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date: 15 July 2020

(p. 585) Index

(p. 585) Index

Page numbers followed by f, t, or n refer to figures, tables, or footnotes, respectively.

Ableton Live, 217, 347, 579t
abstract electronic dance music, 337
abstraction
abstractions and disjunctions in music technology, 12–18, 14t15t
automata and, 364
cognitive models and, 385–386
in electronic dance music, 336–339, 343
levels of, 237, 386, 403, 404, 542
of orchestra and score, 25–26
of touch vs. information, 183
AC Toolbox, 575t
Academy of Music and Dance, Jerusalem, 565t
accelerometers, 195, 208–210, 246–247
accessibility of music
overview, 518–519
20th-century isolation and marginalization, 519–523
21st-century digital communication and, 524–527
sound-based music and, 528–532
ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), 234
Acorn BBC, 569t
Acousimonium, 566t
acousmatic composition, 3, 23
acousmatic music vs. musique concrète, 23
acoustic generation, 325–326
acoustic-digital combination
background, 167–168
biophysical interfaces, 183–184
combination, transformation, and control, 170–171, 170f
empirical and logical rules, 184
fixed sounds and time flexibility, 171–172
interactivity and, 179–180
models and analogies, 184–185
paradigms of human/computer relationship, 168–170, 169f
real-time decisions and choices, 181–182
scores, control, and decision making, 176–179, 177f
source/receiver interaction and sense modes, 182–183
transformation of acoustical sound, 173–176
types of combination, 172–173
See also interactivity
Adams, John, Nixon in China, 573t
adaptability, cognitive, 478–480
adaptive music, 197–198
ADCs (analog-to-digital converters), 20–21, 61, 576t577t
additive synthesis, 20, 22, 90–91
aesthetic evolution, 369–370, 369f
aesthetics, generative, 374–376
affective perception, 486
Akai S9000, 572t
Akamatsu, Masayuki, 250–251
Alais, D., 299
alarm signals, 316
aleatoric composition, 113
alerts, 316
Alesis ADAT, 574t
Alexander, Amy, 348
Alexander, John, 577t
Alexandrov, G. V., 583n4
algorithmic composition
overview, 49
Cage's I Ching approach, 111–112
and computer as composer, 33–35, 34f
Cope's EMI and, 124–125
Hiller, role of, 113–115
information theory, 112–113
Koenig and the serialist approach, 123–124
mathematics and music, 109
music-theory and randomness approaches to, 74–75, 109–110
prospects for, 126–128
Schillinger system, 110–111
sound synthesis and, 125–126
University of Illinois Experimental Music Studio and, 114–115
xenakis, role of, 116–123
algorithmic synesthesia
overview, 294–297
cognitive basis of auditory-visual interactions, 297–302
cognitive/algorithmic underpinnings, 302–305
as creative possibility, 305–307
Alife (artificial life), 355, 363, 371, 374
Alonso, Sydney, 62
alphabet model, 389
Altair 8800, 567t
(p. 586) Alvarez, Javier, Papalotl, 178
Amabile, T. M., 396–397
Amacher, Maryanne, 344
amateur musicians, 39, 158
ambience labeling information, 265
Ambisonics, 265, 267–269, 271, 566t
Ames, Charles, 75, 115, 395
Ampex, 559t, 560t
amplification, 167–168, 357
analog electronic instruments, development of, 13–16
analog sound synthesis, 16, 58
analog synthesizers, 16, 58–59, 66–67
analog vocoder, 94
analogic representation, 314
analogies in acoustic-digital combination, 184–185
analysis by synthesis method, 395
Andriessen, Louis, 242
Anhalt, István, 562t
animated virtual conductor, 36
Anthony, Susan B., 494
anthropomorphism, 36
Aphex Twin, 534n22
Apple Computer Company
auditory icons and, 317
Emagic and Logic, 580t
founded, 567t
Garageband, 58t
Intel processors, switch to, 581t
iPod, 579t, 580t
iTunes, 580t
Logic, 581t
PowerBook, 574t
PowerPC processor, switch to, 576t
QuickTime, 574t
Apple II and IIfx, 53, 568t, 574t
Apple Macintosh
development of, 24, 53, 55, 56, 571t, 577t, 578t, 579t
DSP hardware for, 78, 574t
OS development, 575t, 576t, 577t, 578t, 580t, 581t, 582t
Appleton, Jon, 62
arbitrary tuning systems, 21–22
arborescences, 122
Ardila, M., 259
Arezzo, Guido dʼ, 109–110
Aristotle, 193
Ariza, Christopher, 127, 129n19
ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network)
disabled by worm, 573t
expansion of, 564t, 565t, 566t
first links between universities, 564t
MILNET and, 570t
renamed Internet, 576t
TCP/IP protocol and, 570t
See also Internet
art, generative, 356–358, 357f
art and life, separation and reconnection of, 522–523, 528–529
artificial intelligence (AI), 348
Ashley, Robert
Automatic Writing, 568t
Cooperative Studio for Electronic Music, 560t
el/Aficionado, 573t
Purposeful Lady Slow Afternoon, 564t
ASII, 562t
ASIO, 577t
ASP (Automated Sound Programs), 60
assistive music technology, 534n13
associative memory, 426, 429
Asuar, José Vicente
Electronic Music Studio founded by, 561t
Variacones Espectrales, 560t
Atari 520 ST, 571t
Atari 800 microchip, 568t
Atari ST, 53, 338
Atari Teenage Riot, 346
Ateliers UPIC, Les, 571t, 578t
AthenaCL, 127
AT & T, 561t
Attali, Jacques, 533n3
Audacity, 547
audience
improvisation and visual impact, 143
liveness and authenticity vs. alienation, 218–221
networked performance and, 31
performer-audience pact, 200
for sound-based music, 529
audification, 321–322
audio engineering as gendered field, 495–496
audio sensing, 244–245
AudioMulch, 268
AudioPad, 245–246
AudioSculpt, 54, 95
AudioSculpt DSP, 576t
audiovisual improvisation, 142
AudioVisual Matching, 425
auditory graphs, 323
auditory icons, 316–317, 320, 483
auditory information design, 313
auditory scene analysis, 541
auditory-visual interactions. See algorithmic synesthesia
aural excitation, 263
Austin, Larry, Canadian Coastlines, 569t
Autechre, 343, 347
Autobusk, 124
automatic transcription, 36–37
Avni, Tzvi, 565t
azimuth, 260
Babbitt, Milton
Hiller and, 113
(p. 587) MUSIC-N and, 48
Philomel, 562t
Phonemena, 567t
Babiole, Cécile, 250
Bach chorale melodies, 406–407, 407f
backtracking strategy, 388
Bahn, Curtis, 579t
Bailey, Derek, 143
Baker, Robert, 27, 114
Balde, Frank, 243
Ballas, J. A., 319
Baltan, Kid, Song of the Second Moon, 560t
Banú Músà brothers, 13
Bar Ilan University, Israel, 576t
Barbaud, Pierre, 113
Barbosa, Áulvaro
network music and, 249
Public Sound Objects, 251
Barlow, Clarence
Çogluotobüsisletmesi, 569t
Koenig and, 124
Baron, Bebe, 558t, 560t
Baron, Louis, 558t, 560t
Baroni, M., 394, 406
Barr, Rosanne, 496
Barrass, S., 313
Barrett, Natasha
on computer music, 537
Crack Process, 581t
Utility of Space, 578t
Barrett, Richard
DARK MATTER, 580t
Opening of the Mouth, 577t
piano commissions, 242
Barrière, Jean Baptiste
Chréode, 570t
physical modeling and, 93
Bartley, Wende, Rising Tides of Generations Lost, 289
BASIC, 562t
batch processing, 86
Bayesian models, 392
Bayle, François, Sommeil dʼEuclide, Le, 570t
BBC Radiophonic Workshop, 560t
BEAST (Birmingham ElectroAcoustic Sound Theater), 228, 569t
beat replacement, 425
beat tracking, 142, 425, 435, 450
Beatles, 340
BeatRoot, 435, 436f
Behrman, David
improvisation and, 70
League of Automatic Music Composers and, 459
On the Other Ocean, 567t
Wave Train, 563t
Beijing Computer and Electronic Music Studio, 572t
Belgrad, Daniel, 458
Bell Labs, 18, 19f, 47, 86, 558t
Benjamin, Walter, 519
Bentley, Andrew, 97, 155
Berezan, David, 186n18
Berg, Paul, 124, 567t
Berio, Luciano
Chants Parallèl, 567t
Coro, 567t
Momenti, 561t
Orpheo II, 571t
Sequenza I, 560t
Sequenza III, 563t
Sequenza X, 571t
Sinfonia, 564t
Studio de Fonologia Musicale, 559t
synthesizer development and, 59
Thema—ommagio a Joyce, 560t
Visage, 561t
Berlioz, Hector, 343
Berry, Rodney
Gakkimon Planet (Berry, Dahlstedt, and Haw), 371–372
Listening Sky (Berry, Dorin, and Rungsarityotin), 372
Bharucha, J. J., 392, 482
Biles, Al, 368
Billboard charts, 350
biocontrol, 248
biofeedback systems and biosignal instruments, 247–248
BioMuse, 248, 250
biophysical interfaces, 183–184
Birchfield, David, 127
Bird, Caroline, 502
Bischoff, Fritz, 583n4
Bischoff, John, 70, 249
Blackwell, Tim, 365, 460
Blife and Alife, 144–145
Blum, Thomas, 568t
blurts, 46
Bly, S., 312
Boden, M., 386–387
Bodin, Lars-Gunnar, Anima, 571t
Body Suit, 245
BodySynth, 248
Bogert, B. P., 433
Bolaños, César
Canción sin palabras, 564t
Sialoecibi, 564t
Bongers, Bert, 72, 243
Boolean logic, 119–120
Booth, Sean, 339
Borgo, David, Sync or Swarm, 135
Bosma, H., 285
BoSSA (Bowed-Sensor-Speaker-Array), 226–227
Bossis, Bruno, 547
bottom-up systems, 390
Boulanger, Richard, 241
(p. 588) Boulez, Pierre
Explosante-Fixe, 242
IRCAM and, 25
on ostinatos, 336
Répons, 71, 569t
Bowers, John, Virtual/Physical Feedback Instrument project, 373
Braasch, Jonas, 470, 471
brain waves, 184, 247–248
brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), 248
brain-computer music interfaces (BCMIs), 248
Brattico, E., 479
Bregman, A. S., 480, 541
Brewster, S. A., 318
Briscoe, Desmond, 560t
broadcasting industry, 519–521, 532
Brolin-Tani, Marie, 207, 208
Brouse, Andrew, 248
Brown, A. R., 544
Brown, Chris, 249
Brown, Earle
Available Forms I, 118
Cage and, 111
Brown, Rob, 339
Brownian motion, 121–122
Brün, Herbert
compositional approach, 114–115
Dust, 567t
i toLD You so!, 569t
Non Sequitier VI, 563t
SAWDUST, 60, 566t
Bryne, David, By Life in the Bush of Ghosts, 340
BSD UNIX, 568t
Bubbas, 244
Buchanan, Bill, 340
Buchbinder, David, 285
Buchla, Donald
analog synthesizer, development of, 16, 58, 563t
Lightning, 73, 246, 574t
Lightning II, 577t
Thunder, 73, 246, 574t
Buchla Modular synthesizer, 469
Buck, Pearl S., 493
Bücklein, R., 485, 487
Burgess, A., 336
Bush, Kate, Dreaming, The, 340
Bussemakers, M. P., 319–320
Butler, Mark, 337
Buxton, William, 59, 568t
C programming language, 52, 565t
Cage, John
Aeon, 561t
Aria, 173
Cartridge Music, 69, 561t
compositional approach, 111–112
Europera, 573t
Fontana Mix, 173
HPSCHD, 111, 564t
Imaginary Landscapes, 69, 168, 558t
improvisation and, 181
indeterminacy and, 357
Music of Changes, 111
Roaratorio, 569t
Schillinger system and, 111
sonic art and, 159
sound art and, 344
on sounds in the world, 540
Variations V, 249
Williams Mix, 558t
Cahill, Thaddeus, 16
CAITLIN (Computer Audio Interface to Locate Incorrect Nonsense), 323
Campo, Alberto de, 322, 579t
Camurri, Antonio, 201
Capybara, 61, 101, 126, 574t, 578t
Cardew, Cornelius, The Great Learning, Paragraph 7, 364, 374
Cardiff, Janet, 252
CARL (Computer Audio Research Laboratory), USCD, 95, 96
Carlile, S., 299
Carlos, Wendy
on scale-tuning systems, 476
Switched on Bach, 564t
Carlson, A., 354
Carterette, E. C., 478
Cary, Tristram, 485, 563t
Casal, David, 368
Cascone, Kim, 218–219, 222, 229
Casey, Michael
Departure on the Chao-Phraya, 444–445
SueMe No. 1, 445–446
CAT (consensual assessment technique), 396–397, 405
Caterpillar, 423–424
Caus, Salomon de, 215
CCMIX (Center for the Composition of Music Iannis Xenakis), 578t
CCRMA (Center for Computer Music Research and Acoustics), Stanford, 93–94, 472n14, 566t567t
CD players, 570t
CDP (Composers Desktop Project), 97, 126, 155, 156, 572t, 578t
CD-R drives, 578t
CD-ROM storage, introduction of, 570t
CDs, 78, 525, 570t, 574t, 578t
Cecilia, 577t
CECM (Center for Electronic and Computer Music), 563t
Cellorometer, 450
cellular automata (CA), 122–123, 360–363, 360f, 361f, 362f
cellular representation, 269
(p. 589) CEMAMu (Centre dʼEtudes de Mathematiques Musicales), 565t, 571t
See also UPIC
CEMS (Coordinated Electronic Music Studio), 58, 564t
Center for Electroacoustic Music of China, 575t
Centre for Electronic Music, Philips Research Laboratories, 560t
cepstral coefficients, 431–433, 432f
Cercle pour la Libération du Son et de lʼImage (CLSI), 581t
CERN (Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), 575t
Chadabe, Joel, 11, 38–39, 58, 118, 458, 459
Chafe, Chris, 470
Chamberlin, Harry, 558t
CHANT, 93
ChaosSynth, 362
Chatelain, Philippe, 250
Chen, Yuanlin, 572t
Cherry, Tom, 46, 47
Chew, Elaine, 251
Chion, Michel, 193
CHORAL, 388
Chowning, John
on acoustic generation, 325–326
FM synthesis, 20, 91–92, 567t
research on sound in virtual space, 21
Stria, 22
ChucK, 27, 57, 250, 580t
CICMAT (Centro de Investigaciones en Communication Massiva, Artes y Technologia), Buenos Aires, 365t, 570t
CIIM (Centro Independiente de Investigacion y Multimedia), 571t572t
civil rights movements and gender, 493–496
C-Lab Creator, 573t, 575t
C-Lab Notator, 574t
CLAEM (Centro Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales), 562t, 566t
Clarke, Michael, 93
Clavia company, 65, 577t
Clay, Art, China Gates, 253
Clément, Catherine, 285
Cloud Generator, 577t
Clynes, Manfred, 477
Cmix, 53, 96–97, 570t
CMUSIC, 52–53, 96, 97, 569t
CNMAT (Center for New Music and Audio Technologies), University of California at Berkeley, 68, 73, 242
Codemasters, 268
coevolution, 368–369
cognitive adaptability, 478–480
cognitive science, 384–385
Collide, 245
Collins, Nicolas
Broken Light, 574t
Fiber Jelly, 578t
on Hsu, 140
Is She/He Really Going Out With Him/Her/ Them, 569t
Pea Soup, 373
robots, musical, 139
Second State, 569t
trombone-propelled electronics, 72, 242, 572t
color music synesthesia, 305
Columbia University, 559t, 560t
Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, 560t
Colyer, Cornelia, 470
commercialization of music, 519–521
Commodore, 568t, 570t, 571t
Common Music, 115, 126
communal music, 520
communication and accessibility, digital, 524–527
communicative pressure theory, 393
communities, virtual, 526, 527
community and voice, 287–290
competition, in coevolution, 368–369
complexity, excessive, 480
Composer Intention Questionnaire, 484
composers
20th-century redefinition of music and, 39
continuum of involvement by, 25
dance, artistic role in, 211
meta-composer, 38
studio as instrument for, 237
composition
computational cognitive models of, 393–395
empirical research on sounds, listening, and, 474–476
idiomatic writing, 239
implications of digital sound synthesis for, 21–24
interactive composing, 458, 459
interface, development of, 25–29
narrative explanation of, 374–375
shift from note-driven to timbral, 222
sonification and, 328
virtual music, 481
compositional grammar, 393–394
comprovisation, 142–143
CompuServe, 568t
Computer Improviser, 137
computer music, history of the term, 11–12
Computer Music Journal, 568t, 569t
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 245
computer vision, 196–197, 208–210
(p. 590) computers, development of
early machines, 45–49
mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers, 49–54
concatenative speech synthesis, 423–424
conceptual space model, 386–387
conductor, animated, 36
conductor interfaces, 30–31
Conklin, D., 394–395
connectionist model of harmony, 392
consequent decision mapping, 180
construction by process, 216
contemporary art music, isolation of, 519–523
Continuator, 36–37
continuous data representations (CDRs), 321–323
control
composition and, 171
in generative processes, 375
as passé, 217
spatialization and, 261
synchronization and, 178–179
ThuMP project and, 221–225, 222f, 223f, 224f
control intimacy, 30
control mapping, 220
control rate, 52, 57
control systems, 66–68
controllers
development of, 24–32, 68–74, 578t
gestural-sensor, 71–74
mouse as, 163
sensor-based instruments and, 239–241
Conway, John, 361
Cook, N., 484
Cook, Perry
BoSSA, 226–227
ChucK, 58t
Co-Audicle, 57, 250
SPASM, 93–94
Cooper, Duanne, 566t
Cooperative Studio for Electronic Music, 560t
Cooperstock, Jeremy, 470
Cope, David
compositional styles systems, 75
Emmy-Beethoven Symphony, 34f
Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI), 33–35, 38, 124–125, 388, 481
improvisation and, 141
copyleft, 527
copyright and sampling, 339–341
Coster, Peter, 243
Cowell, Henry, 110
Cracklebox, 243
Creating Music software, 547
creative machines, 457, 460–461, 462
creativity, modeling of, 386–387, 395–397
Cross, Burnett, 558t
CSF (creative systems framework), 387, 388, 389, 394, 403
CSIRAC (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Automatic Computer), 46–47, 68, 86, 558t, 583n6
Csound
alternatives to, 96–101
development of, 27, 53, 54, 87–90, 97, 577t
FOF and, 93
GUI and, 98
as open source, 87
Cubase, 338, 575t
Cubase VST2, 578t
cues from computer to performers, 29–30
Culver, Andrew, 111–112
Cunliffe, L., 306
Cunningham, Merce, 561t
Cutler, Chris, Solo, 182
cv.jit, 208, 209
CX5M, 571t
Cyclingʼ 74, 127
Cynthia, 577t
Cypher, 124
Czukay, Holgar, 342
Dabh, Halim El-, Taʼabir al-Zaar, 583n4
DACs (digital-to-analog converters)
development of, 19, 47, 583n6
hardware DSP and, 61
recordings with 24 bits and 96-kHz, 576t577t
Dahlstedt, Palle
Gakkimon Planet (Berry, Dahlstedt, and Haw), 371–372
Living Melodies, 371
Dailleau, Laurent, 250
Dal Farra, Ricardo
Civilaziones, 580t
Interacciones, 574t
Tierra y Sol, 577t
dance, interactive
artistic roles of choreographer, dancer, and composer, 211–212
audience expectations, 200
defined, 192
DIEM Digital Dance project, 201–211, 202f, 204f, 207f
gesture recognition and levels of motion tracking, 200–201
interface choice, 197–199
linear time, freedom from, 193–194
mapping, 199–200
motion-tracking technologies, 194–197
music and dance, relationship between, 191
visual and musical performance, 192–193
Dannenberg, Roger
at ICMC, 571t
Nyquist and, 56
SueMe No. 1 (Casey and Dannenberg), 445–446
Darmstadt International Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, 111
Dartmouth College, 62, 562t
Darwin, Charles, 366
DAT decks, consumer, 573t
DAT (digital audiotape) format, 21
data music, 327–328
data sonification. See sonification
database amplification, 357
Dataphone, 561t
Davidovsky, Mario
Electronic Study No. 3, In Memoriam Edgar Varèse, 563t
Synchronisms series, 185n3, 564t, 573t, 575t
DAW (digital audio workstation)
development of, 28, 54, 77–79, 574t, 581t
Emagic Logic 4, 576t
Dawkins, Richard, 369
D-beam system, 240
DD and Steinski, Lesson 1, 340
de Certeau, Michel, 277
de Haan, A., 319–320
de Vries, Frank, 562t
Dean, Roger
Erotics of Gossip, The (Smith and Dean), 248, 288
on NoiseSpeech, 288
on nonlinear interaction, 545
Nuraghic Echoes (Smith and Dean), 248
Ubasuteyama, 476
DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), 560t
DEC PDP series
Csound and, 87
and digital control of analog synthesizers, 58, 59
releases, 563t, 564t, 565t
as staple, 51
DEC VAX 11/780, 567t
Decca Records, 496
Degazio, Bruno, 111
Delalande, François, 531
DeMarinis, Paul, 72, 462
democratization of music. See accessibility of music
Denon, 565t
Derby University, 269
Derbyshire, Delia, 496
Desain, Peter, 247
descriptive vs. explanatory modeling, 386, 391–392, 481
deterministic associative memory process, 426, 429
Deutsch, D., 389, 485
Deutsch, Herbert, 561t
Dewey, John, 543
Di Giugno, Giuseppe, 59, 70, 567t, 568t, 569t
Di Scipio, Augustino, 373–374, 373f
Diana, Princess of Wales, 282
dice game of Mozart, 110
DIEM (Danish Institute of Electronic Music) Digital Dance project
compositions (Movement Study and Sisters), 203–208
interface, 201–203, 202f, 204f
Pandora Project, 208–211
Dienes, Z., 478
difference feminism, 495
Digi-Arts, 547
Digidesign, 78, 574t
digital art, 344–345
Digital Compact Cassette, 575t
digital delay processors, 469–470
digital mixing consoles, 571t
digram model, 398
Dillon, James, Philomela, 580t
direction-is-space fallacy, 264
discrete data representations (DDRs), 316–320
discrimination against women.
disjunctions and abstractions in music technology, 12–18, 14t15t
Disklavier (Yamaha), 36
distributed cognition, 225
Doctor Who (TV), 485, 560t
Dodge, Charles
Any Resemblance in Purely Coincidental, 569t
Earth's Magnetic Field, 565t
fractals, use of, 76
LPC, 94
Speech Songs, 281, 565t
Dolby noise reduction system, 563t, 572t
Dolby surround sound, 264, 574t
Dolson, Mark, 95, 276
Dombois, F., 321
Domino, M., 395
Doornbusch, Paul, Continuity 3, 579t
Dorin, Alan, Listening Sky, 372
download culture, 350, 525, 581t
See also Internet
Drake Project, 533n13
Drury, Remy, 240
DSP (digital signal-processing)
development of, 53, 55, 56, 61, 89, 578t
DPS02, 550
as learning tool, 548–551
machine listening research and, 77
Macintosh hardware, 78, 573t
NOTAM and, 534n19
spatialization and, 269
(p. 592) transformation and, 170–171
Dufrenne, Mikel, 462
DVD disks and players, 576t, 577t
DVD-Audio standard, 578t
DX7 (Yamaha)
FM algorithm and, 92
introduction of, 20, 24, 63–64, 570t
earcons, 318–319, 320
EARS (ElectroAcoustic Resource Site) Pedagogical Project, 530–531
Ebcioglu, K., 388
Ebsen, Tobias, 210
ecological acoustics, 475
ecosystemic metaphor, 370–374, 372f, 373f, 376
Eden ecosystem, 371
edges of networks, 358–359
Edison, Thomas, 16
education, music
and computer music across disciplines, 542–543
and computer music as genre, 536–537
design approaches to learning technologies, 544–546
EARS Pedagogical Project, 530–531
framing computer music as discipline, 537–539
and isolation of contemporary music, 521–522
learning perspectives, 543–544
on listening, 539–540
Music and Technology curriculum, 531
on musical form, 541–542
online learning, 526, 546–547, 551
on physics and psychophysics, 540–541
on signal processing, 541
software tools, examples of, 546–551
sound-based music and, 529–530
Edwards, Michael, 242
EEG (electroencephalogram), 247–248, 308n6
Eerola, T., 411
Eimert, Herbert, Epitaph for Aikichi Kuboyama, 484
Einstein, Albert, 193
Eitan, Z., 303
Electronic Music Studio, Chile, 561t
electronica and electronic dance music (EDM)
overview, 334–336
download culture and, 350
EDM and its abstractions, 336–339
glitch and microsound, 341–343, 342f
live electronica, 347–349
overload and noise music, 345–346
sampling and copyright, 339–341
sound art and digital art, 343–345
Electronium analog composition machine, 561t
elektronische Musik, 17, 22, 68
elevation, 260
Ellit, Jack, 583n4
Emagic, 576t, 580t
e-mail, 563t, 565t, 568t
embodies relations, 220–221, 228
emergence, 363–365, 365f
eMic (Extended Microphone Interface Controller), 285
emic/etic dilemma, 186n12
Emmerson, Simon
on aesthetics, 483
on experimental tradition, 474
on listening, 540
on local-field confusion, 227
Sentences, 174
EmmissionControl, 580t
emotion and synesthesia, 303–304
empirical research
overview, 473–474
auditory perception and cognitive adaptability, 477–480
compositional ideas and implications, 474–476
computational cognitive modeling and, 128, 480–482
on listener experience, 483–484
perception of computer-generated sounds, 484–487
on sonification, 482–483
sounds, tuning, and interface experimentation, 476–477
EMT, 567t, 569t
E-mu Systems Emulator keyboard, 63
Emu-Emulator, 570t
emulation, development of, 20
emulation of instruments, objections to, 23–24
encode-decode chain, 262, 263f
Endrich, Archer, 155
Englebart, Douglas, 562t
Eno, Brian
Discrete Music, 76, 427
By Life in the Bush of Ghosts (Eno and Byrne), 340
ensemble depth, 263
ensembles. See networks
Ensoniq Mirage, 63, 571t
entropy, 112, 401
equity feminism, 495
“erasing,” 164
Erbe, Tom, 54
Erickson, Kristin, 348–349
Escuela Superior de Musica del INBA, 571t572t
Essl, Karlheinz, Entsagung, 5761
Estrada, Julio, 123
Estúdio da Glória, Rio de Janeiro, 569t
Estudio de Fonología Musical, University of Buenos Aires, 560t
Ethernet, 566t
Evan Parker Electro-Acoustic Ensemble, 174
event processing vs. signal processing, 175
events
in cognitive modeling, 397
(p. 593) signals, integration with, 171
time shift and, 174–175
evolutionary computing, 366–370, 367f, 369f
excitation-sonification models, 217–218
Expanded Instrument System (EI), 469–470
Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI) of Cope, 33–35, 38, 124–125, 481
explanatory vs. descriptive modeling, 386, 391–392, 481
exploratory creativity, 387
Fairlight, 62–63
Fairlight CMI (Computer Musical Instrument), 62, 567t, 568t
Farmers Manual, 346
feedback
ecosystemic, 372–373
physical, 357–358
in SoundSpotter, 444
feedback networks, 359, 359f
Feinberg, Leslie, 494–495
Fellgett, Peter, 566t
feminism, history of, 493–496
Fender, Leo, 234–236
Ferneyhough, Brian
Doctrine of Similarity, The, 579t
Shadowtime, 580t
Time and Motion Study II, 567t
Feroe, J., 389
Ferranti Mark I, 558t, 583n6
Ferrari, Luc, Presque Rien N° 2, 568t
Ffrench, Alexis, 531
FGPA (field-programmable gate array), 243–244
fiber-optic cable, 570t
Finer, Jem, 351n13
First Computer Music Conference (Michigan, 1974), 566t
First International Ten Days of Experimental Music (1953), 559t
fitness metaphor, 366, 368, 371
fixed-order models, 398
Fleuret, Maurice, 521
flex sensors, 194–195, 202–203
floppy disks, development of, 565t, 568t, 569t
Flowers, J. H., 323, 327
FM (frequency modulation) synthesis, 20, 63–64, 91–92, 566t
FMOL (Faust Music Online), 142, 251, 477
FOF (Fonction dʼOnde Formantique), 93–94, 95, 569t
Foley (sound effects), 325
folk music, 519–523, 526
Folkestad, G., 477
Fontana, Bill, 540
Forbidden Planet (film), 560t
FORTRAN, 48, 559t, 560t, 564t
4 series of digital synthesizers, 59, 70–71, 567t, 568t, 569t
fractals, 76
France, 533n6
Frank system, 368
Freed, Adrian, 68, 242
freeware, 526–527
frequency domain, 175–176, 433
Frith, Fred, 250
Fry, C., 137
Frysinger, S. P., 323
fugu transformation, 154
Fuller, S. M., 505
Funk, Aaron, 343
Furse, Tony, 62
FURT, 572t
Fynne, Pernille, 204, 204f, 207, 207f
Gabor, Denis, 95, 129n14, 176
Game of Life, 360f, 361, 361f, 363, 581t
game theory, 118
Garageband, 78
Gardner, Howard, 543
Gardner, Martin, 361
Garton, Brad, 96, 283
Gaver, William W., 316–317, 475, 528
GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education), 531
GEMA (Gabinete de Electroacústica para la Música de Arte), University of Chile, 575t
Gemeinboeck, Petra, 252
gender and music technology
behaviors around music technology, 501–502, 503t, 504t
definition of terms, 494
history of feminism and civil rights, 493–496
mitigation of inequities, 514–516
perception of behaviors, gendered, 505–514, 505f, 507f, 508f, 510f, 511f, 512t, 513t, 514t
stereotypes, 285, 286–287
survey methodology, 496–497
survey respondent demographics and experience, 497–501, 498t, 499t, 500t
GENDYN (generation dynamique) program, 60, 122, 574t
generative algorithms
overview, 354–356
aesthetic nature of generative systems, 374–376
cellular automata and, 360–363, 360f, 361f, 362f
development of, 76
ecosystemic metaphor, 370–374, 372f, 373f, 376
emergence, 363–365, 365f
evolution metaphor, 366–370, 367f, 369f
generative art, 356–358, 357f
graphs and networks as basis of, 358–360, 359f
GenJam, 368
genotypes
and Alife vs. Blife, 144
generative algorithms and, 356–357, 366, 367f
(p. 594) Geosonic Speakers, 227
Gerzon, Michael, 566t
gestural-sensor controllers, 71–74
gesture
acoustic interface and, 215–216
body-instrument relationship, 214–215
computer and disjunction of, 216–217
events and, 174–175
improvisation and possibilities of, 137
NIME and, 234
physicality and performance authenticity, 217–221
recognition, for interactive dance, 200–201
sentics, 477
spatialization and, 226–228
synesthesia and, 301–302
ThuMP project, 221–225, 222f, 223f, 224f
timbral composition and, 225–226
Ghent, Emmanuel
performer cues, 29
Phospones, 565t
Gibson, James (J. J.), 317
Gibson, William, 571t
Glass, Philip, Einstein at the Beach, 567t
glitch, 341–343
Gmebaphone, 566t
Godlovitch, Stanley, 219, 222
Goeyvaerts, Karel Aquarius, 575t
Gold, Rich, 70
Goldberg, David, 368
Goodman, Dickie, 340
Gordon, J. W., 485
Gorton, David, Erinnerungspiel (Memory Games), 446–448, 447f
Goto, Suguru, 245
GPRs (Grouping Preference Rules), 401–402, 402t
GPS-based instruments, 251–253
Grainger, Percy, 47, 58, 68, 558t, 582n2
Grainger-Cross Free Music Machine, 558t
grammars, compositional, 393–394
gramophone studies, 582n2
Granot, R. Y., 303
granular synthesis
ChaosSynth, 362
Cloud Generator, 577t
development of, 21, 23, 95, 566t
quanta and, 129n14
Granuloop, 425
graphical patching languages, 27–28
graphs, 323, 358
Green, Adam, 365
Gresham-Lancaster, Scot, 249
Grey, J. M., 485
GRM (Groupe de Recherches de Musique Concrète), 113, 559t, 566t
Groening, Matt, 520–521
GROOVE (Generated Real-Time Output Operations on Voltage-Controlled Equipment) system, 30, 66, 69, 236, 564t
group theory, 120–121
Groupe de Recherches Musicales, 530
Grouper, 401–402
GS1 and GS2 (Yamaha), 63
GSMAX, 95
GTTM (generative theory of tonal music), 389–390, 401–402, 402t
GUI (graphical user interface), 24, 98–100, 548
guitar, electric, 234
Haifa University, 578t
Hall, Gary, 469
Hamel, Keith, 129n22
Hamman, M., 474, 481
Hancock, Herbie, Rockit, 340
The Hands, 71, 243, 571t
Hans, Jeff, 245
harmonicity, 124
Harper, Carly, 220, 222–223
Harris, Yolande
Sun Run Sun, 252
Taking Soundings, 252
Haw, Catherine, Gakkimon Planet, 371–372
Hayward, C., 321
Hayward Gallery, 344
hearing, perception and physiology of, 478
Hebel, Kurt, 61, 100–101, 126
Hebrew University, 561t
Hegarty, Paul, 346
Heidegger, Martin, 220, 222
Heisenberg, Werner, 176
Hendrix, Jimi, 446, 533n6
Henry, Pierre
Orphée 51, 168
Symphonie our un homme seul, 558t
Variations pour Une Porte et Un Soupir, 562t
HERMAN, 388
Hermann, T., 313, 324, 326
heteronomous music, 118
Hewitt, Donna, 285
Higgins, Dick, 357
Hill, Geoff, 46
Hiller, Lejaren
compositional approach, 49, 114–116
computational musicology and, 128
Computer Cantata, 114
HPSCHD, 111, 564t
Illiac Suite for String Quartet (Hiller and Isaacson), 33, 113–114, 559t, 560t
information theory and, 112
MUSICOMP, 27
physical modeling, 92
stochastic model, 387–388
at University of Buffalo, 116, 564t
(p. 595) at University of Illinois, 114–115
Hindemith, Paul, 235, 582n2
historical development of computer music
20th-century redefinition of music, 39–40
abstractions, disjunctions, and proliferation before computers, 12–18, 14t15t
algorithmic composition, 33–35, 34f, 38
chronology (1939–2008), 557–584
composition, implications for, 21–24, 23f
composition approaches, 33–35, 74–77
control systems, 66–68
controllers, 24–32, 68–74
digital audio workstations, 28, 77–79
early computers, 45–49
instrument building, 234–236
interactivity and, 458
interface and, 214–217
languages and other PC developments, 54–57
machine musicianship, 35–39, 37f
mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers, 49–54
sound recording and processing, digital, 20–21
synthesizer advances, 58–65
terminology, 11–12
Hitchcock, Alfred, 448
HMM (hidden Markov Model), 394, 424
HMSL (Hierarchical Music Specification Language), 570t, 573t
Hoffman, Jan Jacob, 265
Homebrew Computer Club, 70, 567t
Honegger, Arthur, 235
Horio, Kanta, 348, 349f
Horner, Andrew, 368
Horton, Jim, 70, 567t
Hosken, Dan, 199
Howe, Hubert, 12, 87
Hsu, William, 140
HTTP protocol, 575t
The Hub, 70, 142, 165, 249, 271t
human development, 543
human-computer interaction (HCI), 239
Hunt, A., 322
Huron, David, 134, 478
hyperinstruments, 30, 241–242
hyperscape, 276
I Ching (The Book of Changes), 111–112
IBM
701 mainframe, 559t
704 mainframe, 47, 559t, 560t
7090 mainframe, 565t
floppy disks, 565t
PC, development of, 53, 569t
System/360, 48, 562t
ThinkPad laptop, 575t
XT, 53, 570t
Ichiyanagi, Toshi, Tokyo 1.9.6.9, 564t
icons, auditory, 316–317, 320, 483
I-Cube Wi-micro System, 208
identities
ambiguity in source identification, 479
of source and target in soundspotting, 423, 425
voice and, 281–287
idiomatic writing, 239
IDyOM (information dynamics of music) model
discussion of model, 403–404
experiments and results, 404–414, 407f, 409t, 413f
inference over multiple features, 399–400, 399f
melodic pitch expectancy application, 400
melodic segmentation application, 400–402, 402t
modeling strategy, 398–399
representation scheme, 397–398
Ihde, Don, 220–221
Ikeda, Ryoji, 344
ILLIAC I, 49
image culture, 521
Image/ine, 578t
imaginary listening, 540
Impett, Jonathon, 365
Impromptu, 57, 580t
improvisation
overview, 133–136
ambiguity of, 181
audiovisual, 142
cognitive models, 141, 143–145, 392
comprovisation, 142–143
computer as improviser, 140–141
computer as instrument, 138–139
computer as partner in, 139–140, 460
creative machines and social history of, 457–463
development of, 69–70
empirical research and, 479
generative algorithms and, 137–138
gestural possibilities, 137
by Lewis on KM-1 (1977), 568t
meta-improviser, 145
motor control and, 137
networked, 142
Perkis on practice of, 161–165
time perception and, 141–142
Western music's break from, 463n2
Improvised Music from Japan, 579t
INBA (Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes), 572t
INCIBA (Instituto Nacional de Cultura y Bellas Artes), 60, 566t
indeterminacy, 357, 376n2
industrialization of music, 519
information entropy, 112
information theory, 112–113
information-theoretic principles, 401
inside-in systems, 194–195, 196, 202
inside-out systems, 195, 196
(p. 596) inside-time structure, 120
Institute of Sonology. See Sonology Institute
instruction (nonlinear) synthesis, 60
instruments
biosignal, 247–248
computer as instrument, 138–139, 216–217
Drake Project, 533n13
new instruments, developing, 155–156
notion of an instrument, 236–237
pre-computer technology, 13–16, 14t, 215–216, 233–236
tinkering, and unfamiliarity with, 162
instruments, sensor-based
audio sensing, 244–245
background, 233–234
biosignal, 247–248
controllers, 239–241
free-space gesture, 246–247
GPS-based, 251–253
historical instrument building, 234–236
hyperinstruments, 241–242
interfaces, 243–244
K-Bow and StringPort, 74, 350, 582t
mobile-telephone-based, 253
network ensembles and network music, 248–251
notion of an instrument, 236–237
open-ended systems, 238–239
studios for, 242–243
tabletop and surface instruments, 245–246
virtual reality systems, 245
integrated circuits, development of, 560t
Intel
8008, 565t
80386, 573t
Core 2 Duo, 581t
i486 computers, 574t
Pentium II, 577t
Pentium III, 578t
Pentium Pro, 577t
Xenon processors, 581t
intelligences, multiple, 543
Intelligent Music Systems, 71
Intention/Reception project, 483, 522, 529–530
Interactive Brainwave Visual Analyzer (IBVA), 247
interactive data representations, 323–324
interactive genetic algorithm, 369–370, 369f
interactivity
accessibility and, 527
in acoustic-digital combination, 179–180
ambiguity of, 181
creative machines and social history of, 457–463
definition of interaction, 192
gestural-sensor controllers, 172–175
real-time decisions and choices, 181
sound installations, interactive, 527
source/receiver and sense modes, 182–183
systems development, 69–71
weak and strong, 460
interfaces
authenticity and, 219
biophysical, 183–184
brain-computer music interfaces (BCMIs), 248
for dance, interactive, 197–199, 201–203, 202f, 204f
disjunction between function and, 216
empirical research on experimentation with, 476–477
GUI (graphical user interface), 24, 98–100, 548
for laptop music, 229
live electronica and, 348–349
mechanical, 215–216
for sensor instruments, 243–244
SoundSpotter, 439–440
spatialization and, 227
intermediation and disintermediation, 13
International Academy of Media Arts and Sciences (IAMAS), 250–251
International Computer Music Association founded, 568t
International Computer Music Conference, 448
International Conference on Auditory Display (ICAD), 77, 326
International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, 217
Internet
development of, 566t, 577t
download culture, 350, 525, 581t
Java and, 127
Mosaic browser, 576t
music accessibility on, 525
networked performance and, 31
niche cultures and, 538
online learning, 526, 546–547, 551
World Wide Web software, 575t
intervallic approach, 23
iPod, 579t, 580t
IR (implication-realization) model, 390–391
IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique)
10 Jeux dʼecoute, 545
audio sensing, 244–245
AudioSculpt DSP, 576t
developments at, 54–55, 59, 95, 99, 568t
FOF, 93, 569t
founded, 564t, 567t
MIDI Flute, 242
OpenMusic, 126
XSPIF, 102
IRCAM effect, 156–157
Isaacson, Leonard
(p. 597) algorithmic composition, 49
Illiac Suite for String Quartet (Hiller and Isaacson), 33, 113–114, 559t, 560t
stochastic model, 387–388
ISPW (IRCAM Signal Processing Workstation), 55, 99, 574t
Israel Center for Electronic Music, Hebrew University, 561t
iTunes, 580t
Ives, Charles, 523
Jackendoff, R., 389–390
Jackson, Michael, 425
JackTrip, 470
Jaffe, David, 93
Jam Factory, 71, 118
James, Richard D., 343
jamming, spatial, 271
Jarre, Jean Michel, 240
Jarrett, Keith, 137
Java, 127, 576t
jazz, 368, 392
See also improvisation
Jikken Kobo (Experimental Workshop), 559t
Jitter
as blank canvas, 217
computer vision tool, 197
development of, 100
visual music and, 29, 103
jmax, 99
JMSL (Java Music Specification Language), 579t
jNyqIDE, 56
Johnson-Laird, Philip, 137, 141, 144, 392
Jones, Cameron, 62
Jones, Caryl, 271
Jorda, Sergi, 142, 246, 477, 479
Jot, Jean-Marc, 267
JSyn, 127
JunXion, 579t
Kaegi, Werner, 60, 566t
Kagel, Mauricio, 559t
Kahata, Masahiro, 247
Kahlo, Frida, 207
Kahn, Douglas, 533n2
Kaltenbrunner, Martin, 246
Karbusický, V., 477, 484–485
Karkowski, Zbigniew, 73, 249–250
Karpen, Richard
Eclipse, 572t
Nome, Il, 573t
Karplus, Kevin, 92
Karplus-Strong algorithm, 92–93
Karplus-Strong plucked-string method, 64
Kartadinata, Sukandar, 252
Kassler, M., 12
Kazuhiro, Jo, 250
K-Bow, 74, 350, 582t
Keith McMillan Instruments, 74, 350, 582t
Ken Wheeler Big Band, 143
Kendall, G. S., 259
Kessler, E. J., 478
keyboards
E-mu Systems Emulator, 63
master, 71
pre-electronic, 13, 14t
Khan, Shafqat Ali, 250
KIM-1, 51, 70, 567t, 568t
Kittler, F. A., 216, 217
Klangdom, 186n10
Knapp, R. Benjamin, 248
Koenig, Gottfried Michael
3 Askoe Pieces, 570t
Beitrag, 572t
compositional approach, 74–75, 123–124
Essay, 560t
Funktion Blau, Funktion Indigo, Funktion Violett, and Funktion Grau, 564t
Per Flauti, 577t578t
Project 1 and Project 2, 74, 124, 562t, 563t
randomness and, 49
SSP and, 60, 565t
STEM and, 562t
String quartet 1987, 573t
Terminus I, 562t
Konning, Sophie, 207, 207f
Korg, 65
Korg Karma workstation, 139
Korg M1, 573t
Korg Wavestation, 64
Kraftwerk, 565t
Kramer, G., 321, 326
Krishnan, S., 322
Kristeva, Julia, 290
Krumhansl, C. L., 410
KTH (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan), 37, 482
Kubisch, Christina, because tomorrow comes #2, 344
Kuhn, G., 478
La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia, 567t
Laboratorio Columbiano de Música Electrónica Jacqueline Nova, 574t
Lacan, Jacques, 281, 290
Lady's Glove, 71–72, 243, 574t
LaMuT (Laboratório de Música e Tecnologia), Rio De Janeiro, 575t
Lancino, Thierry, Aloni, 573t
Landy, Leigh, 11, 12, 187n30, 351n5, 483
Lane, Cathy
Hidden Lives, 289–290
on verbal/vocal techniques, 275
language-based synesthesia, 305
(p. 598) Lansky, Paul
Cmix, 53, 96–97, 571t
Idle Chatter, 287–288, 571t
Late August, 282–283
LPC, 94
Night Traffic, 574t
Six Fantasies on a Poem by Thomas Campion, 568t
smalltalk, 282–283
Stroll, 276–277
lanza, alcides
aXents, 5801
ontem, 578t
Vôo, 575t
laptop computers, 347–348, 574t, 575t
laptop music
emergence of practice, 576t
gesture and morphology, importance of, 217–221
gesture and spatialization, 226–228
physical interface and instrument vs., 214–217
Princeton Laptop Orchestra (Plork), 250
ThuMP project, 221–225, 222f, 223f, 224f
timbral composition and, 225–226
Large, E. W., 392
Laserharp, 240
Laske, Otto, 124, 477
Laubier, Serge de, 240
LBDM (Local Boundary Detection Model), 401–402, 402t
Le Caine, Hugh
analog synthesizer, 58
Electronic Sackbut, 235–236, 558t
Serial Sound Structure Generator, 563t
Special Purpose Tape Recorder, 62, 559t
Le Corbusier, 116, 129n11
League of Automatic Music Composers, 70, 142, 459, 568t
learned behavior, music as, 391
learning. See education, music
Legre, 481
Legrenzi, Giovanni, 481
Leigh, Mike, 134
Lemus DSP, 575t
Leonardo Electronic Almanac, 576t
Leonardo Journal of the Arts, Science, and Technology, 564t
Leonardo Music Journal, 575t
Lerdahl, F., 389–390, 393
Leuning, Otto, 48
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 151
Lewis, George
improvisation and, 136, 165, 568t
interactivity work, 127
Voyager, 70, 137–138, 571t, 573t
Wessel and, 250
on Z, 284–285
Lexicon, 564t
Lexicon PC42 digital delay processors, 469–470
life and art, separation and reconnection of, 522–523, 528–529
Lifeworld perception, 221
Ligeti, György
accessibility and, 523
Brattico and Sassanelli on, 479
Double Concerto, 565t
Grand Macabre, Le, 568t
micropolyphony, 186n13
Lightning, 73, 246, 574t
Lightning II, 576t
Lightning Box, 470
Lindemann, Eric, 20
Linux, 575t
LIPM (Laboratorio de Investigacióny Productión Musical), Buenos Aires, 570t
Lippe, Cort
Half-Life, 578t
Max/MSP and, 244–245
Music for Clarinet and ISPW, 244–245
Music for Hi-Hat and Computer, 578t
Music for Sextet and ISPW, 576t
Music for Snare Drum and Computer, 581t
Music for Tuba and Computer, 581t
Xenakis and, 123
LiSa (live sampling) software, 577t
LISP programming language, 56, 76, 560t
listening
different modes of, 303, 528, 539–540
education in, 539–540
empirical research on, 474–476, 479, 483–484
imaginary, 540
interactive music machines and, 461
See also perception
listening grammar, 393–394
Live Algorithms for Music, 185, 459–460
live coding
development of, 27, 57, 580t
electronica and, 348
morphology and, 217–218
OSC and, 57
live mixing in acoustic-digital combination, 180
live sampling, 164–165, 576t
liveness and authenticity, 218–219
Livingstone, S. R., 482
local-field confusion, 227
Locke, John, 487
Logic, 576t, 580t, 581t
Loris DSP, 578t
Loy, Gareth, Nkyia, 568t
LPC (linear predictive coding), 94
LSH (locality-sensitive hashing), 451
Lucas, P. A., 319
Lucier, Alvin
I Am Sitting in a Room, 358, 372, 565t
Music for Solo Performer, 247
Music on a Long Thin Wire, 568t
sound art and, 344
Luenin, Otto, 559t
(p. 599) Lusted, Hugh, 248
Lye, Len, 583n4
Lyotard, J., 474
M software, 55, 71, 118, 572t
Ma Bo, 204
machine listening research, 77, 449–450
machine musicianship, 35–39, 37f, 39–40
machine-learning approaches, 394
Machover, Tod, 30, 241
MacKay, Hannah, 283
MacPod, 95
Maderna, Bruno
Quadrivium, 564t
Studio de Fonologia Musicale, 559t
Maelzel, Johann, 215
magnetic mocap systems, 196
Maiguashca, Mesias, Fmelodies II, 571t
mainframe computers, development of, 49–50
Manchester Mark 1, 558t
Manning, P., 11
Manoury, Philippe, 244
Mantronik, Kurtis, 341
mapping
consequent decision mapping, 180
control mapping, 220
for dance, interactive, 199–200
in generative processes, 365, 365f
one-to-many, 13, 14t, 29, 30
parametric, 322–323
Marcuse, Herbert, 520
Markov chains, 74, 117–118, 404–405
Markov models, 394
Marks, L. E., 301
Martenot, Maurice, 235
Martirano, Salvator, 115
Masaoka, Miya, 247
master keyboards, 71
matched filtering, 437
MatConcat, 424
Mathews, Max, 19f
composition, automated, 33
DAC, first musical use of, 583n6
Daisy Bell (a.k.a. Bicycle Built/or Two), 64, 561t
“The Digital Computer as a Musical Instrument,” 18
GROOVE, 30, 66, 69, 236, 564t
MUSIC-N languages and, 19, 26–27, 47–48, 86–87, 560t
orchestra-score dichotomy and, 25–26
and proliferation of timbres, 22
Radio Baton, 30, 240–241, 573t
RTSKED, 28, 98
Second Law, The, 561t
Maurer, D., 301
Max, 28, 98–100
Max patch, interactive, 288
Max/FTS (Faster Than Sound), 55, 99, 574t
Max/MSP (Max Signal Processing), 56, 99–100, 125–126, 244, 578t, 582t
See also Jitter
Mayuzumi, Toshiro, 559t
McAdams, S., 479
McCartney, James, 56, 100, 127, 577t
McDermott, Drew, 339
McGill University, 253, 562t
McGookin, D. K., 318
McLaren, Norman, 558t
McLuhan, Marshall, 12, 13, 18, 30
MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) sampling, 404–405
mechanical mocap systems, 196
MEGO, 346
Mel frequency cepstral coefficients, 431–433, 432f
Mellotron, 566t
melodic pitch expectancy modeling, 400
melodic segmentation modeling, 400–402, 402t
melodic structure modeling, 410
memory
acoustic-digital combination and, 182
associative, 426, 429
in SoundSpotter, 440–441, 442–443, 443f
Mengelberg, Misha, 242
Mercator, 317
MERL (Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories), 424–425
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 220, 222
Mermikedes, Milton, 446, 450
Merzbow (Masami Akita), 346
Messaien, Olivier
Chronochromie, 306
Ondes Martenot and, 235
meta-composer, 38
meta-creation, 374
meta-improviser, 145
Meta-Instrument, 240
meta-models, 386, 403
MetaSynth, 306, 343
Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, 404–405
Mexico National Conservatory of Music, 564t
Meyer, Leonard B., 129n9, 134
Meyer-Eppler, Werner, 113
MIAM (Dr. Erol ucer Center for Advanced Studies in Music), Istanbul, 578t
microcontrollers, 72
microprocessors
development of, 51, 565t, 568t
real-time synthesis and, 87–88
Microsoft
founded, 567t
Windows, development of, 571t, 574t, 575t, 576t, 577t, 578t, 581t
microsound, 341–343, 342f
microtonal scales, 21–22
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) protocol
automatic transcription and, 36
(p. 600) development of, 24, 36, 53, 67, 570t
limitations and advantages of, 67–68, 73
score following and, 178
MIDIForth, 571t
Miles, James, 271
Milhaud, Darius, 582n2
Mille Plateaux, In Memoriam Gilles Deleuze, 576t577t
Miller, Joan, 87
Miller, John, 495
Mills College, 70
MILNET, 570t
miniaturization of digital circuits, 61–62
minicomputers, development of, 50–51
MiniDisk (Sony), 574t
Minsky, M., 349
MIPS, 583n5
MIR (music information retrieval), 38
Miranda, Eduardo R., 141, 248, 363
mirror neuron system, 301–302
MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), 546, 562t, 566t
mobile telephones, 253
mocap (motion capture), 196
Modalys, 94
model-based sonifications, 323–324
modeling of music cognition and composition
cognition, computational models of, 391–392
cognition, noncomputational models of, 389–391
cognitive science, 384–385
composition, computational cognitive models of, 393–395
computational modeling, 385–386
creative behavior, computational cognitive models of, 386–387
creative behavior, evaluation of, 395–397
descriptive vs. explanatory modeling, 386, 391–392, 481
history of, 75
IDyOM experiments and results, 404–414, 407f, 409t, 413f
IDyOM model, 397–404, 399f, 402t
improvisation and, 141, 143–145
interactive composition and, 480–482
noncognitive systems, 387–388
Moles, Abraham, 113
Momeni, Ali, 252
Mondloch, C. J., 301
Monk, Thelonius, 165
monogram model, 398
Monroe, Marilyn, 448
Moog, Robert, 16, 58, 561t, 563t
Moore, Adrian, 142–143, 186n18
Moore, F. Richard, 30, 52–53, 96, 327, 569t
Moorer, James, 94, 95
morphological approach, 23
Morreli, Davide, 368
MOS Technology, 567t
See also Commodore
MoSievius, 425
motion tracking
in DIEM Digital Dance project, 201–203
levels of, 201
technologies, 194–197
motor control, 137
Motorola microprocessors, 568t, 573t
mouse, 163, 562t
Mozart's musical dice game, 110
MP3, 574t, 577t
MPEG7, 424
MTV, 569t
Mulder, Alex, 194
multicore computers, 581t
multiple-viewpoint system, 397
Mumma, Gordon, 560t
Musaicing, 424
Music, Mind, Machine group, 482
Music and Technology curriculum, 531
Music Box, 572t
music education. See education, music
music festivals, 533n5
Music for Magnetic Tape project, 558t
music industry, 519–521, 532
Music Kit, 572t
Music Mouse, 71, 236, 572t
music notation, 14t, 28, 129n22
Music Performer, 98
Music Sense (BBC), 546
MUSIC V, 26f
The Music Workshop, 551
Music500, 98
musical analysis systems, 77
musical form, education on, 541–542
musical interface design, 197
musical sorting, 426
MUSIC-N languages
control systems and, 66
development of, 19, 25–27, 47–49, 87–88, 560t, 563t, 565t
drawbacks to, 97–98
on microcomputers, 52
Nyquist compared to, 56
wavetable synthesis and, 90
MUSICOMP, 27, 114
music-theory approach, 74, 75, 109–110
musique concrète
acousmatic music and, 23
El-Dabh's “Wire Recorder Piece,” 583n4
elektronische Musik vs., 17, 22, 68
sound recording and, 16
and studio as instrument for composer, 236–237
Musique électroacoustique, La, 530
(p. 601) Musselman, P., 467
MUSYS III, 564t
Myhill, John, 115
Mynatt, E. D., 317
Myuzumi, Toshio, 559t
Nachträglichkeit (afterwardsness), 278–279
Nagashima, Yoichi, 248
Nagra, 577t
Nakra, Teresa Marrin, 248
Nancarrow, Conlon, 13
Narmour, E., 390–391, 401
Native Instruments, 64, 578t
Neilans, Alison, 494
neonatal synethesia hypothesis, 308n6
neophilia, culture of, 158
Net_Dérive, 252
Netscape Navigator, 576t
networks
as basis of generative systems, 358–360, 359f
development of, 31, 31f, 70, 571t
digital art and, 344–345
improvisation and, 142, 164–165
neural, 392, 482
sensor-based instruments and ensembles, 248–251
Neumann, John von, 360, 361
neural networks, 392, 482
New England Digital Corporation, 62
New Order, 351n9
Newton, Isaac, 193
NeXT Computer, 572t
NeXT workstation, 573t
n-gram models, 395, 398–399
NHK studio, 559t
niche cultures, 538
Nicolls, Sarah, 242
NIME (New Interfaces for Musical Expression), 30, 73, 234, 579t
Nintendo Power Glove, 245
Nintendo Wii Remote, 73, 195, 246–247
NKH Electronic Studio, 559t
Nodal networks, 358–359, 359f
nodes, 358
noise music, 345–346
Noise Music practice, 576t
NoiseSpeech, 288, 319, 487
nonlinear interaction, 545
Nono, Luigi
Con Luigi Dallapiccola, 568t
Confrappunto dialettico, 564t
Djamila Boupacha, 562t
Donde estos hermano?, 570t
Fabbrica illuminala, La, 173, 562t
Afloresto é jovem e cheja de vida, 563t
Guai ai gelidi mosfri, 570t
Lonlananza Nostalgia Utopica FMure, La, 574t
Ommagio a Emilio Vedova, 561t
Ommagio a György Kurtág, 570t
A Pierre, 571t
Post-prae-ludium no.1 ‘per Donau’, 573t
Prometeo, 571t
Quando stanno morendo, 570t
nonprogrammatic software, development of, 28
Nord Lead synthesizer, 65, 576t
Norman, Katherine
In Her Own Time, 278–279, 281
on Lane's Hidden Lives, 290
Trying to Translate, 173
North, A. C., 411
NOTAM (Norwegian Network for Technology, Acoustics, and Music), 534n19, 547, 548–551, 576t
notation software, 129n22
NoteAbility Pro, 129n22
notes and intervallic approach, 23
Nyquist, 27, 56
OASIS (Laboratory for Analysis and Synthesis of Image and Sound), 574t
Ohm, George, 430
Ohm's law, 430
Oliveros, Pauline
I of IV, 469
Mnemonics I—V, 469
Sonic Meditations, 566t
Wanderer, 571t
OLPC (One Laptop Per Child), 546–547
OMR (optical music recognition), 36
Ondes Martenot, 215, 235, 249
one-to-many mapping, 30
OOP (object-oriented programming), 99
Opcode Max, 54–55, 574t
open-ended system, instrument as, 238–239
OpenMusic, 126, 578t
optical mocap systems, 196
optical storage disks, 569t
orchestra-score dichotomy, 25–26, 89–90
Organised Sound Journal, 577t
organismal adaptability, 478–480
organized sound, 542
Orman, Daphne
BBC Radiophonic Workshop founded by, 560t
Still Point, 168
Ortiz Pérez, Miguel, 248
Orton, Richard, 97, 126, 155
OSC (Open Sound Control)
development of, 57, 68, 127, 578t
MIDI vs., 73
oscillators, 59–60, 468–469, 566t
Ostertag, Bob
All the Rage, 575t
ensembles and, 250
Lightning and, 246
Oswald, John
Plunderphonics, 335, 340, 425
outside-in systems, 195, 196
outside-time structure, 120–121
overload, 345–346
Pacarana, 61, 582t
Pachet, François, 36–37, 139, 140–141
Page R, 62–63
Paine, G., 186n19
Palladino, D. K., 320
Palmer, Willard, 468
Pandora Project, 208–211
panning, 265, 271
Pape, Gerard
CCMIX under, 578t
Ecstasy of St. Theresa, The, 579t
Héliophonie I, 581t
Héliophonie II, 581t
parametric mapping, 322–323
PARC (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center), 566t
Parker, Evan, 135, 143, 245, 250
Parmegiana, Bernard
accessibility and, 523
Creation Du Monde, La, 571t
Du pop à lʼâne, 340
Popʼeclectic, 340
Pasquet, Olivier, La Légende des siècles, 425
Patcher, 54–55
PatchWork, 577t
Patten, James, 245–246
pattern language, 389
Patterson, R. D., 316
Paul, Les, 559t
Pauletto, S., 322
PCM (pulse code modulation), 565t
PCs (personal computers), development of, 51–54, 55
PeerSynth, 251
perception
across senses (See algorithmic synesthesia)
cognitive adaptability and, 477–480
computation of perceptual similarity, 422
of computer-generated sounds, 484–487
spatial (See spatialization)
See also listening
performance ecosystems, 372
Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista, 345
Perkis, Tim
in The Hub, 249
in League of Automatic Music Composers, 70
Touch Typing, 163
phantom imaging, 261
phase vocoder, 21, 94–95, 276, 580t
phenomenology, 220–221, 222, 462
phenotypes, 144, 356–357, 366, 369
Philips, 78, 562t, 569t
Philips Pavilion, Brussels (1958), 116, 129n11, 560t
Philips Research Laboratories, 560t
phrase segmentation model, 400–402, 402t
phrase structure modeling, 411
Phuture, Acid Tracks, 342
physical computing, 349
physical feedback, 357–358
physical modeling synthesis, 20, 64–65, 92–93, 561t
physicality and liveness, 219
physics of music, education on, 540–541
piano, sensor-based, 242
PIC (programmable integrated circuit), 243–244
Picard, Anna, 533n5
Piché, Jean
Bharat, 580t
A Cervantes, 579t
Dangerous Kitchen, The, 576t
eXpress, 578t579t
Pierce, John, 47, 48, 128n7, 583n6
PILE, 60, 124, 567t
Pilkington, R. M., 327
pitch, 21–22
pitch and rhythm model, 392
pitch range modeling, 410
pitch-duration paradigm, 152–153
pitch-motion, 154
Platypus, 101, 571t
player pianos, 13
Pluggo, 102
plug-ins, 101–102, 577t
POD (Poisson distribution) programs, 59, 565t, 566t
polyphony, 122
Ponsford, D., 395
Portable Pure Tuning, 547
Porter, Brad, 271
postdigital, 341
Potard, Yves, 93
PowerBooks Unplugged, 335
PowerPC processor, 575t, 576t
practice-led research, 476–477
precedence effects, 265
preference rule models, 392
Pressing, Jeff, 137
prime scale, 476
Princeton Laptop Orchestra (Plork), 250, 581t
Princeton Sound Kitchen, 576t
Princeton Sound Lab, 577t
Princeton “Underground Laboratory” Electronic Music Studio, 564t, 567t
Pro Tools 1 DAW, 575t
(p. 603) Pro Tools LE, 578t
process aesthetics, 376
process music, 426–428
processed audification, 322
Propellerhead Software, 579t
PSOLA (pitch-synchronous overlap-add) speech synthesis, 423–424
psychoacoustics, 22, 541
psychology of electronic music, 478, 479–480
Puckette, Miller
graphical patching languages and, 28
GUI and, 98
Patcher and Opcode Max, 54–55, 572t
plug-ins and, 102
Pure Data (Pd), 55–56
PulsarSynthesis, 579t
punched cards, 48
Pure Data (Pd)
bonk object, 434, 435
development of, 55–56, 100, 578t
SoundSpotter interface in, 439
PVOC (Phase VOCoder), 95
Pythagoras, 109
quanta, 117, I29n14
Quasar M8, 62, 567t
quefrency domain, 433
QuickTime, 575t
Raaijmakers, Dick, 242
Raalte, Chris van, 248
RAAM, 392
radio, online, 525
Radio Baton, 30, 240–241, 573t
Radiohead, In Rainbows, 350
Raes, Godfried-Willem, 467
Rai, Takayuki
Impulse, 576t
Kinetic Figuration, 576t
Lucent Aquarelle, 579t
Sparkle, 574t
RAI Studio de Fonologia Musicale, 559t
randomness approach, 74–75
RCA Mark II Synthesizer, 58, 560t
R-DAT (digital audio tape), 572t
Reactable, 246
Reaktor, 578t
realism, 20
real-time compositional algorithms, 127
real-time processing and performance
development of, 18, 24, 28, 70–71
frequency and timbre domain, 175–176
out-of-time vs., 4
real-time synthesis, development of, 60, 87–88
real-time synthesizers, development of, 20
Reaper, 268, 269
Reason 1.0, 579t
recording industry, 519–521, 532
Rehberg, Pita, 250
Reich, Steve, 334
Come Out, 426, 427
Different Trains, 172
It's Gonna Rain, 426, 427, 563t
Music for 18
Musicians, 356, 567t
Pendulum Music, 357–358
Piano Phase, 426
on rhythms, 363
soundspotting and, 426–427
Violin Phase, 426
remixing and reusing, 339–341
Remix-TV, 425
repetition, avoidance of, 172, 185n4
Respighi, Ottorini, Pines of Rome, 168
response time and interactive dance, 198
ResRocket, 251
reverberation
development of, 17
EMT's first digital reverb unit, 567t
spatialization and, 263–264, 265–266
Reynolds, Roger
Angel of Death, 479
Archipelago, 570t
Reynolds, Simon, 337, 339
rhythmic structure modeling, 411–412, 412t
Richardson, Ingrid, 220, 222–223
Riley, Terry, In C, 357, 426–427
RISC (reduced instruction set computing), 572t
Rishman, Rajil, 97
Risset, Jean-Claude
Autre Face, Lʼ, 570t
catalog of sound synthesis with MUSIC V instruments, 564t
Confield, 339
French exams and, 533n6
Mutations, 22, 23
Sud, 571t
Ritchie, Dennis, 565t
Roads, Curtis
Clang-Tint, 576t
Cloud Generator, 577t
on frequency domain, 176
granular synthesis and, 95, 566t
graphical patching languages and, 28
International Computer Music Association and, 568t
microsound book, 342
POINT LINE CLOUD, 580t
PulsarSynthesis, 579t
Xenakis and, 123
robots
musical, 36, 139, 574t, 581t
UNIMATE, 561t
Robust Distributed Intelligent System for Telematic Applications, 471
(p. 604) Rockmore, Clara, 215
Rodet, Xavier, 93
Rokeby, David, 127, 198–199
Roland, 65
Rosenboom, David
On Being Invisible II, 577t
Bell Solaris, 578t
biofeedback and, 247
Departure, 569t
Systems of Judgement, 573t
Zones of Influence, 571t572t
Ross, Alex, 518
Rovan, Joseph Butch, 199, 245
Rowe, Robert, 37f, 124, 481
Royal College of Music (London) Electronic Music Studio, 563t
Royal Conservatory of The Hague, Netherlands, 572t
RS232 serial communication standard, 564t
RTCmix, 96
RTF, Paris, 559t
RTSKED, 28, 98
Rubin Academy of Music, Tel-Aviv University, 566t
Ruebsaat, Norbert, 278
Ruiz, Perre, 92
rule-based composition
Movement Study (Siegel), 203, 204–206
music-theory approach, 74, 75, 109–110
rules
in cognitive modeling, 387, 390, 392
empirical vs. logical, 184
Rungsarityotin, W., Listening Sky, 372
Rutherford, J., 388
Ruttman, Walter, 583n4
Ryan, Joel, 242, 245, 250
Ryrie, Kim, 62
Rythmicon device, 110
Saariaho, Kaija
Amers, 575t
audio sensing and, 244
From the Grammar of Dreams, 580t
Jardin Secret I, 572t
Petals, 573t
Six Japanese Gardens, 576t
Tag des Jahrs, 581t
Sackbut, Electronic, 235–236, 558t
Sadai, Yizhak, 566t
Saffran, J. R., 478
Sakka, Mata, 204
SAL (Simple Algorithmic Language), 56
Sala, Oskar, 215, 235
Sal-Mar Construction, 115
sampling
development of, 21, 62–63
electronica, copyright, and, 339–341
live, 164–165
Samson, Peter, 60, 568t
Samson Box, 60–61, 568t
San Francisco Tape Center, 468
Sassanelli, F., 479
Saunders, Helen, 204, 212
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 474
SAWDUST system, 60, 365t
SBass controller, 579t
scales, alternative, 476
Scaletti, Carla, 28, 61, 100–101, 126, 312–313
Scelsi, Giacinto
Aitsi, 566t
String Quartet No. 4, 562t
String Quartet No. 5, 572t
Schaeffer, Pierre
Courante-Roucante, 340
direct manipulation and, 236
étude aux Chemins de Fer, 16, 558t
on listening, 528, 539
Orphée 51, 168
on sounds, 474–475
Symphonie our un homme seul, 558t
on tempered musical scale, 476
timbral characteristics, focus on, 22–23
Schafer, R. Murray, 346, 540
Schellenberg, E. G., 400
Scherpenisse, Jo, 58, 60
Schiemer, Greg, 253
Schillinger, Joseph, 110–111
Schillinger System of Music Composition, The (Schillinger), 110–111
Schloss, Andrew, 241
Schmidt, Irmin, 342
Schoenberg, Arnold
5 Orchestral Piece, 152
modernist application of algorithms, 38–39
perpetual variation, 185n4
serialist school, 17
Schutz, Alfred, 461
scores
fixed, flexible, and open, 177, 177f
machine recognition of, 36–37
orchestra-score dichotomy, 25–26, 89–90
score following, 178, 180, 436
Scott, Raymond, 336, 561t
Scott de Martinville, Edouard-Léon, 16
ScrambledHackz, 425
Scriabin, Alexander, 295
segmentation
melodic segmentation modeling in IDyOM, 400–402, 402t
perception and detection of, 486–487
in soundspotting, 433–436, 436f
selective availability (SA), 251
self-organization, 364–365, 462
SenSAs (Sensor-Speaker-Arrays), 227, 244
sensor interface boxes, 71–72
Sensorband, 73, 243, 249–250, 576t
SensorLab, 243, 573t, 575t
(p. 605) sensors, motion tracking, 194–195, 202–203
Sensors_Sonics_Sights, 250
sensory dissonance, 351n12
sensory interaction. See algorithmic synesthesia
sensory overload, 305
sentics, 477
Seoul National University, 569t
sequence matching in soundspotting, 436–439, 437f, 438f
sequencers, 171, 546
Sequential Circuits, 58, 64, 67
Serial Sound Structure Generator, 563t
serialist school of composition, 17, 111, 123–124
Sessions, Roger, 113
Sethares, Bill, 476
Settel, Zack
GPS and, 253
Hok Pwah, 244–245
Max/MSP and, 244–245
Severinghaus, Ed, 248
Shannon, Claude, 112
Shapira, Arie, 578t
shareware, 526–527
sheet music and OMR, 36
shudder, 154–155
Siegel, Wayne
Movement Study, 203, 204–206
Sisters, 203, 207–208, 207f
Siemens AG, 561t
Sievers, Beau, Soundspotting Marilyn, 448, 449f
sieves, 121
signal processing
education on, 541
electronic, 17
event processing vs., 175
processed audification, 322
signals and events, integration of, 171
Silophone project, 345
Silverberg, Robert, 345
Simon, H. A., 389
Sinclair ZX80, 569t
Sine Wave Orchestra, 250
Six-Trak, 64
Sloboda, J. A., 478
Smalley, Dennis
Clarinet Threads, 172, 572t
fugu transformation and, 154
on listening, 539
on sonorizing, 226
spectro-morphology theory, 475
Vortex, 570t
Wind Chimes, 573t
Smith, Hazel
Erotics of Gossip, The (Smith and Dean), 248, 288
on nonlinear interaction, 545
Nuraghic Echoes (Smith and Dean), 248
Space o/History, The, 286
Snow, Michael, Wavelength, 141
Sobotnick, Morton, 547
Société des Arts Technologiques (SAT), McGill University, 253
Soft VNS, 127
Sommers, Christina Hoff, 495
Sonami, Laetitia
accelerometers and, 246–247
Lady's Glove, 72–73, 243, 575t
sonic art, 158–159, 344
Sonic Arts Research Centre (SARC), Belfast, 579t
Sonic Boom exhibition (Hayward Gallery), 344
Sonic Postcards, 547
sonification
acoustic generation and, 325–326
classification of, 314–315
continuous data representations (CDRs), 321–323
data music, 328–329
definitions of, 76–77, 312–314
discrete data representations (DDRs), 316–320
empirical research on, 482–483
excitation-sonification models, 217–218
interactive data representations, 323–324
model-based, 323–324
need for better tools, 324–325
research on, 326–328
synesthesia and, 302–303
visual music and, 29
Sonification Report, 313, 324
Sonology Institute
developments at, 58, 59, 60, 66, 71
digital control of analog studio, 567t
move from Utrech University to Royal Conservatory, 572t
as STEM, 561t, 562t, 563t
sonorizing, 226
Sony
DAT (digital audiotape) format, 21
floppy disks, 569t
MiniDisk, 575t
PCM-F1, 570t
writeable CD, 574t
Sorensen, Andrew, 57, 580t
sorting, musical, 426
sound art, 343–344
sound diffusion, 226–227
sound graphs, 323
sound installations, interactive, 527
Sound Loom, 156
Sound Organiser, 530
sound organization, 528
sound recording, development of, 16–17, 20–21
sound synthesis, analog, 16, 58
sound synthesis, digital
(p. 606) algorithmic composition and, 125–126
development of, 18, 19–20, 59–65
instruction (nonlinear), 60
sonification and, 326
sound synthesis, evolution of
overview, 19–20, 85
alternatives to Csound, 96–101
CSIRAC, 86
hardware developments, 58–64
MUSIC-N vs. Csound, 87–90
plugs-ins, 101–102
synthesis methods, 64–65, 89–95
video processing and, 103
Sound Tools, 573t
sound-based music, 527, 528–532, 533n2
Sound-beam system, 240
SoundField microphones, 269
SoundHack, 54, 575t
SoundHack Spectral Shapers DSP, 580t
soundscape composition genre, 540
SoundSpotter
overview, 428–430
accumulating (dynamic) source memory, 440–441
audio features, 430–433
development of, 424–425
feature selection (loBasis, basisRange), 441, 442f
feedback matching, 444
future research, 448–451
interface, 439–440
long-term memory loss (LoSec) and short-term memory loss (HiSec), 442–443, 443f
match control (distance), 441
matching without replacement (frameQueue), 443–444
mode control, 440
performed works using, 444–448, 447f
segmentation, 433–436, 436f
sequence length (window), 441
sequence matching, 436–439, 437f, 438f
video synchrony with, 448, 449f
soundspotting
overview, 421–423, 422f
audiovisual, 448, 449f, 451
future research, 448–451
history of, 423–425
multitrack, 450–451
process music, relationship to, 425–428
SoundWire, 251, 470
SourceForge, 425
space and voice, relationship between, 275–276
Spacewar computer game, 562t
SPASM (Singing Physical Articulatory Synthesis Model), 93–94
spatialization
overview, 258–259
accessibility of, 157
in acoustic-digital combination, 173–174
composition environment and, 270–271
development of, 17, 21, 22
immersion, 260–261
new encoding strategies, 267–270
new spatial metaphors, 270
perception of real and artificial sound, 259–260
space, kinds of concepts of, 262
spatial meaning and auditory displays, 262–267, 263f
stereo, 262–263
surround sound, 262, 264–266, 268
speaker layout agnosticism, 267–268
SPEAR, 581t
spearcons (speech earcons), 319, 320
spectral freezing, 154
spectro-morphology, 475
speech
as model of musical organization, 153
NoiseSpeech, 288, 319, 487
sonification and, 313
vocal modeling, 93–94
speech recognition and synesthesia, 298
speech synthesis, 423–424
Speeth, S. D., 321
Spider, 243
Spiegel, Laurie
gender and, 495
Music Mouse, 71, 236, 572t
VAMPIRE, 69, 567t
Squarepusher, 335, 534n22
SSP (Sound Synthesis Program) development of, 60, 565t
SSSP (Structured Sound Synthesis Program), 59–60, 568t
stacking, 154
Stanford University, 60–61, 93–94, 472n14, 566t567t
State University of New York, Albany, 58, 564t
statistical learning, 478
Steiger, Rand, Cryosphere, 582t
STEIM
formation of, 563t
hypercello, 242
Image/ine, 578t
JunXion, 579t
Korg M1 development, 573t
as leading center, 242–243
LiSa (live sampling) software, 576t
SensorLab, 71–72, 575t
Waisvisz and, 566t
Steinberg
ASIO, 578t
Cubase 1.0, 574t
Cubase Audio DAW, 575t
Pro-16, 571t
(p. 607) VST plug-in, 578t
Steinem, Gloria, 495
STEM (Studio voor electronische musiek), Utrecht University, 561t, 562t, 563t
stereo, 262–263
stereo diffusion, 228
Stevenson, Ian, 222
stochastics
Hiller and Isaacson's model, 387–388
stochastic processes, defined, 112
Xenakis and, 116–117, 119–120
Stockhausen, Karlheinz
analog synthesis and, 58
control systems and, 66
elektronische Musik and, 17
on frequency domain, 176
Gesang der Jiinglinge, 487, 560t
Gruppen, 560t
Hymnen, 563t
Klavierstuck XI, 118
Kontakte, 17, 178, 561t
Licht, 580t
Mantra, 565t
Mikrophonie, 69
Mikrophonie I, 562t
on repetition, 185n4
Samstag Aus Licht, 570t
Solo, 563t
Stimmung, 564t
Studie I, 559t
Studie II, 22, 66, 559t
Telemusik, 340
Stockholm Elektron Musik Studion (EMS), 58, 562t
Stone, Peter, 126
Stone, Phil, 249
stopwatch time, 178–179
Storino, M., 481
STORM, 246
Strawn, John, 568t
StringPort, 74, 350, 582t
Strong, Alex, 92
Stroppa, Marco
In cielo, in terra, in mare, 575t
Traeittoria, 574t
Structure and Perception of Electroacoustic Sound and Music symposium, 477–478
Studio Für Electronische Musik, 561t
style, musical, cognitive processing of, 481
subjectivity, 461, 462
Subotnick, Morton, Key to Songs, 172
substrate, 356
Suchman, Lucy, 460, 462
Sumner, R. K., 389
Sun Microsystems, 576t
Super Audio CD (SACD), 578t
SuperCollider
development of, 27, 56–57, 100, 577t, 580t
Open Sound Control and, 127
superfoot, 470
surround sound, 262, 264–266, 268
Swarm Music systems, 365
Symbolic Composer, 126, 575t
symbolic music (Xenakis), 119
symbolic representation, 315
Symbolic Sound Corporation, 61, 101, 126, 578t, 580t, 582t
synchresis, 193
synchrony and synchronization
control and, 178–179
dance and freedom from linear time, 193–194
synesthesia and, 299, 304, 306
Synclavier, 62, 63, 567t, 568t
synesthesia. See algorithmic synesthesia
Synful Orchestra, 20
synthesis algorithms. See sound synthesis, digital
Synthesis Toolkit (STK), 577t
synthesizers, analog, 16
synthesizers, digital, development of, 20, 63–65
Szajner, Bernard, 240
Tabula Vigilans, 126
tactile feedback and interactive dance, 198
Takemitsu, Toru
Arc, 562t
Dialogue, 560t
Jikken Kobo founded by, 559t
Tal, Joseph, 561t
Taller Experimental de Sonido, 560t
TamTam, 547
Tanaka, Atau, 73
Tandy TRS-80, 568t
tape delay system, 468–469
tape recorders, history of, 558t, 559t, 569t, 583n3
tape recording, 17, 428, 469, 564t
Taube, Heinrich, 115, 126
Tazelaar, Kees
Depths of Field, 578t
Sternflüstern, 580t
TCP (network protocol), 566t, 568t
TCP/IP protocol, 568t, 569t, 570t, 571t
Technics, 569t
Tel-Aviv University, 566t
Telematic Circle, 470–471
telematic performance, 470–471
telephones, mobile, 253
television, 521
telharmonium, 16, 22, 215
tempered musical scale, 476
Temperley, D., 392, 393, 410, 482
Templaars, Stan, 60, 566t
tempo
control over, 171–172, 178–179
dance and freedom from linear time, 193–194
events and time shift, 174–175
(p. 608) Tenney, James
Analog #1: Noise Study, 48, 562t
automated composition, use of, 33
Bell Labs and, 48, 562t
Collage #1 (Blue Suede), 340
Four Stochastic Studies, 48, 562t
PF2 program, 562t
at University of Illinois, 114
Termen, Lev, 16
Teruggi, Daniel, Sphaera, 576t
Texas Instruments, 560t
texturing, 154
Thall, David, 580t
Thatcher, Margaret, 281–282
theremin, 16, 68, 215–216, 235, 249, 250
Theremin, Leon, 58, 110, 235
Thigpen, Benjamin
0.95652174913, 581t
Angel of Death, The, 579t
ThinkPad laptop, 575t
three-dimensional synesthesia, 307
Throbbing Gristle, 345–346
ThuMP (Thummer Mapping Project), 221–225, 222f, 223f, 224f
Thunder, 73, 246, 250, 574t
timbre
perception of, 486
pitch, bridge to, 22
pitch-duration paradigm and, 152
proliferation of, 22
shift from note-driven to timbral composition, 222
spatialized, 173–174
theremin and, 216
timbre domain, 176
time domain waveset distortion, 155–156
time perception and improvisation, 141–142
time stretching, 154–155
timescales, 22, 164
See also tempo
Tintinnabulate, 470
Tipei, Sever, 115
TK/Tcl, 156
Toch, Ernst, 582n2
Todd, P. M., 141, 368–369
Toivainen, P., 479–480
tonal structure modeling, 410–411
Tone, Yasunao, 342
Tonkiss, Fran, 278
top-down systems, 390
touch and acoustic-digital combination, 183
traditional music, marginalization of, 519–523
transcription, automatic, 36–37
transduction, 235
transformation, 170–171, 173–174
transformational creativity, 387
trautonium, 215
Trautwein, Friedrich Adolf, 215, 235
Trayle, Mark, 249
Trevor, Matt, 271
TRS-80, 568t
Truax, Barry
on gender, 286–287
granular synthesis and, 95
Koenig and, 124
POD, 59, 566t
Powers of Two: The Artists, 287
Song of Songs, 287
Wings of Nike, The, 287
Trueman, Dan, 226–227
Tudor, David
biofeedback, use of, 247
Rainforest IV, 566t
Soundings: Ocean Diary, 576t
tuning
acoustic instruments vs. computers and, 138–139
alternative systems of, 476, 547
arbitrary tuning systems, 21–22
See also pitch
Turbosynth, 78, 573t
Turing Machine, 428
Turing tests
emulation and, 24
improvisation and, 144
interactivity and, 182
on musical styles, 481
n-gram models and, 395
turntables, 569t
turntablism, 237
Tutschku, Hans, Zellen-Linien, 174
2020 Re:Vision concert, 228
typewriters, 216
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 568t
UFMG (Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil), 574t
Uitti, Frances-Marie, 242
Ulam, Stanislaw, 360
UltraVideo Conferencing, 470
uncertainty principle, 176
Ungvary, Tamas, Gypsy Children's Giant Dance with Ili Fourier, 570t
UNIMATE robot, 561t
unit generator (UGen), 26, 47
Universidad Autónoma de Manizales, Columbia, 574t
University of Adelaide, Australia, 564t, 578t579t
University of Buenos Aires, 560t
University of Buffalo, 116, 564t
University of California at Berkeley, 68, 73, 242
University of California at San Diego (UCSD), 52–53, 55–56, 95, 96, 568t
University of Chile, 574t
University of Illinois, 114–115, 561t
University of Natal, Durban, South Africa, 565t
University of Toronto Electronic Studios, 561t
(p. 609) UNIX
BSD, 567t
development of, 52, 564t, 566t
unpredictability in generative processes, 375
UPIC (Unite Polyagogique Informatique du CEMAMu), 61, 66, 568t, 571t
Ussachevsky, Vladimir
Columbia University Electronic Music Center, 559t
Linear Contrasts, 561t
MUSIC-N and, 48
Wireless Fantasy, 561t
Utrecht University, 561t, 572t
Vaggione, Horacio
Agon, 578t
Cantata I, 562t
Ensayo sobre mezcla de sonidos, 562t
Gymel, 580t
Kitab, 575t
S×ir, 579t
Taléas, 581t
Tar, 172
Thema, 572t
VAMPIRE (Video and Music Program for Interactive Realtime Exploration/Experimentation), 69, 567t
van der Heide, Edwin, 73, 243, 249–250
Van Nort, Doug, 471
Varèse, Edgar
Déserts, 559t
early activity by, 582n2
MUSIC-N and, 48
on organized sound, 542
Poème électronique, 560t
theremin and, 235
VAX-11/780, 51
Verbrugge, R. R., 485
Vercoe, Barry
Csound, 53, 87–88, 89, 98, 571t
at ICMC, 571t
MUSIC-N and, 52, 565t
Synapse, 567t
Vertov, Dziga, 583n4
Very Nervous System, 127, 198
Victoria University Electronic Music Studio, 563t
video processing, 103, 127
videocassette recorders
history of, 560t, 568t
PCM-F1, 569t
videospotting, 451
ViMic, 470
Viñao, Alejandro
Epitafios, 578t
Toccata del Maga, 573t
Viola, Bill
Hallway Nodes, 344
on senses, 295
violin, spatial filtering audio diffuser of, 226
virtual communities, 526
virtual music, 481
virtual reality (VR) systems, 245
virtuosity, virtual, 164
visual music, development of, 29
visual-auditory interactions. See algorithmic synesthesia
visuals in live electronica, 347–348
Viterbi algorithm, 394
VL1 and VP1 Virtual Acoustic synthesizers, 64–65, 93
vocal modeling, 93–94
Vocaloid software, 20
Vocoders
analog, 94
phase vocoder, 21, 94–95, 276, 580t
Vogel, Peter, 62
voice
overview, 274–275
community, social interactions, and, 287–290
and identities, human to nonhuman, 280–287
place, relationship to, 275–280
voicescapes, 275, 287
VOSIM (Voice Simulator) oscillators, 59–60, 566t
Voyager, 70, 137–138, 571t, 572t
VST (Virtual Studio Technology)
Cubase VST2, 578t
development of, 56, 101, 577t
spatialization and, 268
Vygotsky, Lev, 544
WABOT-2, 36, 571t
Wagner, Richard, 295
wah-wah pedal, 165
Waisvisz, Michel, 242–243, 566t, 571t
Walker, B. N., 320
Wallace, Alfred Russell, 366
Wang, Ge, 57, 250, 253, 580t
Ward, J., 303–304
Ward, W. D., 483
warning, auditory, 316, 483
Warren, W. H., 485
Waseda University, 36, 571t, 574t, 581t
Waters, Simon, Virtual/Physical Feedback Instrument, 373
Wave Field Synthesis, 269, 573t, 581t
waveforms
GENDYN and, 122
on McLaren soundtracks, 558t
soundspotting and, 423, 430–431
SSP and SAWDUST and, 60
stochastics and, 121
waveguides and physical modeling, 64
waveset distortion, 154, 155–156
wavetable synthesis, development of, 21, 90
WDR (Westdeutscher Runfunk), 559t
The Web, 243
(p. 610) WebCrawler, 576t
Webern, Anton, 485
Wechsler, Robert, 199–200
Weinberg, G., 31, 31f
Weiss, Frieder, 199
Werner, G. M., 308, 368–369
Wessel, David
Anthony, 71, 568t
CNMAT and, 242
Thunder and, 246, 250
Westerkamp, Hildegard, A Walk Through the City, 277–278
Whistler, James McNeill, 295
white out, 154
Windows, development of, 571t, 574t, 575t, 577t, 579t, 581t
Windsor, L. W., 483
Winham, Godfrey, 87, 565t
Winham Sound Laboratory, Princeton, 567t, 576t
Wishart, Trevor
Anticredos, 172, 569t
Brattico and Sassanelli on, 479
Composers Desktop Project and, 126
Globalalia, 156
Imago, 153–155
phase vocoder and, 95
Red Bird, 151–152, 568t
on shift to timbral composition, 222
on sonic art, 344
on sound objects, 343
Tongues of Fire, 576t
Voiceprints, 281–282
Vox 5, 276, 572t
Wolpe, Stephan, 582n2
World Wide Web (WWW)
browsers, 576t
conference on, 576t
first software for, 575t
search engines, 576t
worm virus, 573t
Wright, Matt, 68
X.25 networking, 566t
Xenakis, Iannis
Achorripsis, 117
Analogique A and B, 118
as architect, 116
Ata, 123, 362
Ateliers UPIC, 571t
Atrées, 117
Bohor, 562t
Boolean logic and symbolic music, 119–120
Brownian motion and arborescences, 121–122
CECM and, 563t
cellular automata, use of, 122–123, 362
CEMAMu and, 365t
compositional approach, 74–75
Concrète P.H., 560t
Crisis of Serial Music, The, 559t
Le Diatope, 66, 568t
Duel, 118
Eonta, 119
Erikhthon, 122
Free Stochastic Music, 74
game theory, 118
GENDY3, 575t
GENDYN, 60, 122, 574t
granular synthesis and, 95
group theory and outside-time operations, 120–121
Herma, 119
Hibiki-Hana-Ma, 565t
Horos, 123, 362
improvisation and, 181
influence of, 118, 123
instruction synthesis and, 60
Jonchaies, 121
Kraanerg, 564t
Kyania, 123
Legende dʼEr, La, 568t
Linaia-Agon, 129n15
Markov chains, 117–118
Metastasis, 116, 559t
Mikka and Mikka “S”, 122
Moles and, 113
Morsima-Amorisima, 117
Mycenae-Alpha, 568t
Nomos Alpha, 120
Persèpolis, 565t
Pithoprakta, 77, 116, 560t
Pleides, 568t
Polytope de Cluny, 66, 565t
Polytope de Montréal, 563t
program for stochastic music composition, 562t
Psappha, 121, 567t
randomness and, 49
Serment, 121
sieves theory, 121
ST programming, 117, 119
ST series, 562t
stochastics, 116–117
Stratégie, 118
Syrmos, 118
Terretektorh, 563t
UPIC, 61, 66, 568t
XSPIF, 102
yahaSALmaMac, 115
Yamaha
CX5M, 571t
digital mixer, 576t
Disklavier, 36
DX7, 20, 24, 63, 92, 570t
FM algorithm and, 92, 566t
(p. 611) GS1 and GS2, 63, 569t
VL1 and VP1 Virtual Acoustic synthesizers, 64–65, 93, 576t
Young, Iris Marion, 287
Young, La Monte
Composition No. 10, 357
Dream House, 344
Well Tuned Piano, A, 562t
Young, Michael, 460
Yuasa, Joji, 559t
Z, Pamela
BodySynth and, 248
Bone Music, 284
Gaijin, 279–280
Geekspeak, 285–286
Lewis on, 284–285
“Pop Titles ‘You’”, 284
Questions, 284
Zhang Xiaofu, 576t
Zicarelli, David
M and Jam Factory, 55, 71, 573t
Max and, 56, 99–100
plug-ins and, 102
Xenakis and, 118
Zinovieff, Peter, 58, 62, 564t
ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie), 186n10, 574t
Zorn, John, 134