- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
Journalism serves multiple democratic functions identified here as information, investigation, analysis, social empathy, public forum, mobilization, and democratic education. All help make representative democracy a better system than direct democracy and not just an attenuated direct democracy. New thinking in political theory emphasizes this and insists that the agents of representation in modern democracy are not just legislatures but a wide variety of civil society monitors of government, including of course the press, whose role in defining contemporary democracy deserves more attention in the effort to place the news media’s democratic role in perspective. Within this framework, an attempt is made to outline criteria for assessing the adequacy of the news media for serving democracy. These include not only the much studied and counted legal and political guarantees of freedom but also journalistic professionalism and values, diversity of perspectives available in the news system, and access to government information.
Michael Schudson (Ph.D., Harvard University) is Professor of Journalism at the Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia University and Emeritus Professor, University of California, San Diego. A sociologist by training and a historian by methodological inclination, he has published widely on the history and sociology of U.S. journalism, media, politics, and culture. His book, Opening Up: Where Transparency Came From, 1945-75, is under contract with Harvard University Press with publication expected in 2015.
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