- The Oxford Handbook of Political Communication
- Political Communication: Then, Now, and Beyond
- Creating the Hybrid Field of Political Communication: A Five-Decade-Long Evolution of the Concept of Effects
- The Shape of Political Communication
- A Typology of Media Effects
- The Power of Political Communication
- Nowhere to Go: Some Dilemmas of Deliberative Democracy
- How to Think Normatively About News and Democracy
- Not a Fourth Estate but a Second Legislature
- Presidential Address
- Political Messages and Partisanship
- Political Advertising
- Political Campaign Debates
- Niche Communication in Political Campaigns
- The Functional Theory of Political Campaign Communication
- The Political Uses and Abuses of Civility and Incivility
- The Politics of Memory
- Freedom of the Press: Theories and Realities
- Press–Government Relations in a Changing Media Environment
- News Media as Political Institutions
- Measuring Spillovers in Markets for Local Public Affairs Coverage
- Comparative Political Communication Research
- Media Responsiveness in Times of Crisis
- The US Media, Foreign Policy, and Public Support for War
- Journalism and the Public-Service Model: In Search of an Ideal
- The Gatekeeping of Political Messages
- The Media Agenda: Who (or What) Sets It?
- Game versus Substance in Political News
- Going Institutional: The Making of Political Communications
- Theories of Media Bias
- Digital Media and Perceptions of Source Credibility in Political Communication
- Candidate Traits and Political Choice
- Political Communication, Information Processing, and Social Groups
- Civic Norms and Communication Competence: Pathways to Socialization and Citizenship
- Framing Inequality in Public Policy Discourse: The Nature of Constraint
- Political Communication: Insights from Field Experiments
- Communication Modalities and Political Knowledge
- Selective Exposure Theories
- The Hostile Media Effect
- Public and Elite Perceptions of News Media in Politics
- The Media and the Fostering of Political (Dis)Trust
- Cultivation Theory and the Construction of Political Reality
- Uses and Gratifications
- The State of Framing Research: A Call for New Directions
- Agenda-Setting Theory: The Frontier Research Questions
- Implicit Political Attitudes: When, How, Why, With What Effects?
- Affect and Political Choice
- Two-Step Flow, Diffusion, and the Role of Social Networks in Political Communication
- Taking Interdependence Seriously: Platforms for Understanding Political Communication
- Disagreement in Political Discussion
- The Internal Dynamics and Political Power of Small Group Political Deliberation
- Ethnography of Politics and Political Communication: Studies in Sociology and Political Science
- Self-censorship, the Spiral of Silence, and Contemporary Political Communication
- Collective Intelligence: The Wisdom and Foolishness of Deliberating Groups
- Broadcasting versus Narrowcasting: Do Mass Media Exist in the Twenty-First Century?
- Online News Consumption in the United States and Ideological Extremism
- New Media and Political Campaigns
- Political Discussion and Deliberation Online
- The Political Effects of Entertainment Media
- Theories and Effects of Political Humor: Discounting Cues, Gateways, and the Impact of Incongruities
- Music as Political Communication
- Conditions for Political Accountability in a High-Choice Media Environment
- Political Communication: Looking Ahead
Abstract and Keywords
The chapter examines the extant literature on political socialization, focusing on the role of communication in this process. Reviewing a wide range of approaches to socialization—from those stressing the role the institutions that teach young people civic values and practices to those emphasizing the role of dispositions that encourage political development and learning—we highlight communication’s influence in establishing civic norms and competencies. Increasingly, digital, social, and mobile media are implicated in these dynamics. We first define core concepts such as civic norms and the various sources from which they are acquired, communication competence and the challenges of navigating an increasingly complex media environment, socialization and attention to this ongoing process into adulthood, and citizenship and its changing styles and expanding boundaries. These core concepts provide the basis for considering the major points of development and dispute over political socialization.
Dhavan V. Shah (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) is Maier-Bascom Professor at the University of Wisconsin, where he is Director of the Mass Communication Research Center (MCRC) and Scientific Director in the Center for Health Enhancement System Studies (CHESS). His research focuses on the effects of information and communication technologies, particularly online communities, on social judgments, civic engagement, and health management. Recently, he has extended insights and techniques from his prior examinations of message processing and online networks into the development and deployment of digital and mobile technologies for the treatment of chronic diseases.
Kjerstin Thorson (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) is an assistant professor of journalism at the University of Southern California. Her research explores the effects of digital and social media on political engagement, activism and persuasion, especially among youth. Recent research projects have investigated uses of Facebook around the 2012 election, video activism in the Occupy Movement, and the contributions of media use in shifting conceptions of politics among young adults.
Chris Wells (Ph.D., University of Washington) is an assistant professor in the School of Journalism & Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he co-directs the Social Media and Democracy (SMAD) and Communication in Contexts of Contentious Politics (CCCP) working groups. His current projects explore the changing nature of the relationship between young citizens and civic organizations, the role of digital media use in young citizens' civic identities and engagement, and communication processes in polarized, contentious polities.
Nam-Jin Lee (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) is an assistant professor in the Department of Communication at the College of Charleston. His main research areas include media framing, political discussion, public opinion, civic engagement, and youth socialization.
Jack McLeod is (Ph.D., University of Michigan) Maier-Bascom Professor Emeritus in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He was Chair of the Mass Communication Research Center at Wisconsin for 34 years. He is currently co-authoring a textbook on Communication and Public Opinion. His career research focus on news media and democracy has increasingly been concerned with the growing economic and communication inequality and disinformation campaigns as threats to democracy.
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