- The Oxford Handbook of Computer Music
- Introduction: The Many Futures of Computer Music
- A Historical View of Computer Music Technology
- Early Hardware and Early Ideas in Computer Music: Their Development and Their Current Forms
- Sound Synthesis Using Computers
- Computational Approaches to Composition of Notated Instrumental Music: Xenakis and the Other Pioneers
- Envisaging Improvisation in Future Computer Music
- Computer Music: Some Reflections
- Some Notes on My Electronic Improvisation Practice
- Combining the Acoustic and the Digital: Music for Instruments and Computers or Prerecorded Sound
- Dancing the Music: Interactive Dance and Music
- Gesture and Morphology in Laptop Music Performance
- Sensor-Based Musical Instruments and Interactive Music
- Spatialization and Computer Music
- The Voice in Computer Music and Its Relationship to Place, Identity, and Community
- Algorithmic Synesthesia
- An Introduction to Data Sonification
- Generative Algorithms for Making Music: Emergence, Evolution, and Ecosystems
- Computational Modeling of Music Cognition and Musical Creativity
- Soundspotting: A New Kind of Process?
- Interactivity and Improvisation
- From Outside the Window: Electronic Sound Performance
- Empirical Studies of Computer Sound
- Toward the Gender Ideal
- Sound-Based Music 4 All
- Framing Learning Perspectives in Computer Music Education
- Appendix: A Chronology of Computer Music and Related Events
Abstract and Keywords
The primary focus of this article is the evolution of computer-based techniques of sound synthesis for composition and performance, with a particular emphasis on the development of software applications for an environment that is now increasingly based on the technology of desktop and laptop computing. The perspective that emerges necessarily intersects with other aspects of sound synthesis and signal processing, for example, the development of systems designed in the first instance for digital mixing and recording, and the musical instrument digital interface-based world of the commercial synthesizer and associated products that rely primarily or sometimes exclusively on the characteristics of custom-designed hardware. Today, the possibilities of software sound synthesis are for the most part limited only by the imagination of composers and performers and their ability to articulate these ideas in ways that can be practically realized. Such favorable conditions for engaging with the medium, however, are relatively new.
Peter Manning, University of Durham
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