–57, 103, 112, 113, 142, 159, 267, 417–419, 439. See also multiple-baseline designs; small pilot trial designs; single-case experimental designs
data analysis, 49–52
design considerations, 40–45
in DI research, 69–70
extensions and variations of, 52–57
integration with other methodologies, 114–115
measurement considerations, 48–49
in neuroimaging, 181–183
procedural considerations, 45–48
reporting of results, 52
statistical hypothesis testing in, 215
using PPF paradigm, statistical methods for analysis of, 253–259
analysis of covariance, 256–259, 261
analysis of variance, 255–256, 261
general assumptions, 254–255
multilevel modeling, 259
randomized prescriptive treatment design, 55
randomized sequence design, 54
random regression models. See multilevel models
Range of Possible Changes model, 49
Rasch model, 338
Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance, 63–64
reactivity, of participants, 200–201
real-time assessment, by experience sampling method, 189–191
borderline personality disorder, 190–191
generalizability, enhancing, 191–192
giving real-time feedback in, 196–198
panic disorder, 189–190
Real-Time Data Capture, 189
recall bias, 189–190
recording, of therapy sessions, 48, 147
data collection from, 151
recording of observational codes, approaches to, 128–131
recordkeeping, ethical considerations in, 406
recursive algorithm, 346
region of interest -based analysis, 179–180
regression. See multiple regression
regulatory compliance and institutional approval, 399–401
reinforcement traps, 126–127
relational factors, therapy process research, 144
relational measures, commonly used in therapy process, 148t
relationship
dyadic, 131
interactions, recording of, 130
context -/setting-specific, investigation of, 196
relative advantage, defined, 67
relaxation training, for depression in alcoholism, 44
reliability
of measures in mediation/moderation analysis, 280
in observational coding, 134
of therapy process measures, 147, 150, 153, 157
reliable change index, 51
repeated assessments, in experience sampling method, 192–194, 193f, 196
reporting of results
meta-analysis, 330–332, 331t
in RCTs, 52
flow diagram, 53f
statistical hypothesis testing, 218–219
inadequate and incomplete, 223
representativeness, of observational coding, 123
research
designs, dissemination and implementation science, 69–72, 81
experimental designs, 69–71
mixed-method approach to, 72
qualitative methods, 71–72
quasi-experimental designs, 71
integration across nosologies and, 104–108
mental health services, 68, 81
paradigms, virtual environments integration into, 94–96
Research Domain Criteria, 105, 107, 167
matrix examples, 106t107t
research funding, 405–406
research question, 198, 205
residuals
multiple regression
characteristics of, 247
constant variance of, 235, 235f
nonindependence of, 235
normal distribution of, 235–236
standardized, 291–292
resolution, of neuroimages, 171
(p. 456) response systems, process-oriented experimental psychopathology across, 18–19
responsiveness critique, 156, 267
“resting-state” neuroimaging methods, 175
restricted model. See confirmatory factor analysis
results, reporting. See reporting of results
reticular action model, 387
retrospective bias, 189–190
Review Manager, 319
Revised Children's Depression Rating Scale, 51
risks
affective risks, 396–397
biological risks, 397–398
cognitive risks, 396
economic risks, 398
emotional risks, 396
legal risks, 398
minimal risk, 403
social and cultural risks, 398–399
Risk-Sophistication-Treatment Inventory, 110
root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), 290–291
rostral anterior cingulate hyperactivity, 168
rotational indeterminacy, 358
root mean square error of approximation, 340
R psychometrics, 376–391
S
sample construction, in neuroimaging, 181–182
sample effect size, 222. See also effect sizes
sample selection, 423–424
in randomized controlled trials, 46
sampling
design, in experience sampling method, 198–200, 205
experience sampling method, 188–206
issues, in therapy process research, 152
SAS (software), 275
satiation therapy, 30
scalar equivalence, 426
schizophrenia, 170
cognitive training programs in VE for, 93
scholarly publishing disputes, 408–409
scientific misconduct, 406–408
detection, difficulties in, 408
incidence, 407–408
types, 407
scientist-practitioner model, 439–440
SCORIGHT, 364
secondary data research, 419
secondary problems, prevention of, 44
second by second recording of observational codes, 129–130
segmentation, in magnetic resonance imaging, 173
selected sample, defined, 46
selection bias, in randomized controlled trials, 43, 69
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), 56
select samples, 46
self-determination theory, 266
self-efficacy theory, 109
self-monitoring, 115t, 206
self-reports, 14, 188, 194–195. See also diaries
data, in therapy process research, 151
measures, in single-case experimental designs, 26
retrospective, 191
senior authorship, 409
separation anxiety disorder, 33
Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study, 55, 69
sequenced treatment designs, 53, 54–57
adaptive treatment design, 55–56
multiple-groups crossover design, 56
preferential treatment design, 56
prescriptive treatment design, 54–55
randomized prescriptive treatment design, 55
sequential ignorability, 272–273
Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) designs, 69
serial dependence. See autocorrelation
serotonin transporter, and atypical depression, 170
sertraline, plus CBT, 45
“setting events,” 122
setting-specific relationship, investigation of, 196
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
in functional neuroimaging, 177, 179
in structural neuroimaging, 171
significance level, of statistical hypothesis testing, 215, 218
significance tests, 53, 217, 245, 248. See also statistical significance
simple regression equation, 239–240, 241
simple slopes, 274
simulation studies, 416–417
single-case experimental designs, 25–31, 113, 114. See also multiple-baseline designs; small pilot trial designs
A-B-A-B design, 29–30
A-B-A design, 28–29
A-B-C-B design, 31
A-B designs, 27–28
B-A-B design, 30–31
general procedures, 26–31
historical overview, 25–26
integration with other methodologies, 115
single-case time-series intervention, 71
single-channel devices, 202
single-diagnosis psychological treatment protocols, 54
single-mediator model, 301–302, 302f. See also mediators
assumptions of, 272
statistical analysis of, 269f, 270–274
single nucleotide polymorphisms, 303
single photon emission computed tomography, 166, 176, 177
6-item BIS, 364–368
analysis, 364–367
data, 364
exploratory item factor analysis, 367–368
skills transfer in observational coding, 132
slope-intercept form, 337
slope-threshold form, 337
small pilot trial designs, 24–25, 225, 34–36, 223. See also multiple-baseline designs; single-case experimental designs
data misuse for power calculations, 35–36
example, 34–35
use and design of, 34–35
smartphones, 202
smoking. See also tobacco cessation
snake phobia, 120
social and cultural risks, 398–399
social anxiety disorder, 46, 56
social cognitive theory, 266
social desirability, and naturalistic observation, 123
social dynamics, 130
social environment, direct observation for, 121
social interactions
in children with autism, 31
dimensions, observation of, 130
social learning theory, 126
social networks, 271
in DI research, 80–81
social phobia, virtual environments for, 89–91, 95
social process, DI models emphasizing, 67–68
social science data, 408
social skill deficits, in autism spectrum disorders, 92–93
Society of Clinical Psychology Task Force, 112
sociodemographic variables and health outcomes, association between, 428
software
for meta-analysis, 319–320
solutions, for experience sampling method, 201–203
Sony PlayStation Portable, 202
spatial normalization, 173, 175
(p. 457) spatial resolution, in functional neuroimaging, 176, 177, 180. See also resolution, of neuroimages
specialized multichannel devices, 202
Specific Affect coding system, 131
specificity of observations, 26
specificity of treatment effects, moderation analysis for, 268
SPM (software), 173
SPSS (software), 203, 217, 232, 240, 244, 246, 250, 319
squared semipartial correlation, 232
squared standard error (SE2), 233
Stages of Implementation and Core Implementation Components, 64–65
Standard Care Pathways, 55
standardization, in randomized clinical trials, 69–70
standardized residuals, 291–292
standardized root mean square residual, 290–291
standard treatment comparison condition, 43
State Health Authority Yardstick, 79
state space grid, 130–131, 133
parent–child behavior on, 130f
statistical analysis
of single-mediator model, 270–273
of single-moderator model, 273–274
statistical hypothesis testing, 213–224
adequately powered α-level test, 217
a priori hypothesis, 214
backward power calculations, 223–224
cherry picking, 220–221
computations, 217–218
confusion between true, critical, and estimated effect sizes, 222–223, 222f
critical effect size, 216–217
effect size, 215–216
equipoise, 214
execution, 218
inadequate and incomplete reporting of results, 223
multiple testing, 221
nonspecific hypothesis, 221–222
post hoc hypothesis testing, 219–220
post hoc power, 224
power, 216
reporting results, 218–219
significance level, 215
structure and context of, 224–225
theoretical rationale and empirical justification, 214
validity of, 214–215
statistical identification, 289
statistical methods
issues, in experience sampling method, 203–204
in recent abnormal and clinical literature, 228
statistical power. See statistical hypothesis testing
statistical significance, 50–51, 220, 222
vs. practical significance, 218–219, 219f. See also clinical significance
of structural equation modeling parameter estimates, 292
Stetler model, 66–67
stimulus materials, in therapy process, 147
stratified blocking. See randomized blocks assignment
strength of structural equation modeling parameter estimates, 292
Stroop task, 175, 175f
structural equation modeling (SEM), 287–315, 377
confirmatory factor analysis, 292–300
defined, 287–288
latent growth curve modeling, 303–315
model evaluation, 290–292
model identification, 288–290
model representation, 288, 289f
newer applications of, 302–303
programs to evaluate, 292
reasons for using, 288
structural regression models, 300–302, 301f
structural invariance, 425
structural magnetic resonance imaging, 172–174, 181. See also functional magnetic resonance imaging
advantages and disadvantages, 172
structural model, 389, 391
structural neuroimaging, 171–175
analytic strengths and limitations, 174–175
computed tomography, 171–172
diffusion tensor imaging, 174
modalities, measures, strengths, and weaknesses, 172t
relevant uses, 174
structural magnetic resonance imaging, 172–174
structural path modeling, 302
structural regression models, 300–302, 301f
examples of, 300–302
study setting, in randomized controlled trials, 46–47
style, in therapy process, 145
subgenual cingulate cortex hyperactivity, 168
substance abuse/dependence, 271. See also alcohol addiction/dependence
and mental disorders, 2
societal burden of, 2
virtual environments for, 93, 95
subtraction paradigms, 175, 175f, 178, 181, 183
success rate difference, 215–216
suicide, and mental disorders, 2
sulpiride, 56
superpopulation, 323–324
Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health, Culture, Race and Ethnicity in Mental Health, Supplement, 414, 430
Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health, 414
Survey of Outcomes Following Treatment for Adolescent Depression, 44
survival analysis, 279
sustainability, in DI research, 73–74
S-X2 item-level diagnostic statistics, 340–342
symptom-level assessment, in experimental psychopathology, 15
Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder, 55
system-level assessment, in experimental psychopathology, 15
T
target, in therapy process, 145
TCALIS (software), 275
technological advances in assessment and treatment, 116–117, 116t
temperament, of children, 121
temporal dynamics of behavior, measurement of, 128
temporal interpolation, 179
temporal precedence, 270, 272, 276, 278, 283
testlet response model, 336, 360
in PROMIS pediatric emotional distress measures, 364
test–retest designs, 111–112
change-sensitive items included in, 111t
test–retest reliability, 150, 223
tests, psychological
construction, traditional approach of, 104
usage, factors to consider in, 108
Texas Survey of Provider Characteristics and Attitudes, 77
thematic content, in therapy process, 145
theoretical base
building and refining, mediation analysis for, 267
measurement of psychotherapy change, 109–110
for statistical hypothesis testing, 214
for therapy process research, 145, 159–160
for treatment effectiveness, 266, 269
Theory of Planned Behavior, 67
Therapeutic Alliance Scale for Children, 146, 151
therapeutic interventions. See interventions
therapeutic misconception, 404
therapist
adherence to CBT program, 146
behavior, 145
comparability across, in RCTs, 45
data collection from, 151–152
main effects, in therapy process research, 156
manuals, 47
nesting with clients and practice sites, 155
Therapist Behavior Rating Scale, 151
Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy
Alliance scale, 151
Strategies Scale, 78, 146, 154, 158
therapy process research, 142–160
change mechanisms, 144
data analytic considerations, 153–155
design issues and considerations, 155–156
examples from youth psychotherapy field, 156–158
factors, 143–144
future directions, 158–160
methods, 144
planning, conducting, and evaluating, 147–153
process dimensions, 145–147
psychotherapy inputs, 143
psychotherapy outcomes, 144
third variables, definitions of, 264–266
three-wave autoregressive mediation model, 277, 277f
three-wave latent change score mediation model, 278, 278f
tics, and Tourette syndrome, 167, 169
time-by-condition interaction test, 255–256
time-contingent sampling protocol, 198, 202
implications/recommendations regarding, 199
time scores, latent growth curve modeling with, 311–312, 311f
time-series data, analysis of, 303
time-varying covariates, latent growth curve modeling with, 313, 314f
tobacco cessation, 265, 266, 267, 278–279, 281–282
total creatine, 178
Tourette syndrome (TS), 167
brain structural imaging of adults with, 169, 169f
trait-based assessment measures, 110
transcranial magnetic stimulation, for chronic depression, 183
transdiagnostic treatment, testing the efficacy of, 54
translational research
centers, 18
observation in, 137–138
Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change, 281
traumatic brain injury, apathy of patient with, 32
treatment. See also interventions
delayed effects possibility, mediation analysis for, 267
effects specificity, moderation analysis for, 268
evaluating response across time, in RCTs, 43–44
implementation with client participant, quality of, 132
improvement, mediation analysis for, 267
integrity, 143
research, 157–158
lack of effect, moderation analysis for investigating, 269
manuals, 47
treatment-as-usual condition. See standard treatment comparison condition; usual care
Treatment Cost Analysis Tool, 79
Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study, 44
Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program, 265
trialability, defined, 67
trim and fill, 328
true effect size, 222–223, 222f. See also effect sizes
Tucker-Lewis index, 290–291
two-parameter logistic model, 337–338, 339–340
two-tailed hypothesis, 214, 215, 216f, 217, 218, 219f
two-wave models, 277
type I error, 215, 244, 254, 257, 257, 303
type I experimental psychopathology research, 11–13
identification of causal variables, 12–13
relationship with psychiatric nomenclature, 12
validity in open system, 12
type II error, 216
type II experimental psychopathology research, 13–14
type III error, 224
type III nonpatient psychopathology research, 14
type IV descriptive psychopathology research, 14–15
U
unconditional inferences, 324
unconditional latent growth curve modeling, 304–308, 305f
identification and estimation, 305, 306t307t, 307
interpretation, 307–308
underidentified models, 290
Unified Protocol, 54
uninformed consent, 402. See also confidentiality
United Kingdom's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies, 62
United States Veterans Administration Quality Enhancement Research Initiative, 62
unit of measurement
of observational coding, 127–128
in therapy process, 146
univariate autoregressive model, 303–304, 303f
universal dimension, of human identity, 420, 421
universalist approach, to cultural differences, 420
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 188–189
usual clinical care, 154, 158. See also treatment-as-usual condition
V
valence-dependent bias, 190
validity
of experience sampling method studies, 205–206
of measures in mediation/moderation analysis, 280
in observational coding, 134
of statistical hypothesis testing, 214–215
of therapy process measures, 150–151, 157
variance inflation factor (VIF), 233
video recordings
observational coding from, 128
of therapy sessions, 151
virtual environments (VEs), 87–96
for anxiety disorders, 88–91
designing and developing, 96
for developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities, 92–93
equipments, using, 95–96
future directions, 96
integration into research paradigms, 94–96
limitations, 93–94
other clinical disorders, 93
for posttraumatic stress disorder, 91–92
side effects, 94
virtual reality (VR)
defined, 87
-tangible interaction, for autism spectrum disorders, 93
virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET)
for anxiety disorders, 88–89
for civilian-related posttraumatic stress disorder, 91
for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder, 91
cost of, 94
for panic disorder, 92
for public-speaking fears, 89–90
for social phobia, 90–91
volumetric analysis, in structural neuroimaging, 175
voluntariness, 402
(p. 459) voxel, 171
-based analysis, for functional magnetic resonance imaging, 179–180
-based morphometry, 173–174
W
waitlist control condition, 42
ethics in, 42
Wald chi-square (χ2) tests, 248, 249, 250
Web of Science, 321
well-established treatments, 113
white-coat effect, 191–192
white matter density, 174
whole interval time sampling, 129
within-person assessments, in experience sampling method, 203
variability of, 192–194, 193f
within-subject analysis, 259, 377, 379, 380, 381
women, with alcohol use disorder, 264
Working Alliance Inventory, 145
work performance, and major depression, 2, 191
workshop
continuing education, 67
Theory of Planned Behavior-informed, 67
Y
Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, 170
Youth. See also adolescents; children/childhood
exposure to deviant peers, 270
psychotherapy, 145, 151–152, 156–158
alliance, 156–157
treatment integrity research, 157–158