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date: 12 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Statistical hypothesis testing has recently come under fire, as invalid and inadequately powered tests have become more frequent and the results of statistical hypothesis testing have become harder to interpret. Following a review of the classic definition of a statistical test of a hypothesis, discussion of common ways in which this approach has gone awry is presented. The review concludes with a description of the structure to support valid and powerful statistical testing and the context in which power calculations are properly done.

Keywords: Power, hypothesis testing, a priori hypothesis, null hypothesis, types I, II, III errors, significance level, a valid test, an adequately powered test, effect sizes, critical effect size, exploratory studies, pilot studies, meta-analysis, equipoise

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