- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter introduces the tenets of spiral of silence theory as a theory of group dynamics as it relates to the interplay among the media, interpersonal talk, and political discussion. After reviewing some of the findings related to its key propositions, its applicability to modern political communication and mass media research is questioned and fine-tuned. An argument is made that future researchers should abandoned the quest for evidence whether public opinion expression is guided by perceptions of the opinion climate, especially using ad hoc measures that have not been validated. Rather attention should be directed toward examining the role of social pressures in motivating information seeking about the opinion climate and how individual differences such as fear of isolation, attitude certainty, and moral conviction can influence the effect of those perceptions on publicly-observable political behavior.
Andrew F. Hayes (PhD, Cornell University) is a Professor in the Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University. He conducts research on public opinion, censorship, and statistical methods.
Jörg Matthes (PhD, University of Zurich) is professor at the Department of Communication, University of Vienna, Austria. His research focuses on the process of public opinion formation, media effects, trust in news media, and empirical methods.
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