- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- Communication Modalities and Political Knowledge
- Selective Exposure Theories
- The Hostile Media Effect
- Public and Elite Perceptions of News Media in Politics
- The Media and the Fostering of Political (Dis)Trust
- Cultivation Theory and the Construction of Political Reality
- Uses and Gratifications
- The State of Framing Research: A Call for New Directions
- Agenda-Setting Theory: The Frontier Research Questions
- Implicit Political Attitudes: When, How, Why, With What Effects?
- Affect and Political Choice
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
Cultivation theory hypothesizes that over time, heavy television viewers will see the world through TV’s lens. A review of nearly 1,000 media effects articles from sixteen major journals (1993–2005) identified cultivation theory as the most frequently cited communication theory. Despite the controversies it has elicited, a meta-analysis found small but consistent effects in line with the theory. This chapter identifies six broad political effects cultivation theorists attribute to heavy viewing of television or specific genres of television content: increased fear of crime and identification of crime as a significant problem, activation of racialized perceptions, support for punitive policies and embrace of protective behaviors, identification as a political moderate, reduction in social trust and capital in adolescents, and activation of cynicism and depressed learning in political campaigns.
Patrick E. Jamieson (Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania) directs the Annenberg Public Policy Center’s Coding of Health and Media Project (CHAMP), a cross-time content analysis of filmic, televised, and internet portrayal of risk behaviors such as violence, tobacco, suicide and gun violence. He also designs and analyzes theoretically informed survey research on adolescent risk behavior.
Daniel Romer, Ph.D., is the Director of the Adolescent and Health Communication Institutes at the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on social influences on the mental and behavioral health of adolescents.
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