- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- Communication Modalities and Political Knowledge
- Selective Exposure Theories
- The Hostile Media Effect
- Public and Elite Perceptions of News Media in Politics
- The Media and the Fostering of Political (Dis)Trust
- Cultivation Theory and the Construction of Political Reality
- Uses and Gratifications
- The State of Framing Research: A Call for New Directions
- Agenda-Setting Theory: The Frontier Research Questions
- Implicit Political Attitudes: When, How, Why, With What Effects?
- Affect and Political Choice
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews recent work on implicit political attitudes, detailing how, when, and why unconscious processes impact the explicit expression of political beliefs, attitudes, and preferences. The authors begin by discussing thresholds of awareness, defining implicit attitudes and how the circumstances under which they reach conscious awareness. The ubiquity of unconscious effects in everyday life is considered, and two research paradigms for measuring implicit attitudes are discussed. The resulting dual-process model, in which influences can be either conscious or subconscious, allows us to understand how sensory input works its way through the mind to influence attitudes and behaviors in ways that are rarely evident to the individual. These influences often include factors that the individual would never consider as being important, but nevertheless hold enormous power over effortful decision-making.
Dan Cassino (Ph.D., Political Science, Stony Brook University) is an Associate Professor of Political Science at Fairleigh Dickinson University in Madison, New Jersey, as well as the Director of Experimental Research for the Public Mind Poll. He conducts research in in American politics, institutions (Congress and Presidency), youth politics, and political psychology and is the author of Consuming Politics: Jon Stewart, Branding and the Youth Vote in America.
Milton Lodge (Ph.D., University of Michigan) is a Distinguished University Professor of Political Science and Co-Director (with Charles Taber) of the Laboratory for Experimental Research at Stony Brook University. He is the author of numerous articles and books on political cognition.
Charles S. Taber (Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is a Professor of Political Science, Dean of the Graduate School, Vice Provost of Graduate Education at Stony Brook University. His research interests include political psychology and public opinion, international relations and foreign policy decision-making, and computational models of political cognition. Most recently, Taber has worked on emotions and political information processing, the formation and updating of preferences, and psychological reactions to terrorism, race, and immigration. Taber’s recent articles have appeared in The American Political Science Review, The American Journal of Political Science, Political Psychology, and Political Analysis.
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