- The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music
- Introduction: The Many Futures of Computer Music
- A Historical View of Computer Music Technology
- Early Hardware and Early Ideas in Computer Music: Their Development and Their Current Forms
- Sound Synthesis Using Computers
- Computational Approaches to Composition of Notated Instrumental Music: Xenakis and the Other Pioneers
- Envisaging Improvisation in Future Computer Music
- Computer Music: Some Reflections
- Some Notes on My Electronic Improvisation Practice
- Combining the Acoustic and the Digital: Music for Instruments and Computers or Prerecorded Sound
- Dancing the Music: Interactive Dance and Music
- Gesture and Morphology in Laptop Music Performance
- Sensor-Based Musical Instruments and Interactive Music
- Spatialization and Computer Music
- The Voice in Computer Music and Its Relationship to Place, Identity, and Community
- Algorithmic Synesthesia
- An Introduction to Data Sonification
- Generative Algorithms for Making Music: Emergence, Evolution, and Ecosystems
- Computational Modeling of Music Cognition and Musical Creativity
- Soundspotting: A New Kind of Process?
- Interactivity and Improvisation
- From Outside the Window: Electronic Sound Performance
- Empirical Studies of Computer Sound
- Toward the Gender Ideal
- Sound-Based Music 4 All
- Framing Learning Perspectives in Computer Music Education
- Appendix: A Chronology of Computer Music and Related Events
Abstract and Keywords
The world of the acoustic instrument has changed profoundly in the wake of the onslaught of electronic sound and media. A very important development was to combine the acoustic instrument with prerecorded sound on a fixed medium. While the emphasis in this article is on the contemporary digital world, it also discusses its analog prehistory. This article discusses how the instrumentalist responds—literally and musically—to this disembodied “other” (even when it is a mirror image). Whether as extension to the human performer's mind and body or as an independent performer in its own right, the computer is helping develop new forms of music-making, but the future is never predictable. Live coding, circuit bending, and dirty electronics have all challenged the prevailing orthodoxy of “steady improvement in technical performance.” Human creativity works well with limits—a limit is not necessarily a limitation. What form self-imposed limits take will be the question.
Simon Emmerson, De Montfort University.
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