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date: 02 June 2020

(p. 919) Index

(p. 919) Index

Page references followed by a t indicate tables; f indicate figures.

Aarøe, L., 668
AARP, 399
ABC
crisis reporting by, 307
reduced audience of, 797
Total News Consumption at, 901
Abelson, R., 32
abortion, 111–12
Abramoff, Jack, 265
Abu Ghraib, 252
accessibility
to big data, 295
in framing, 625
to Internet, 185, 420
acclaims, in functional theory of political campaign communication, 197, 198t, 199
accountability. See political accountability
Achen, C., 654, 696–97
Ackerman, B., 268
Adams, W. C., 856
Aday, S., 318, 320
on CNN effect hypothesis, 323, 324
on crime, 597
Ad Herennium (Cicero), 210
adolescent social capital, cultivation theory and, 599–600
Adolphs, R., 674n4
Adorno, T., 886, 890
advertising, 103, 147–58. See also attack advertising; negative advertising; niche communication
agenda setting with, 153–54
of Bush, 455
confirmation bias with, 155
content of, 147–49
contrastive, 152
cynicism from, 151
duration of effect of, 150
effects of, 149–57
emotional appeal of, 152
field experiments on, 504–5
on Internet, 510
issue and campaign awareness and, 155
issue ownership and, 154
issues vs. character in, 153
in narrowcasting, 798
need for cognition and, 156
partisanship and, 156–57
by Perry, 508
persuasion from, 508
political efficacy of, 156–57
on social media, 510
spending differences for, 149
subliminal, 669
trait assessments from, 153
voter learning from, 152
voter turnout from, 150–51
affect. See emotion
affect-congruence effect, 651
affect-driven dual-process models, 649
The Affect Effect (Neuman, Marcus, Crigler, and MacKuen), 673
affective framing, 668
affective intelligence theory (AIT), 664, 670
affirmative action, 490
Fox News and, 505
Affordable Care Act (ACA), 392–93
After Disaster (Birkland), 369–70
agenda setting, 359–72, 360f
with advertising, 153–54
attribute, 640–41
audience and, 370–71
cascading effect in, 639
consequences of, 641–43
of elites, 62
emotion and, 637, 670
framing and, 622–24
as media effect, 61–63
by newspapers, 421
in political campaigns, 362–63
by PR, 360–62
presidents and, 360–62
priming and, 642
public opinion polling and, 641
salience and, 153, 637–40
second level, 365
selective exposure and, 639–40
theory, 633–43
TPP and, 569–70
unexpected events and, 369–70
uses and gratifications and, 609–10
“The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media” (McCombs and Shaw), 6
Albæk, E., 289, 293–94
Albertson, B., 505
Aldrich, J. H., 133
“Alienation and Uses of the Mass Media” (McLeod, Ward, and Tancill), 6
Allen, M., 408
on selective exposure, 812
Altheide, D., 25
on crises, 308–9
ambivalence
disagreement and, 720
in social networks, 705
The American Commonwealth (Bryce), 206
The American Journalist (Weaver and Wilhoit), 293
American Medical Association (AMA), 394
American National Election Studies (ANES), 5
on attractiveness, 655
on character traits, 440, 441, 442
on disagreement, 723
on face-to-face canvassing, 181–82
on political trust, 583, 587
American Political Science Association (APSA), 4–5
The American Voter (Campbell, A., Converse, Miller, W., and Stokes, D.), 7, 19
Amerika (docudrama), 856–57
Amnesty International, 759
An, S., 307
Anderson, A. A., 208
Anderson, B., 220, 889
Andersson, L., 206
Annenberg Foundation, 7
Annenberg Public Policy Center, 3, 6, 213
“Another Brick in the Wall” (Pink Floyd), 888–89
Ansolabehere, S., 150, 470
on advertising, 154
on negative advertising, 502, 672
Antczak, F. J., 124–25, 128
Antonakis, J., 655
Aoki, E., 224
applicability, in framing, 622, 625
appraisal functions, of emotion, 667, 670–71
Arab Spring, 91n5, 889
Arazy, O., 786
Arceneaux, K.
on oppositional media hostility, 557
on selective exposure, 537, 558
Arendt, H., 785
argument repertoire (AR), 780–81
Aristophanes, 875
Aristotle, 417, 663
on music, 885
Ariyanto, K., 552
Armada, B. J., 225
Armstrong, G. B., 598
Arnold, C., 26
Arnold, D. R., 382
Arnold, R. D., 899, 903, 908
Arora, S. K., 24
Arpan, L. M., 552
Asch, A. F., 769–70
assembly democracy, 100, 105n2
(p. 921) Associated Press, 243
agenda setting of, 364
attack advertising, 148–49, 156
functional theory of political campaign communication and, 197, 198t, 199
voter turnout and, 672
Attack Politics: Strategy and Defense (Pfau and Kenski), 32–33
Attali, J., 885
attractiveness, 654–56
attribute agenda setting, 640–41
audience
agenda setting and, 370–71
crises and, 308–9
democracy, 53, 100
of Fox News, 797
for new media, 830–31
of newspapers, 71
for political communication, 605–14
of political humor, 874
salience and, 31
self-selection bias of, 257, 258–59
Auyero, J., 751, 756
awareness
of issues and campaign, advertising and, 155
thresholds of, 650–53
Azari, J. R., 505
Badiou, A., 891
Baek, Y. M., 782–83
Bagdikian, D., 406
Bailenson, J. N., 627
Baker, C. Edwin, 268
Baker, P., 113, 116
Baker, W. D., 323
Baldasty, G., 266
balkanization, 810
Balmas, M., 671
Balthrop, V. W., 223–24
Baltimore Sun, 265
Banaji, M., 653
Bandura, A., 608
Banerjee, A. V. S., 505, 506
Banning, S. A., 569
Banwart, M. C., 168
ElBaradei, M., 252
Barber, B., 837
Barber, J. D., 36n3
Barenboim, D., 889, 893
Barreto, M. A., 840
Bartels, L., 15, 35, 76, 654
on advertising, 149
on character traits, 441
on game schema, 381
Barth, J., 188
Batra, R., 419
Baum, M., 76, 552, 589
on entertainment, 855
on foreign policy, 317, 321
on soft news, 877
Baumer, D. C., 136, 138
Baumgartner, F. R., 483, 487
on entertainment, 856
Baym, G., 116, 872
on political humor, 880
Baym, N. K., 690
Beam, M. A., 878
Beck, Glen, 213, 254
Becker, A. B., 877
Becker, L.
on agenda setting, 364
on minimal effects model, 29
Becker, M., 207
Beckman, M. N.
on game schema, 385
on group perceptions, 453
behavioral functions, of emotion, 667, 671–72
Behr, R., 6
Bennett, L., 6, 24, 25, 302
on agenda setting, 369
on foreign policy, 316
indexing hypothesis of, 51
on narrowcasting, 798
on political accountability, 908
on political communication uses and gratifications, 606
on political trust, 584, 588–89
on selective exposure, 535
on social networks, 685
on strategic communications, 50
on structural biases, 405
(p. 922) Benoit, W., 129
on advertising, 148
on debates, 171–72
on functional theory of political campaign communication, 199
on partisanship, 140
Benson, R., 272n7
Berelson, B., 3, 28, 696
on agenda setting, 636
on deliberative democracy, 87–88, 89
on selective exposure, 531, 811
on social networks, 684
Bergan, D., 70
on local public affairs coverage, 281–82
Berger, J., 654
Bergson, H., 873
Berinsky, A. J., 76
on foreign policy, 321
Berkowitz, D., 226, 372
Berry, J., 206, 207–8, 213
Bessette, J. M., 122
Beutel, A. R., 491
Bezos, Jeff, 601
bias
confirmation, 155, 536
conservative, 406–7
liberal, 407–9
in news coverage, 556–58, 569
of news junkies, 904–7
self-selection bias, of audience, 257, 258–59
strategic bias theory, 317–18
structural, 405
biased assimilation, 552–53
Biden, Joe, 165
Biesecker, B., 223
big data, 295
“The Big Five,” of character traits, 448n2, 724
Bimber, B., 191n7, 812
bin Laden, Osama, 377
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, 190n5
Birkland, T. A., 254, 369–70
The Birth of Tragedy (Nietzsche), 886
Black, E., 25
Black, J. S., 687–88
Black, L., 844
Blair, C., 220, 222, 223–24, 225
Blair, Tony, 70, 887
blogs, 54, 97, 268, 796, 800
agenda setting of, 366
gatekeeping and, 368–69
for political campaigns, 824
political knowledge and, 839, 840
source credibility of, 422–23
Bloom, E., 873, 877
Bloom, L., 873, 877
Blumer, H., 23, 29
Blumler, J., 6, 8, 21, 22, 28, 52
on CPCR, 287, 291, 292
on deliberative democracy, 86, 91n1, 91n5
on minimal effects model, 33–34
on public-service model, 342
Boczkowski, P. J., 371
on agenda setting, 635
Boltanski, L., 754
on deliberative democracy, 90
Boomgaarden, H. G., 292, 293
on social networks, 687
Borah, P., 208
“Born in the USA” (Springsteen), 887, 890
Bowers, J. W., 26
Bowling Alone (Putnam), 892–93
Boykoff, J. M., 255
Boykoff, M. T., 255
Brader, T.
on emotion, 667, 672
on group emotion, 458
Brandenburg, H., 304
Breed, W., 359, 363
Brewer, P. R., 855
British Broadcasting Company (BBC), 103
fourteen-day rule of, 104
freedom of the press of, 242
public-service model of, 336–40
brochureware, 824
Broder, D. S., 372
Broersma, M., 103
Brokaw, Tom, 223
broken-B experiment, 621, 625, 626
Brooks, D., 208, 212
Brosius, H. B., 569–70
Brown, G., 333–34
Bruner, J., 621, 625
Bruns, A., 341
on gatekeeping, 351
(p. 923) Bryan, A. L., 323
Bryce, Lord, 206
Bryson, A., 207
Bucy, E., 3
Budesheim, T. L., 155
Buhr, T. A., 385
Bullard, R. D., 492
Burbules, N. C., 420
Burke, K., 24, 25, 756
on crises, 302–3
on partisanship, 135
Bush, George W., 35, 395
advertising of, 149, 152, 455
agenda setting of, 361, 363, 365
character traits of, 439, 441, 442–43, 443f
in debates, 167, 170
direct mail by, 183, 190
emotion toward, 637
Fox News and, 70–71, 408
game schema and, 383, 384
gatekeeping and, 352–53
global warming and, 255
GRPs of, 73
Iraq War and, 252, 321
LTM of, 651
new media and, 830
9/11 and, 111, 195, 318
partisanship talk of, 141
subliminal advertising by, 669
Vietnam War and, 367
The West Wing and, 857
Butler, D., 698
Byrne, D. N., 840
Cain, H., 201
Campaign Finance Board, 174
campaigns. See political campaigns
Campbell, A., 7
Campbell, K. K., 122, 123, 129n1
on hard news, 863n4
canvassing. See face-to-face canvassing
Cao, X, 855, 856
Cappella, J., 7
on collective intelligence, 782, 783, 787
on entertainment, 855
on game schema, 382, 385
on horse-race schema, 600
on negativity of media, 411
on political trust, 584
on selective exposure, 542
on social networks, 690
Carlson, J. M., 856
Carlson, M., 226
Carnegie Foundation, 7
Carr, H. A., 438
Carrel, M., 755, 759
Carroll, B., 423
Carsey, T., 78
Carson, R., 492
Carter, Jimmy, 361, 395
in debates, 23
game schema and, 383
Carter, R. F., 811
Carter, S., 206
cascade network activation model, 317
cascading effect, in agenda setting, 639
Castells, M., 589
casualty aversion hypothesis, 322
CBS
crisis reporting by, 307
reduced audience of, 797
Total News Consumption at, 901
Ceaser, J. W., 122
Central Propaganda Ministry, of China, 335
Chadwick, A., 53–54
Chaffee, S., 3, 6, 9, 28
on debates, 172
on minimal effects model, 29
on narrowcasting, 795, 798
on selective exposure, 812
Chaiken, S., 551
Chamberlain, Neville, 319
The Changing American Voter (Nie, Verba, and Petrocik), 20–21
channels and gate keepers, theory of, 347
character traits
from advertising, 153
assessment of, 153, 437–48
conceptualizing, 438–39
as decision-making shortcuts, 440
of presidents, 439–46, 444f
“The Big Five” of, 448n2, 724
Charland, M., 25
(p. 924) Chaucer, G., 206
Chen, H., 310
Cheng, M., 112
Chernov, G., 634
Chevigny, P., 891
Chicago Tribune, 116
China
Central Propaganda Ministry of, 335
freedom of the press in, 241–42
Internet in, 240
Sina Weibo in, 845
Xinhua News Agency of, 113
Choe, S., 6
Choi, J., 370, 555
on hostile media effect, 550–51
Chomsky, N., 406
Chong, A., 506
Chosun, 365
Chouliaraki, L., 90
Cicero, 210
Cincinnati Enquirer, 280–81
Cincinnati Post, 280–81
citizen communication mediation, 473
citizenship, 54, 336
political communication and, 467–76
social media and, 474–75
Citizens’ Initiative Review (CIR), 741
Citizens United, 3
civic norms
field experiments on, 506–7
political communication and, 467–76
for social media, 474–75
civility/incivility, 114, 142, 205–13
conceptual evolution of, 206
debates and, 586
defined, 205–6
functions of, 209–12
psychology and, 208
trends in, 207–8
Clayman, S., 104
Cline, A. R., 405
Clinton, Bill, 15, 812
agenda setting of, 361
character traits of, 441
game schema and, 382, 383
on Kosovo, 111
Lewinsky and, 80
new media and, 823, 830
Clinton, Hillary, 210
game schema and, 380, 381, 384
Cloonan, M., 891
closeness, in groups, 458
Cloud, D. L., 310
CNN
civility on, 213
crisis reporting by, 307, 310
hostile media effect and, 555
selective exposure and, 814, 816, 817t
source credibility of, 425
Total News Consumption at, 901
Trump and, 250
The CNN Effect (Robinson), 309
CNN effect hypothesis, 323–24
Cobb, R., 25
Coe, K., 206, 207
cognitive dissonance, 91n4, 811
hostile media effect and, 558–59
Cohen, A.
on CPCR, 291
on gatekeeping, 353
Cohen, B.
on agenda setting, 61
on minimal effects model, 31
Cohen, J., 382, 569, 571
Colbert, Stephen, 872, 873–74, 878, 880–81
The Colbert Report, 872, 873–74, 880
irony on, 878
Coleman, R., 636, 637
Coleman, S., 86, 91n1, 91n5
on public-service model, 340, 342
collective intelligence, 777–87
CJT and, 779–80
disagreement in, 785
foolish decisions from, 784
gold standard for, 780–81
intelligent outcomes of, 781–84
polarization and, 784
Collins, A. M., 623
Columbia space shutter, 226
Columbine shooting, 254
(p. 925) Combs, J. E., 25
on crises, 307
Comedy Central, 872
commercialism, 104
Commission on Presidential Debates, 167
Common Knowledge: News and the Construction of Political Meaning (Neuman, Crigler, and Just), 25
Communication and Persuasion (Hovland, Janis, and Kelley), 32
Communication and Voter Turnout in Britain (Blumler and McLeod), 34
communication competence, 467–76
communication effects. See also media effects
duration of, 74
size of, 70–73
Communication Research, 6
Communication Theory, 691
communicative abundance, 100
comparative political communication research (CPCR), 287–96
areas of, 290–94
on journalism, 293–94
types of, 288–90
The Comparative Study of Symbols (Lasswell, Lerner, and de Sola Pool), 23–24
Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics (Hallin and Mancini), 290–91
competence, communication, 467–76
comScore, 902
Comstock, G., 30
condemnation, 459
Condorcet jury theorem (CJT), 779–80
Confino, A., 219, 222–23, 225, 228
confirmation bias
with advertising, 154–55
selective exposure and, 536
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 783
Congressional Budget office, 101
Congressional Record, 212
Connerton, P., 228
Conover, P. J., 136, 138
Consciously Unnoticed/Unappreciated Events (CUEs), 650, 654, 655
conservative bias, 406–7
Conspiracy Theories: Secrets and Power in American Culture (Fenster), 306
constitutional nature, 438
“Constitutive Rhetoric” (Charland), 25
constructionism, 27–28
contrastive advertising, 152
convergence, with new media, 829
Converse, P., 6, 7, 33, 79
on interdependence, 698
Cook, T. E., 266, 302
on game schema, 386–87
Cooper, M., 268
Cooper, T., 210
Corman, S. R., 304
Cornfield, M., 367
corporations, crises and, 305
Cottle, S., 301
Cotton, J. L., 532
counterarguments, 780–81
Craig, C., 210
Craig, S. C., 583–84
Creating reality: How TV news distorts events (Altheide), 25
credibility. See source credibility
Creech, A., 893
Crigler, A., 25, 673, 674n2
crime
cultivation theory and, 596–99
race and, 598
crises, 301–11
audience and, 308–9
corporations and, 305
Cuban Missile Crisis, 784
media sources in, 302–6
message strategies in, 306–8
public influence on, 305–6
terrorism and, 303–5
war and, 303–5
critical theory, 406–7
Cronkite, Walter, 601
cross-pressure, 89
disagreement and, 720
Crouse, T., 364
Crowley, C., 250, 257
C-SPAN, 572
(p. 926) Cuban Missile Crisis, 784
cultivation theory, 585, 595–601
adolescent social capital and, 599–600
crime and, 596–99
entertainment and, 861–62
framing and, 623
horse-race schema and, 600
media effects and, 623
meta-analyses on, 595
race and, 598
voter turnout and, 599–600
Cultural Indicators Project (CIP), 595
Cummings, M. C., 20
Cunningham, Randall “Duke,” 265
Curran, J., 52
on CPCR, 292
cynicism
from game schema, 384–85, 584
horse-race schema and, 600
from negative advertising, 151
from negativity, 584
political humor and, 586, 880
political trust and, 581–82
social capital and, 582
of strategic framing, 411
trust in media and, 589
“Daily Me,” 798
The Daily Show, 172–73, 586, 610, 856, 872, 876
audience of, 874
parody on, 258
political knowledge and, 874
satire on, 877–78
Dale, A., 182
D’Alessio, D., 408
on selective exposure, 812
Dalgas, O., 655
Dalton, R. J., 363
Daniel of Beccles, 207
Danielson, D. R., 420
Danielson, W., 30, 33–34
Darrow, T. I. A., 855
DasGupta, B., 598
Davies, G., 337
Davis, A., 53
Davis, D., 28–29
Davis, K., 175
Davis, N. Z., 220, 222
Davis, R., 191n7, 810, 811
Davison, W. P., 566
Dayan, D., 22, 23
on crises, 310
Dean, Howard, 191n9
Dearing, J. W., 61
on agenda setting, 359
The Death and Life of American Journalism (McChesney and Nichols), 266
debates, 165–75
audience for, 170
format for, 166–67
functional theory of political campaign communication for, 199
incivility and, 586
meta-analyses for, 169
new source of data on, 170–71
participants in, 168–69
performance variables in, 171–73
source credibility and, 428
sponsors of, 166
De Civilitate Morum Puerilium (Erasmus), 207
Deeds Done in Words (Campbell and Jamieson), 123
deep listening, 86
de facto selective exposure, 536
defenses, in functional theory of political campaign communication, 197, 198t, 200
DeFleur, M. L., 685
de Graaf, J., 304
De Houwer, J., 656
De Inventione (Cicero), 210
DeLay, Tom, 265
deliberative democracy, 53, 85–91
collective intelligence in, 777–87
disagreement in, 842
impact of, 739–40
importance of, 732–33, 733f
on Internet, 837–46
major research findings on, 734–40
measurement of, 737–38
micro- and macro-levels of, 740–41
in political communication, 79–81, 731–42
promoting and participating in, 736–37
quality of groups in, 738–39
deliberative designs, 735–36, 736f
deliberative polls, 735–36
Delicious, 351
Della Vigna, S., 70–71, 75–76
on local public affairs coverage, 279
Delli Carpini, M. X., 89–90
democracy. See also deliberative democracy
assembly, 100, 105n2
audience, 53, 100
hostile media effect and, 553–56
hyperpersonalization and, 799–801
journalism in, 95–105
monitory, 100
narrowcasting and, 799–801
parliamentary, 100
political humor and, 877–79
political knowledge and, 517–25
political trust and, 589–90
rude, 142
satire and, 878
democracy divide, 474
“Democracy Index,” of The Economist, 270–71
Democratic Audit Network, 100
democratization of truth, 256–58
DeMott, B., 212
De Officiis (Cicero), 210
DePaola, S. J., 155
Department of Defense (DOD), 60
Der Derian, J., 304
de Sola Pool, I., 6, 23–24, 36n2
Deutschmann, P., 30, 33–34
Deuze, M., 341
devil’s advocate (DA), 784–85
de Vreese, C. H., 290, 293–94
on agenda setting, 367
on CPCR, 288–89, 292
on game schema, 385
on social networks, 687
Dewey, John, 9n1, 85–86, 778
on deliberative democracy, 837
on music, 886
Dewey, Thomas, 17
Diario de Navarra, 636
Dickinson, G., 220, 222, 223, 224, 226
Diddi, A., 856
differential effects hypothesis, 170
different standards mechanism, 551
digital divide, 474, 491–92
“Dimensions of Political Involvement” (Eulau and Schneider), 6
direct mail, 183–84
Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction and Democracy (Quebecois and Jamieson), 25
disagreement
ambivalence and, 720
in collective intelligence, 785
content of, 725
context for, 725–26
defined, 716t, 717t, 718t
in deliberative democracy, 842
importance of, 714–15
major findings on, 715, 718–23
polarization and, 721–22
in political communication, 713–27
political knowledge and, 722
in social networks, 704–5
Disasto, M. W., 423
disciplinary politics, 221–22
Distichs of Cato, 207
distrust. See trust
Dole, Bob, 812
Donsbach, W., 167
on CPCR, 293
on liberal bias, 407
on selective exposure, 539
Dorofrio, T. A., 227
Downs, A., 19, 887
Drezner, D. W., 367
Druckman, J. N., 63, 185, 684
on foreign policy, 321
on presidential address, 125
Drury, J., 115
Dryzek, J. S., 739, 741
dual-attitude perspective, 653
Dukakis, Michael, 152
radio use by, 188
Duke, David, 697
Dumping in Dixie (Bullard), 492
Durkheim, E., 221, 696
Dutton, W. H., 54
(p. 928) Eastin, M. S., 608
Easton, D., 859
An Economic Theory of Democracy (Downs), 19
The Economist, 270–71
Edelman, M., 23–25, 26
on crises, 302
on indexing, 253
on partisanship, 135
in Political Communication, 28
education
inequality in, 490–91
political trust and, 584
Edwards, G., 26, 125
Edy, J. A., 225
“Effect of Mass Media on Communication” (Hovland), 32
The Effects of Mass Communication (Klapper), 29
The Effects of Mass Communication on Political Behavior (Kraus and Davis), 28–29
Ehrenhaus, P., 223, 225
Eisenhower, Dwight, 19
Eisinger, R. M., 117
Ekman, P., 668
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), 202, 802
Elder, C., 25
electoral accountability. See political accountability
electronic bulletin boards (EBBs), 366, 367
The Elements of Journalism (Kovach and Rosenstiel), 95–96
Elenbaas, M., 385
Elias, N., 207
Eliasoph, N., 88, 89
on ethnography, 752, 754–55
elites, 9, 51
agenda setting of, 62
global warming and, 77
partisanship and, 135
political communication and, 570–72
selective exposure and, 541–42
TPP and, 571
Elliott, S., 362
e-mail, 183–84
emotion
agenda setting and, 637, 670
appraisal functions of, 667, 670–71
behavioral functions of, 667, 671–72
defined, 665
in deliberative democracy, 738–39
expressive functions of, 665–68
of groups, 457–59, 671
measurement and empirical approaches of, 665–67, 666t
in music, 891–92
newsworthiness and, 669
perceptual/attentional functions of, 666, 668–70
political choice and, 663–73
selective exposure and, 533
social construction of, 664
voter turnout and, 672
emphasis framing, 63, 620–22
empowerment projects, 752
Encyclopedia Britannica, 785–86
“The End of Mass Communication?” (Chaffee and Metzger), 795
Engelhardt, T., 224
Englehardt, K. J., 305
Enlightenment, 101
freedom of the press and, 238, 239
Enola Gay, 224
entertainment, 605. See also infotainment
as alternative source for political engagement, 855–57
cultivation theory and, 861–62
as distraction, 852–54
on Internet, 853
media effects and, 862–63
persuasion and, 861
political accountability and, 905–6
political communication in, 851–63
political relevance and, 859–60
research on, 852–60
selective exposure to, 534
social trust and, 853
Entman, R. M., 115–16
on CNN effect hypothesis, 323–24
on foreign policy, 317
(p. 929) on framing, 623–24
on media bias, 403, 412–13
on war, 304
environmental inequality, 492
environmental justice movement (EJM), 492
equivalence framing, 63, 620–22, 626–29, 628f
Erasmus, 207
Erber, R., 583–84
Erbring, L., 31, 853
on political trust, 584
Erjavec, K., 111
“Essay on the Origin of Languages” (Rousseau, J.-J.), 885–86
Esser, F., 49, 55
on CPCR, 287, 291
The Ethics of Rhetoric (Weaver), 139
ethnography
organized conflict and, 754
political action and, 754
of political communication, 749–59
theorizing and, 756–58
Eulau, H., 6
Evatt, D., 637
Eveland, W. P., Jr., 520, 552
on disagreement, 723
on social networks, 688
on SoS, 767
on uses and gratifications, 613
Everitt, J., 168
expectancy theory, 154
expectancy value theory (EVT), 608
Experiments on Mass Communication (Hovland), 21
experts, 703–4
expressive functions, of emotion, 665–68
external pluralism, 104
Eyal, C., 6
Eysenbach, G., 420
Facebook, 186–87, 472, 475, 574
advertising on, 510
diplomacy, 324
hyperpersonalization on, 799
political campaigns and, 825
political trust and, 589
selective exposure and, 540
social networks on, 690–91
face-to-face canvassing
as niche communication, 181–82
for voter turnout, 71–72
FactCheck.org, 249
Fahrenheit 9/11 (Moore), 812, 857
Fairness Doctrine, 337
Farrell, H., 367
Faust, W. L., 784
Fazio, R., 657
fear of social isolation, 767
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 278–79
net neutrality and, 492
public-service model and, 337
Federal Elections Commission, 102
Feldman, L., 785
Feldman, O., 21
on disagreement, 722
on hostile media effect, 557
on partisanship, 136, 138
Fellner, G., 507
Fenster, M., 306
Ferejohn, J., 899
Ferraro, Geraldine
in debates, 168
game schema and, 383
Ferree, M. M., 114
Festinger, L., 531–32
on selective exposure, 811
Fey, Tina, 873
field experiments
on advertising, 504–5
on civic norms, 506–7
design of, 503–5
on electoral accountability, 505–6
on persuasion, 508
on political communication, 501–10
“57 Channels and Nothing On” (Springsteen), 601
Finifter, A. W., 583
Finkel, S. E., 15, 35
First Amendment, 96
Fischer, P., 533
(p. 930) Fisher, R., 696
Fishkin, J., 91n5
Flew, T., 341
Flowers, Gennifer, 383
Fones-Wolf, E., 267
Foot, K. A., 185
Ford, Gerald, 23, 172
Ford Foundation, 7
foreign policy
public opinion about, 321–22
of US, 315–26
fourteen-day rule, 104
Four Theories of the Press (Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm), 239–40, 851
Fourth Estate
journalism as, 264
on war, 316
Fox News, 72, 810–11, 819n2
affirmative action and, 505
audience of, 797
Bush and, 70–71, 408
civility on, 213
conservative bias of, 408
crisis reporting by, 307, 309, 310
hostile media effect and, 555
on Iraq War, 309
local public affairs coverage on, 279–80
Murdoch, R., and, 601
niche communication of, 65
parody on, 873
satire of, 881
selective exposure and, 813–16, 818t
source credibility of, 557
Total News Consumption at, 901
framing
accessibility in, 625
affective, 668
agenda setting and, 622–24
analysis of, 484–87
applicability in, 622, 625
changes over time and context, 486
cultivation theory and, 623
emphasis, 63, 620–22
equivalence, 63, 620–22, 626–29, 628f
in groups, 454–57
impacts of, 486–87
of inequality, 487–93
nonverbal, 626–29, 628f
priming and, 622–24
research on, 619–29
for social justice, 492
SoS and, 623
stereotypes and, 485
strategic labeling in, 485
theoretical underpinnings of, 624–26
Franco, Francisco, 96
Frankfurt School, 26
Franklin, Benjamin, 207
Franz, M., 170
Fraser, N., 86
Freedman, P.
on advertising, 147
on debates, 170
on selective exposure, 812
on voter turnout, 151
Freedom House, 241–42, 271
Freedom of Information Act, 101
freedom of speech, 105, 237
for music, 891
freedom of the press, 102, 237–47
balancing conflicting rights in, 239
in China, 241–42
comparative environments for, 244–45, 245t
economic environment for, 244
Freedom House on, 241–42, 271
legal environment for, 242–43
political environment for, 243
political trust and, 581
self-censorship in, 240–41
societal constraints on, 239–41
Stewart on, 264
theories and assumptions on, 238
Freeman, C. M., 599
Frensch, P. A., 638
Frey, D., 532, 533
From Cronkite to Colbert: The Evolution of Broadcast News (Baym), 116
Frosh, P., 90
Fulbright, William, 319
Fuller, J., 669
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 666
(p. 931) functional theory of political campaign communication, 129, 171–72, 195–202, 196f
acclaims in, 197, 198t, 199
attack advertising and, 197, 198t, 199
for debates, 199
defenses in, 197, 198t, 200
New York Times and, 199
Gaines, B. J., 74
on selective exposure, 537, 540
Gallagher, T. J., 169
Gallagher, V. J., 224
Gallois, C., 552
Galton, F., 696
game schema, 387n1
cynicism from, 384–85, 584
media effects of, 383–85
in political communication, 377–87
in presidential elections, 379–81
as theoretical perspective, 377–79
Gamson, W. A., 622
on deliberative democracy, 735
Gandhi, Indira, 96
Gans, H. J., 359
on emotion, 669
on liberal bias, 408
Garcia-Castañon, M., 840
Garramone, G. M., 156
Garrett, R. K., 424
on narrowcasting, 800
on selective avoidance, 538–39
on selective exposure, 540
Garrido, M., 280–81
Garrison, William Lloyd, 209
Garst, J., 418–19
Gartner, S. S., 324
gatekeeping
blogs and, 368–69
empirical approaches to, 352–53
Internet and, 351, 354
misinformation and, 472
narrowcasting and, 799
of political communication, 347–54, 349f
PR and, 351
social media and, 351
studies on, 351–52
gateway hypothesis, 589
political humor and, 877, 878
Gaudet, H.
on agenda setting, 636
on deliberative democracy, 87–88
on selective exposure, 531
on social networks, 684
Gebotys, R. J., 598
Geer, J. G., 147–48
on character traits, 440
on civility, 208, 212
on functional theory of political campaign communication, 201
Geertz, C., 750
Gehrau, V., 639
Gelman, A., 15, 35
gender, 168
Internet and, 840
genetics, public opinion, and deliberation (gPOD), 782–83, 787n3
Gentzkow, M., 278–79
on media bias, 410
George, L. M., 280
Gerber, A., 70, 73, 507, 508
on advertising, 504–5
on interdependence, 699
on local public affairs coverage, 281–82
Gerbner, G., 31–32, 861
cultivation theory and, 595–601
on risk exposure inequality, 489
Gestalt Psychology, 625
Get Out the Vote (GOTV), 182
Ghanem, S. I., 633, 637, 640
Gidengil, E., 168
Gilberg, S., 361
Gilens, M., 490
Giles, J., 785–86
Gilliam, F., 453
Gilliam, F. D., Jr., 184
Gimpel, J. G., 73
Giner-Sorolla, R., 551
Gingrich, Newt, 209
Gitlin, T., 26–27
on minimal effects model, 30
Gleason, L. S.
on narrowcasting, 800
on selective exposure, 540
(p. 932) Glenn, John, 856
Global Accountability Project, 100
Global Journalist (Weaver and Wilnat), 293
global warming, 77–78
narrative-driven news on, 255
Gluckman, M., 759
Glynn, C. J., 553
on entertainment, 855
Goidel, R. K., 599
Golan, G. J., 569
Gold, H. J., 136, 138
Goldenberg, E., 31
on political trust, 584
Goldstein, K.
on debates, 170
on voter turnout, 151
Goldstein, R. A., 491
Goodall, H. L., Jr., 304
Goodin, R. E., 739
Goodman, L. A., 697, 700
Goodnight, G. T., 306
Google, 799, 804
Gore, Al, 35
agenda setting of, 363, 365
character traits of, 439, 442
in debates, 167, 170, 172, 173
game schema and, 383, 384
group emotion toward, 458
9/11 and, 195
subliminal advertising against, 669
Gosnell, H., 699
government
journalism and, 249–60
subsidies from, for journalism, 266, 269–71, 272n7
Government Accountability Office, 101
Gower, K. K., 307
Graber, D., 6, 23–25
on agenda setting, 634
on CPCR, 287
Political Communication and, 28
on presidential address, 128
Graham, K., 372
Graham, T., 844
Granovetter, M., 89
gratifications. See uses and gratifications
Grayson, Alan, 213
The Great Debates: Kennedy vs. Nixon (Kraus), 6, 23, 166
The Greatest Generation (Brokaw), 223
Green, D. P., 73, 507, 508
on interdependence, 699
Green Day, 886
Greenwald, A., 653
Gregory, S. W., Jr., 169
Griffin, D. W., 705
Groeling, T. J., 76
on foreign policy, 317
Groseclose, T., 72–73, 75–76
on media bias, 409, 410
Gross, A. E., 507
Gross, K.
on affective framing, 668
on foreign policy, 322
Gross, L., 31–32
cultivation theory and, 595–601
on risk exposure inequality, 489
gross rating points (GRPs), 73
groups. See also collective intelligence
closeness in, 458
condemnation in, 459
emotion of, 457–59, 671
framing in, 454–57
perceptions of, 452–54
political communication and, 451–60
power in, 731–42
priming in, 452, 454–57
stereotypes of, 453–54, 455
Guantanamo Bay, 317
Guardian, 340
Gulati, G. J., 185
Gulliver, L., 100
gun control, 254
Gunther, A. C., 551
Guo, L., 641
Gurevitch, M., 8, 22, 52
on CPCR, 287
Gussin, P., 552
Gutmann, A., 211
(p. 933) Habermas, J., 86, 90, 91n2, 91n5
on deliberative democracy, 732, 837, 844
Habermeier, J., 370
Hacker, J. S., 483, 487
Hackett, R., 406
Hagen, M. G., 35, 73
on advertising, 149
on character traits, 442
Hahn, K. S., 385
on Fox News, 797
Halbwach, M., 220–21
Hallin, D. C., 51–52
on CPCR, 288, 290–91
on deliberative democracy, 90
on sound bites, 253
on war coverage, 318–19
Halperin, E., 671
Halverson, S. R., 304
Hamidi, C., 754, 756
Hamilton, J. T., 409–10, 819n1
Hammond, Darrell, 173
Hampton, K., 88, 89
on entertainment, 854
Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the World (Strömback and Kaid), 291–92
Handbook of Political Communication Research (Kaid), 852
The Handbook of Rhetorical and Communication Theory (Arnold and Bowers), 26
Hanitzsch, T., 291, 293
Hankyoreh, 365
Hansen, G. J., 199
hard news, 116, 819n1, 863n4
by newspapers, 585
public-service model and, 292
Hardy, B., 37n10, 683
on advertising, 149
on character traits, 442–43
on horse-race schema, 600
on social networks, 690, 691
Harp, D., 840
Hart, Gary, 383, 570
Hart, R., 110, 125, 885, 886, 891
on partisanship, 139–40
Hart, W. D., 540
Haskins, E., 227
Hastall, M. R., 423
“Hate Song” (Party), 888
Hauser, R. M., 698
Hayes, A. F., 520
on SoS, 767
health-care, 77–78
inequality in, 488–89
Hebb, D. O., 651
Hebert, M., 320
Heckler, M., 488
Help America Vote Act of 2002, 180
Helsingin Sanomat, 113
Hemmer, K., 199
Herman, E. S., 406
Herrera, R., 137
Hess, V. K., 856, 878
heterophilous talk, 89
Heyse, A., 227
Higgins, M., 112–13
on agenda setting, 636
hijacking history, 224
Hill, R., 685
Hill, S. J., 74
on advertising, 150
Hill, T. G., 857
Hillygus, D. S., 170–71, 172
on direct mail, 183
on niche communication, 189
Hindman, M., 268
on knowledge gap, 524
Hinkley, B., 25
History and Criticism of American Public Address (Burke and Hochmuth), 25
Hitler, Adolf, 319, 885, 888
Hively, M. H., 723
Hmielowski, J. D., 879–80
Hobbes, Thomas, 684, 875
Hobsbawm, E. J., 222
Hochheimer, J., 29
Hochmuth, M., 25
Hoffman, L. H., 856
Hofstadter, R., 306
Holbert, R. L., 3
on crime, 599
on entertainment, 853, 857
on narrowcasting, 800, 802
(p. 934) on political communication uses and gratifications, 606
on political humor, 877–80
on political knowledge, 520, 524
on selective exposure, 540
Holbrook, R. A., 857
Holbrook, T., 170
Holian, D. B., 361
Holiday, Billie, 886
Hollander, B. A., 856
Holmes, J. W., 125
Holocaust, 111
Holtz-Bacha, C., 289
Homer, P. M., 419
homophilous talk, 88, 91n5
Horatio, 874
Hornsey, J., 552
horse-race schema, 199–201, 379–85
cultivation theory and, 600
Hoskins, A., 308
hostile media effect, 549–60
biased news and, 556–58
cognitive dissonance and, 558–59
democracy and, 553–56
journalism and, 554–55
message-processing mechanisms of, 551
partisanship and, 550–51, 557–58
perceived reach and, 552–53
polarization and, 557
public opinion and, 554
reduced perception of, 556
selective exposure and, 558–59
source heuristics and, 551–52
hostile media perceptions (HMPs), 565, 566, 573–75
major findings on, 567–70, 568t
Hotelling, H., 813
Houston, D. A., 155
Hovland, C., 21, 26
on agenda setting, 640
on minimal effects model, 32
on persuasion, 60–61
on source credibility, 417–18
Hu, Y.-W., 419
Huber, G. A., 456–57, 460n1
Huck, I., 569–70
Huckfeldt, R., 428
on deliberative democracy, 734
on interdependence, 700
on social networks, 687, 689–90
Huffington Post, 167
uses and gratifications from, 612
Huge, M., 553
Hull, C. C., 187
humor. See political humor
Hurricane Katrina, 226, 310
Hussein, Saddam, 111, 319, 802
Hutchings, V. L., 458
hybrid field, for political communication, 5–7, 15–36
Hymes, D. H., 477n1
hyperpersonalization
democracy and, 799–801
narrowcasting and, 798–99
illegal immigrants, 114
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 656–57, 666
implicit-explicit model (IE), 456–57, 649, 656
dual-attitude perspective and, 653
implicit political attitudes, 649–59
for attractiveness, 654–56
defined, 653
research and measurement of, 656–58
thresholds of awareness and, 650–53
Improvised News: A Sociological Study of Rumor (Shibutani), 23
inadvertent audience, 64–65
incidental exposure, 540–41
incivility. See civility/incivility
incongruity theory, 875, 878
independent voters, 86, 88
indexing, 302
Bennett and, 51
cascade network activation model and, 317
in journalism, 250–53
(p. 935) Index on Censorship, 888
inequality
in education, 490–91
environmental, 492
framing of, 487–93
in health-care, 488–89
in public policy, 483–93
racial, 489–90
in risk exposure, 489
Infernal Noise Brigade, 890
informant expertise, 703
information and communications technologies (ICTs), 325, 837–46
“Information Flow and Stability of Partisan Attitudes” (Converse), 6
information overload, 471–72
information processing, 451–60
infotainment, 582
political knowledge from, 855
political trust in, 586
terrorism and, 305
Infotopia (Sunstein), 779
Inglehart, R., 638
Inspectors General Act of 1978, 101
integrative complexity coding system, 139
interdependence
contextual analysis of, 698
new platforms for, 705–7
partisanship and, 699
in political communication, 695–707
social interaction effects and, 700–701
in socialization, 473–74
socially contingent behavior and, 699–701
social networks and, 701–5
internal pluralism, 104
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 252
International Communication Association (ICA), 4–5
Internet
accessibility to, 185, 420
advertising on, 510
in China, 240
deliberative democracy on, 837–46
entertainment on, 853
gatekeeping and, 351, 354
gender and, 840
journalism and, 267–68
net neutrality for, 492
newspapers on, 829
for niche communication, 184–86
polarization and, 842, 845
political campaigns and, 824–25
political knowledge and, 839–42
public-service model and, 340–41
race and, 840
salience and, 814–17
selective exposure on, 540, 809–19, 814f, 816t, 817t, 818t
source credibility and, 419–21
intramedia interaction, 520, 524–25
Iranian Revolution, 687
Iraq War, 76, 304, 323
Bush and, 252, 321
Fox News on, 309
news coverage of, 319
New York Times and, 370
public opinion of, 321
weapons of mass destruction and, 252
irony, 873–74
on The Colbert Report, 878
Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues (Iyengar), 7, 27
Iskandar, A., 309, 310
Islam, 113
Israel, 571
issue and campaign awareness, 155
issue ownership
advertising and, 154
partisanship and, 140
Iyengar, S., 6, 7, 27, 37n6, 470
on advertising, 154
on agenda setting, 61
on CPCR, 292
on crises, 310
on Fox News, 797
on game schema, 385
on local public affairs coverage, 184
on minimal effects model, 32
on narrowcasting, 798
on negative advertising, 502
on political communication uses and gratifications, 606
(p. 936) on political trust, 588–89
on priming, 624
on selective exposure, 535, 540
on source credibility, 418–19
on structural biases, 405
on voter turnout, 150
Jackman, S., 170–71, 172
Jackson, D. J., 855
Jacobs, L. R., 88, 89
Jameson, J. K., 115–16
on political trust, 584
Jamieson, K. H., 7, 25, 37n10, 73, 683
on advertising, 147–48, 149, 152
on character traits, 442–43
on civility, 213
on collective intelligence, 787
on crime, 597
on debates, 170, 172
on entertainment, 855
on game schema, 382, 385
on group priming, 456
on hard news, 863n4
on horse-race schema, 600
on minimal effects model, 35
on negativity of media, 411
on presidential address, 123, 129n1
on social networks, 691
Jamison, A. S., 855
Janis, I., 32
on agenda setting, 640
Jarvis, S. E., 140
Al-Jazeera, 325, 663
Jefferson, Thomas, 210–11
on freedom of the press, 239
Jenkins, P., 308
Jennings, M. K., 698
Jeppeson, M. S., 225
John, R., 266
John, S. L., 111
John and Mary R. Markle Foundation, 7
Johnson, B., 891
Johnson, Lyndon, 397
Johnson, M., 537
Johnson, S., 112
Johnson, T. J., 424
Johnston, A.
on advertising, 149
on emotion, 667
Johnston, R., 35, 73
on character traits, 442
Jones, B. D., 483
Jones, J. P., 880
Jones, T. M., 111
Joongang, 365
Joseph, L., 751
journalism. See also freedom of the press
audience self-selection bias for, 257, 258–59
in changing democratic context, 99–102
CPCR on, 293–94
in democracy, 95–105
democracy-relevance of, 102–5
democratization of truth and, 256–58
economic crisis in, 264–65
as Fourth Estate, 264
freedom of the press for, 102, 237–47
functions of, 97–98, 110
government and, 249–60
government subsidies for, 266, 269–71, 272n7
hostile media effect and, 554–55
indexing in, 250–53
Internet and, 267–68
memory and, 225–27
military and, 320
narrative-driven news in, 253–56
nativist agendas and, 112–13
norms and traditions of, 368–69
objectivity in, 104, 110, 404–5
pack, 364
passivity in, 256–58
as political institutions, 263–71
presentistic orientation of, 116–17
professionalism in, 104
proletarian attitudes and, 115–16
PR replacement of, 265–66
public diplomacy by, 112
as public good, 269–70
public-service model and, 333–42
as Second Legislature, 109–18
traditionalist values and, 114–15
truth standard in, 255
watchdog, 404
(p. 937) The Journalism of Outrage, 282–83
The Journal of Communication, 6, 18, 23
framing in, 619
Journal of Public Deliberation, 733
Judeo-Christian, 116
Just, M., 25
Juvenal, 874
Kadushin, C., 691
Kahne, J., 474
Kahneman, D., 63
on framing, 620–21
Kaid, L. L., 152, 852
on agenda setting, 365
on blog credibility, 423
on CPCR, 291–92
on emotion, 667
on selective exposure, 812
Kant, Immanuel, 875
Kaplan, E., 70–71, 75–76
on local public affairs coverage, 279
Kaplan, N., 154
Karlan, D., 281–82
Kateb, G., 99, 105n2
Katriel, T., 726
Katz, E., 6, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 683
on crises, 310
on minimal effects model, 27, 30
on political communication uses and gratifications, 609
on social networks, 684–86, 689
on sociology, 22
Kaye, B. K., 424
Keane, J., 100–101
Keating, J. P., 507
Kelley, H., 32
on agenda setting, 640
Kennedy, John F., 19, 396
in debates, 23, 166
public opinion polling for, 397, 398
Kennedy, R., 212
Kennedy, Robert, 784
Kenski, H., 32–33
Kenski, K., 37n10, 683
on advertising, 149, 156
on character traits, 443
on civility, 206, 207
on debates, 169–70
on radio niche communication, 188
on social networks, 691
Kepplinger, H. M., 167
on agenda setting, 370
Kernell, S., 122–23
Kerry, John
character traits of, 442–43, 443f
in debates, 167
direct mail by, 183, 190
emotion toward, 637
game schema and, 383
Kettering Foundation, 735
Key, V. O., 20
Key, V. O., Jr., 697
Kielbowicz, R. B., 266
Kim, J., 85, 304, 320
Kim, J. W., 782
Kim, K., 641
Kim, K. S., 555
Kim, Y. M., 533
Kinder, D., 27, 37n6
on agenda setting, 61
on character traits, 439–40
on emotion, 671
on minimal effects model, 32
on priming, 624
on racial inequality, 490
King, G., 15, 35
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 209, 225
Kingdon, J. W., 686, 688
Kingsbury, F. A., 438
Kiousis, S., 635, 643
Kitch, C., 226
Klapper, J., 6, 16, 29, 451–52, 811
Klein, N., 305
Klotz, R. J., 185
Knesset, 571
Knobloch-Westerwick, S., 371
on narrowcasting, 800
on Wikipedia, 423
Knower, F., 32
knowledge. See political knowledge
knowledge gap hypothesis, 519, 524
Knowledge Networks (KN), 171, 819n4
Knowledge Structure Density (KSD), 722
Köcher, R., 288
Koehn, J. P., 117
Koestler, A., 875
Kohler, C., 420
Kohn, M., 87
Kosovo, 111
Kovach, B., 95–96
Koveneva, O., 757–58
Kramer, G. H., 20
Kraus, S., 6, 23, 28–29, 166
Kraut, R. E., 853
Krosnick, J. A., 419
Kruglanski, A. W., 533
Krupnikov, Y., 151
Ku, G., 365
Kucinich, Dennis, 201
Kuhn, D., 780
Kuklinski, J. H., 74
on selective exposure, 537
Kunda, Z., 532–33
Kuo, S., 114
Kwak, N., 520
on collective intelligence, 785
on crime, 599
on entertainment, 853
laboratory studies, on selective exposure, 537
Ladd, J. M., 70, 71, 674n13
Laing, D., 888
Lamarre, H. L., 878
Landemore, H., 780
Landreville, K. D., 877–78
Landrieu, M., 213
Lang, G., 6
on minimal effects model, 30
on sociology, 22–23
Lang, K., 6
on minimal effects model, 30
on sociology, 22–23
Langdon, K. P., 700
Langlois, J., 655
The Language of Politics (Lasswell), 24
Lapinski, J. S., 456–57, 460n1
Larimer, C. W., 507
LaRose, R., 608, 856
Larsen, O. N., 685
Larson, S. G., 380
Lasora, D. L., 770
Lasswell, H., 3, 23–24, 36n3, 451, 859
on deliberative democracy, 837
on face-to-face canvassing, 182
on game schema, 386
on political communication, 48
latent opinion, 899
late-term abortion, 111–12
Latour, B., 758
Lau, R. R., 154
on political trust, 583–84
Lawrence, A., 505
Lawrence, R., 369
Lawrence, R. G., 254
Lawson, L., 267
Lawson, N., 342
Lawton, D., 147
lay epistemics, theory of, 533
Layman, G., 78
Lazarsfeld, P., 3, 7, 16, 18, 22, 683, 859
on agenda setting, 636
on cross-pressure, 89
on deliberative democracy, 87–88, 90
on interdependence, 695, 707
on minimal effects model, 30, 32, 35
on political communication uses and gratifications, 609
on selective exposure, 531, 811
on social networks, 684–86, 689
League of Women Voters, 166
Lecheler, S., 294
Lee, D., 342
Lee, F., 386
Lee, G., 542
Lee, H., 785
Lee, J.
on agenda setting, 638–39
on political humor, 879–80
Lee, N., 473
Left Turn: How Liberal Media Distorts the American Mind (Groseclose), 72
Leitner, D. W., 598
Leland, C. M., 152
Lemann, N., 97
(p. 939) Lemay, C. L., 166
Lenart, S., 856–57
Lendler, M., 212
Leno, Jay, 872
Lenz, G. S., 70, 71, 78–79, 674n13
Lepper, M. R., 549
Lerner, D., 23–24
Letterman, David, 872
Levinson, P., 351–52
Levitan, L. C., 706
Levy, 383
Levy, M. R., 688
Lewin, K., 347–48, 351, 354n1
Lewinsky, Monica, 116
Clinton, B., and, 80
Lewis, C. W., 100–101
liberal bias, 407–9
Liber Urbani (Daniel of Beccles), 207
Lichter, L. S., 407
Lichter, S. R., 407
Liebes, T., 22
Liebhart, J. L., 551
Lijphart, A., 288
Limbaugh, Rush, 254
Lin, M., 224
Lin, W., 37n9
Lincoln Memorial, 223
Linenthal, E. T., 224
Lippmann, W., 85–86
on agenda setting, 633
on democratization of truth, 256
on game schema, 378
Listhaug, O., 583–84
literary theory, on crises, 302–3
Little, Rich, 873
Livingston, S., 304, 320
on agenda setting, 369
“Living with Television” (Gerbner and Gross), 596
Llamas, P., 636
Lloyd, M., 266
local public affairs coverage, 275–85
closure of media outlets for, 280–81
conservative bias in, 406–7
on crime, 597–98
field experiments and new information bundles for, 281–84
introduction of media technologies to, 278–79
lab experiments on, 284
political accountability in, 898
Locke, John, 238
Lodge, M., 657
Loftus, E. F., 623
long-term memory (LTM), 651–52
sequential priming and, 657
Lopez-Escobar, E., 364–65
on agenda setting, 636
Los Angeles Times, 114
on character traits, 442–43
Lowry, D. T., 598
Luhtakallio, E., 753, 759
Lule, J., 226
Lumsdaine, A., 32
Lundy, 569
Luntz, F., 255
Luther, Martin, 210
Lynch, M., 555
Maccoby, N., 640
MacKuen, M., 673
Madison, James, 99, 581
Madoff, Bernard, 257
Maher, Bill, 872
Mahler, M., 757–58
mainstreaming, 596
Making Democracy Work (Putnam), 892
Malanchuk, O., 440
Mancini, P., 51–52
on CPCR, 290–91
on deliberative democracy, 90
Manheim, J. B.
on social networks, 685, 686
on strategic communications, 50
Manin, B., 53, 100–101
on political accountability, 905
Manjoo, F., 182–83
Mansbridge, J., 752
Manski, C., 905
Manual of Parliamentary Practice (Jefferson), 210–11
Marcus, G., 664, 672, 673, 674n13
Mardenfeld, S., 810
(p. 940) market censorship, 103
Marshall, Gary, 851
Martin, P. S., 684
on selective exposure, 535
Martin, R. W. T., 266
Martin, S. E., 636
Martins, A., 294
mass self-communication, 589
Masters, R. D., 668
Mathes, R., 365
Mattes, K., 674n13
Matthes, J., 634
on opinion climate, 770
on SoS, 767
Mazzoleni, G., 50
McCain, John, 37n10, 62
Abu Ghraib and, 252
advertising for, 149
character traits of, 437, 444, 445f, 446f, 447
in debates, 165, 167
game schema and, 380
new media and, 830
McCarthyism, 7
McChesney, R. W., 266, 267
on conservative bias, 406
McClure, R., 7, 21
on game schema, 379
on minimal effects model, 34
McClurg, S. D., 684
McCombs, M., 6, 28
on agenda setting, 61, 361, 363, 365, 623, 633, 636, 641, 643
on minimal effects model, 29, 31
on political communication uses and gratifications, 609
McCroskey, J. C., 418
McCubbins, M. D., 903
McDonald, K., 890
McGovern, George, 379
McGraw, K. M., 856–57
McGuire, W., 21
on minimal effects model, 32–33
on persuasion, 60
McGuire, W. J.
on agenda setting, 643
on political communication uses and gratifications, 607
McKinley, William, 395
McKinney, M. S., 168
McLeod, J., 6
on minimal effects model, 29, 34
on socialization, 473, 474
McMillan, J., 175
McQuail, D., 21, 28
on CPCR, 291
on game schema, 379
on minimal effects model, 33–34
on public-service model, 335–38
McVeigh, Timothy, 307
mean world syndrome, 596, 597
Medhurst, M. J., 303
Media Agenda-Setting in a Presidential Election (Weaver, Graber, McCombs, and Eyal), 6
The Media and Democracy (Keane), 101
media bias, 403–13
economic models of, 409–10
liberal, 407–9
of negativity, 410–12
objectivity and, 404–5
partisanship and, 408–9
structural, 405
media effects. See also framing; hostile media effect; minimal effects model; priming
agenda setting as, 61–63
changes to, 64–65
cultivation theory and, 623
entertainment and, 862–63
of game schema, 383–85
inadvertent audience and, 64–65
narrowcasting and, 801–2
of persuasion, 60–61
political knowledge and, 517, 518
political trust and, 588–89
selective exposure and, 65
SoS and, 623, 768
typology of, 59–66
Media Events (Katz and Dayan), 22, 23
media salacity, 571
Mediated Political Realities (Nimmo and Combs), 25
(p. 941) Mediating the Message (Shoemaker and Reese), 359
mediatization, 50, 572
systems approach to, 55
Meek, A., 308, 310
Meet the Press, 901
Meetup.com, 191n9
Meffert, M. F., 539
Meirick, P., 151
memory
defined, 220–21
disciplinary politics of, 221–22
journalism and, 225–27
methodological politics of, 222–28
political communication and, 219–29
public, 222
theoretical politics of, 222–28
Mendelberg, T., 91n3, 456–57, 460n1
Mendelsohn, H., 34
Mendez, J. M., 689–90
Menefree, S., 136
Meng, J., 800
Meraz, S., 366
Mercier, H., 780
Meredith, M., 654
Merton, R. K., 90
message learning theory, 60
Messner, M., 423
meta-analyses, 3
on cultivation theory, 595
for debates, 169
for facial attractiveness, 654
on SoS, 766
methodological politics, 222–28
Metzger, M. J., 425
on narrowcasting, 795, 798, 801
Meyerhoffer, E., 53
Michel, N., 223–24
Michigan tradition, minimal effects model in, 19–21
Middaugh, E., 474
Milburn, T., 757
military. See also war
journalism and, 320
Mill, John Stuart, 211–12
Miller, A., 31
Miller, A. H., 583–84
Miller, D. C., 685
Miller, G., 37n8
Miller, J. M., 419
on agenda setting, 637
Miller, N., 551
Miller, W., 7
Miller, W. E., 441
on character traits, 440
on interdependence, 698
The Miller’s Tale (Chaucer), 206
Milner, Y., 268
Milyo, J., 72, 75–76
on media bias, 409, 410
minimal effects model
challenges to, 29–35
Katz on, 27
in Michigan tradition, 19–21
origins of, 17–19
in psychology, 21
Minow, N. N., 166
Minturn, L., 621, 625
Mirabile, R. R., 706
Mische, A., 753
Mishler, W., 590
misinformation, 257, 471–72
Mitchell, W. J. T., 304
Miyo, Y., 812
A Modest Proposal (Swift), 873
Modigliani, A., 622
Mohammed (Prophet), 112
Mondak, J. J., 281
on disagreement, 720
on selective exposure, 540
on social networks, 687
Mondale, Walter, 887
monitory democracy, 100
Montesquieu, Baron de, 238
mood, 665, 674n6
Moore, Michael, 812, 857
Moors, A., 656
morality, SoS and, 769
More, Thomas, 210
Morgan, B., 187
(p. 942) Morgan, M., 786
cultivation theory and, 595
Moring, T., 53
Morris, J. S., 810
on entertainment, 856
on political humor, 875
Morrison, K. R., 770
motivated reasoning, theory of, 532–33
Moy, P., 856, 878
MSNBC
civility on, 213
hostile media effect and, 555
on Obama, 408
selective exposure and, 814, 816, 817t
source credibility of, 425
Mubarak, Hosni, 565
Mueller, J., 318, 322
Mullainathan, S., 410, 505
Murata, K., 112
Murdoch, James, 333, 338
Murdoch, Rupert, 335, 601
Murphy, C., 537
music
emotion in, 891–92
freedom of speech for, 891
ideology in, 890–91
national anthems, 889–90
in political campaigns, 885, 887
as political communication, 885–94
power of, 891
as propaganda, 887–88
as protest, 886–87
as resistance, 888–89
A Music Manifesto for Scotland, 893
Mutz, D., 88–89, 684
on agenda setting, 638
on civility, 208, 212
on deliberative democracy, 734–35
on disagreement, 720, 722
on selective exposure, 535
MySpace, 472, 574
The Myth of Digital Democracy (Hindman), 268
“The Myth of Massive Media Impact Revived: New Support for a Discredited Idea” (Zaller), 33
Nabi, R. L., 598–99
Nacos, B. L., 305
Napoli, P. M., 804
narrative-driven news, 253–56
narrowcasting, 126, 795–806
advertising in, 798
democracy and, 799–801
gatekeeping and, 799
hyperpersonalization and, 798–99
media content of, 796–98
media effects and, 801–2
polarization and, 806n3
research findings on, 799–802
selective exposure and, 797–98
trust and, 421
National Air and Space Museum, 224
National Annenberg Election Study (NAES), 35, 149, 150, 810
on character traits, 443
on debates, 169–70, 171
national anthems, 889–90
National Civil Rights Museum, 225
National Communication Association (NCA), 4–5
National Environmental Policy Act, 102
National Issues Forum, 735
National Public Radio, 103, 902
National Science Foundation, 7
National Task Force on the Theory and Practice of the Rhetorical Presidency, 122
nativist agendas, 112–13
Natural Language Processing, 842
el-Nawawy, M., 310
Nazi propaganda, 3, 36n4
group emotion and, 459
group perceptions of, 452
NBC
crisis reporting by, 307
reduced audience of, 797
Total News Consumption at, 901
(p. 943) needs
for cognition, advertising and, 155–56
in political communication uses and gratifications, 609–10
negative advertising, 148, 156–57. See also attack advertising
bias for, 154
cynicism from, 151
studies on, 502
voter turnout and, 672
negative bias, with advertising, 154
negativity
cynicism from, 584
group emotion and, 459
media bias of, 410–12
political knowledge and, 518
political trust and, 584, 586
selective exposure and, 539
Negroponte, N., 798
Neidhardt, F., 91n5
Nelson, T. E., 418–19, 684
net neutrality, 492
Neuman, W. R., 25, 673
The New American Voter (Miller, W. E. and Shanks), 441
new institutionalism, 251
Newman, Randy, 890
new media. See also blogs; Internet; social media
audience for, 830–31
Bush and, 830
Clinton, B., and, 823, 830
convergence with, 829
effects in elections, 831
McCain and, 830
Obama and, 827, 830
political accountability and, 898–907
political campaigns and, 823–33, 825f
research findings on, 828–32
Tea Party and, 826
uses and gratifications in, 831
The New Rhetoric (Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca), 25
news junkies, 605
bias of, 904–7
partisanship of, 280, 906–7
political accountability and, 902–7
political knowledge of, 898
news media. See journalism
News of the World, 115
Newspaper Act of 1912, 267
newspapers, 35, 277–82
agenda setting by, 421
audience of, 71
government subsidy of, 103
hard news by, 585
on Internet, 829
Jefferson on, 239
KN and, 171
op-ed pages in, 98
political knowledge from, 281
source credibility of, 421
treatment on treated with, 71
News: The Politics of Illusion (Bennett), 25
News That Matters, 32, 37n6
Newsvine, 351
Newsweek, 624
newsworthiness, 669
New York Times, 113
agenda setting of, 361, 363–64, 366
blogs of, 366
on collective intelligence, 778
functional theory of political campaign communication and, 199
gatekeeping and, 351, 352
on global warming, 255
Iraq War and, 370
local public affairs coverage in, 280
niche communication, 179–91
background of, 180
direct mail for, 183–84
e-mail for, 183–84
face-to-face canvassing as, 181–82
of Fox News, 65
Internet for, 184–86
political trust and, 588
radio for, 187–88
social media for, 186–87
state of field of, 180–81
telephone for, 182–83
texting for, 182–83
Nicholas, D., 361
(p. 944) Nichols, J., 266
Nickerson, D., 699
Nie, N. H., 20–21, 470, 853
Niemi, R. G.
on interdependence, 698
on political trust, 583–84
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 886, 890
Nightly Horrors: Crisis Coverage by Television Network News (Nimmo and Combs), 307
Nimmo, D., 25
on crises, 307
9/11, 75
agenda setting and, 370
Bush and, 111, 195, 318
Gore and, 195
Islam and, 113
public support for war after, 315
TBM for, 227
Nineteen Eighty-Four (Orwell), 888
Nio, T. C., 598
Nir, L.
on disagreement, 723
on social networks, 690
Nisbett, G. S., 151
Niven, D., 408
Nixon, Richard
agenda setting of, 361
in debates, 23, 166
game schema and, 379
public opinion polling for, 397, 398
Watergate and, 80
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLB), 490–91
Noelle-Neumann, E., 6, 18
on deliberative democracy, 88, 89
on SoS, 765–72
on TPP, 570
nonverbal framing, 626–29, 628f
Nora, P., 220, 221–22
Norpoth, H., 385
Norris, P., 288, 289, 296
on entertainment, 863n2
on negativity of media, 411
No Spin Zone, 873, 881
Noticeable Reminder Theory, 182
Nussbaum, M., 891–92
Obama, Barack, 37n10, 62, 114, 651
advertising for, 149
bin Laden and, 377
birthplace of, 249, 253, 254, 259, 827
character traits of, 444, 445f, 446f, 447
in debates, 165, 168
e-mail by, 183
Facebook and, 186
financial firms and, 257
game schema and, 380, 384
group perceptions of, 454
Guantanamo Bay and, 317
MSNBC on, 408
new media and, 827, 830
nonverbal framing of, 627–28
political trust and, 581–82
presidential address by, 126
public opinion and, 565
sequential priming for,