- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- Communication Modalities and Political Knowledge
- Selective Exposure Theories
- The Hostile Media Effect
- Public and Elite Perceptions of News Media in Politics
- The Media and the Fostering of Political (Dis)Trust
- Cultivation Theory and the Construction of Political Reality
- Uses and Gratifications
- The State of Framing Research: A Call for New Directions
- Agenda-Setting Theory: The Frontier Research Questions
- Implicit Political Attitudes: When, How, Why, With What Effects?
- Affect and Political Choice
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter provides an assessment of the state of research on framing, and examines how the concept of framing has been used across different disciplines. Using this overview, the authors explore two of the most common conceptual misunderstandings related to framing and their implications for political communication research. This includes an overview of the different approaches to framing in political communication research, more specifically, and of the relationship between framing and related effects models, such as priming and agenda setting. The authors conclude with a recommendation that framing research be redirected away from confounded “emphasis frames” toward “equivalence frames” in the original tradition by expanding the sample of potential frames to include nonverbal visual cues.
Dietram A. Scheufele is the John E. Ross Professor in Science Communication and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and in the Morgridge Institute for Research. His research deals with the interface of media, policy and public opinion.
Shanto Iyengar (Ph.D., University of Iowa) is the Chandler Professor of Communication and Professor of Political Science at Stanford University. His areas of interest include mass communication, political psychology, and mass political behavior.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.