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date: 15 September 2019

(p. 663) Index

(p. 663) Index

abandonment 1, 2, 9, 26, 49, 63, 83–101, 138, 139, 227, 238, 252, 260, 286, 287–9, 298, 383, 468, 479, 488, 490, 506, 510, 565, 573, 648, 655. See also exposure
abdomen 115
abortifacients 25–6
abortion 18, 25–7, 31, 32, 35, 46, 51, 56, 83, 86, 92, 138, 565
abscess 114
Academy (of Athens) 429, 431, 432, 434
accidents 122, 126, 132, 260, 310, 385, 455, 560, 561, 563, 565
acculturation 213, 264, 278, 281, 390, 533, 542, 544, 553, 651. See also socialization
Achaea (Roman Greece) 93, 96
Achilles 149, 154, 158, 159, 227, 232, 237–43, 252, 253, 255, 256, 258, 259, 447, 453, 472
adolescence, adolescents 7, 120, 168, 172, 196, 198, 199, 200, 203, 204, 207, 208, 211, 212, 214, 215, 220, 221, 222, 314, 473, 533, 542, 547, 549, 550, 569, 644, 649, 652, 654
adsertores 96
adulescens 7, 270
adultery 20, 26, 86, 356, 657
Aegean 438, 452, 629
Aelian 97, 438
Aemilius Paulus, L. 279, 280
Aeneas 154, 238, 252–7, 650
Aeneid. See Vergil
Aeschines 407, 421, 433
Aetius (medical writer) 53, 129
affection 2, 41, 43, 46, 52, 164, 166, 167, 221, 228, 270, 276, 294, 332, 367, 377, 377, 378, 466, 486, 488, 489, 499, 504, 505–6, 584, 589, 592, 616, 647, 648, 653, 655
Africa. See North Africa
afterbirth 66–7, 267
Agamemnon 232, 235, 250, 406, 446
agathoergoi 387
age 4–9, 17–18, 33, 41–42, 67–73, 77, 90, 98, 108–13, 117–22, 128, 134, 135, 148, 173, 174, 177, 178, 185, 195–204, 208–13, 216, 220, 232, 237, 251, 254, 256, 265, 267, 270–6, 280, 286, 291, 296–9, 309, 311, 312, 316, 317, 322, 324, 326, 333, 336, 342, 345–6, 354, 369, 370–1, 383, 385, 390–1, 420, 451, 465, 466, 468, 473–4, 478, 487, 491–502, 515, 518, 523–4, 534, 543, 548, 574, 587–90, 594, 604–12, 616, 625–40, 645, 656. See also old age
as form of identity 626, 640
biological 196, 628, 629, 632, 640
chronological 196, 204, 567, 628, 640, 652
classes, cohorts, groups 219, 231, 250, 306, 386–7, 391, 421–2, 475, 582, 584, 592–6, 610, 633
of majority 213, 342, 356
agelai 374, 391
agency, of children 2, 6, 174, 190, 191, 253, 264, 281, 473, 480, 543, 580–1, 588, 595, 652
(p. 664) Agesilaos II 88, 383, 391
agora (of Athens) 63–77, 88, 148, 183–5, 187, 190, 433
Agrippina (wife of Germanicus) 44
ague 118
ailments 109, 110, 112–14, 116, 117, 119, 564, 583
Akedah (binding of Isaac) 541–2, 544, 548, 550–2
akmazontes 110, 114, 119
Alburnus Maior (Thrace) 286
Alcestis 236
Alcman 220, 384, 389, 411
aletris 199, 215, 217, 223
Alexander the Great 406, 418, 430, 449, 536, 649
Alexander Severus (emperor) 89
Alexandria 31, 135, 375, 467, 469, 470, 475, 476, 504, 506, 534, 569, 592
alimenta (costs of rearing): 96, 97. See also alimentary programs
alimentary programs 9, 88–9, 334, 343–6, 347, 351, 353–4
allergic reaction 114, 115
alphabet 135, 178, 275, 412, 445–6, 447, 451, 454, 552, 571, 584, 602. See also loom weights
Altar of Peace. See Ara Pacis
altar victor 384
alumnus, alumni 95, 98, 289, 294
ambidexterity 369
Ambrose 89, 566, 567, 585, 591
amenorrhea 56
Amphidromia 76, 77, 209
amphora 8, 65, 149, 152–6, 159, 168, 221, 336, 400, 625–40, 648, 656
Ampurias 626, 636–9
amulets 29, 31, 33, 35, 151, 210, 268, 306, 335–6, 473, 560, 564, 657. See also bulla
Anacreon 220, 229
anairetos, anairetoi 90, 93. See also expositus
ancilla (slave girl) 291–2, 294
Andromache 221, 233–5, 253–4
Angel, J. Lawrence 69
animus 451
Annius Verus, Marcus 280
anthrax 46
anthropology, anthropological models 125, 131, 136, 174, 212, 220, 444, 500
anthropos 110
Antigone 232
Antigonus Gonatas 428, 429, 434–5, 438
Antisthenes (Cynic) 431–3
Antonia the Younger 131–2, 298, 308
Antoninus Pius (emperor) 353, 355
Antonius Gnipho, M. 287, 289
Apatouria 155, 213, 243
aphorism 451
Aphrodite (goddess) 30, 69, 199, 208, 215, 216, 223, 229, 238
aphthai 116
Apthonius 456
Apollo 28, 85, 154, 179, 210, 228–33, 239, 241, 253, 259, 310, 391, 399, 447, 470
Apothetai 84, 383
Appian 276, 279
apprentices 174–87, 289, 296, 444, 447, 452, 486, 493, 503–5, 563, 566, 647, 653, 655
Apuleius 56
Aquileia 299
Ara Pacis (Augustan altar of Peace) 42, 302, 307–8, 345
Archaic period 5, 9, 67, 147–56, 159, 161, 165–7, 168, 172, 173, 176, 220, 222, 382, 389, 444, 447, 448, 458, 514, 647
Aretaeus 109
Argive Heraion 176, 179, 180, 182, 189, 190
Ariès, Philippe 1–2, 5, 484–5, 490, 614, 645
Arikara 70
Aristippus 457
aristocracy 132, 135, 139, 152, 159, 178, 212, 256, 260, 269, 295, 298, 391, 406, 424, 447, 448, 449, 587, 589, 593, 595, 649. See also elite; social status; upper classes
Aristophanes (comic poet) 199, 200, 215–17, 388, 389, 411, 412
Aristophanes of Byzantium 7, 57
Aristotle 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 28, 53, 58, 127, 374–5, 386, 387, 390, 430, 436, 458
Generation of Animals 18, 19, 20, 21, 53, 56, 125, 131, 203
History of Animals 19, 20, 21, 23, 45, 56, 77, 128, 203, 209, 268
(p. 665) Politics 25, 88, 129, 217, 252, 382, 383, 384, 412, 513, 649
Pseudo-Aristotle, Athenaion Politeia 100, 214, 217, 219, 390, 420, 421–2, 515
arithmetic 371–2, 378, 390, 407, 451, 653
Arkteia 199, 214, 215–16. See also arktoi
arktoi 155, 165, 199, 215–16, 389. See also Arkteia
Arrhephoria 212
arrhephoroi 199, 215–17, 223
Artemis 33, 68, 155, 65, 78–9, 182, 199–200, 208–10, 214–19, 222, 223, 232, 235, 237, 241, 382, 384, 385, 389, 390, 394, 425, 465. See also Brauron
Ascanius 154, 253–5, 256, 258, 650. See also Iulus
asceticism 138, 326, 564, 568, 572–5, 581, 584–5, 589–91, 595
Ashkelon 34, 70, 91, 100
Asia Minor 10, 30, 95, 276, 409, 438, 475, 516–17, 535
Aspasia 409–10
asthma 118
Astyanax 148, 154, 159, 221, 227, 233–5, 253–5, 257
astynomoi 100
Astypalaia 8, 33–35
Atalanta 256, 388
Athanasius 562, 592
Athena 153, 155, 159, 161, 199, 204, 214, 215, 216–17, 223, 232, 237, 397, 400, 420, 448
Athenaion Politeia. See Aristotle (pseudo)
athletes, athletics 152, 155, 158, 159, 166, 198, 199, 201, 218, 222, 238, 256, 367, 371, 381, 387–9, 390–1, 393, 404, 412, 431, 467, 475, 480, 586
Augustine, St. 23, 31, 98, 131, 135, 137, 138, 266–7, 452, 561–3, 565–7, 573, 575, 581–95
Augustus 9, 21, 26, 28, 46, 57, 86, 88, 92, 96, 99, 132, 136, 260, 261, 270, 272, 276, 278–9, 280, 281, 302, 308, 341, 342–5, 347, 349, 356, 357, 453, 616
grandchildren of 86, 270, 278
laws on marriage (see marriage, Augustan legislation on)
Aurelius, Marcus 40, 41, 43, 44, 54, 276, 280, 347, 352, 354, 355
column of 302, 650
Aurelius Victor 453
Ausonius 581, 582, 584, 589–91, 650
autobiography 581–6, 589–93
baby, babies. See infants; neonates
Babylonia, Babylonian 137, 511, 532, 536
bailiff (of farm) 290–1. See also vilica/-us
balls 158, 166, 323–9, 332, 337, 561, 587, 592, 609, 612, 650
as metaphor for pregnancy 29
baptism 34, 567, 568, 575, 583, 592, 611, 616
Barbie™ 333
Basil of Caesarea 88, 132, 565, 567, 569–71, 585–7, 591
bathhouse 91
bathing, baths 150, 155, 165, 230, 239, 265–7, 275, 278, 282, 313, 472, 586, 589, 652
battered child syndrome 71
bears 28, 155, 165, 186, 199, 215, 222, 389
beating (of children) 1, 234, 297, 392, 455, 476–7, 563, 565, 570, 590. See also punishment
beggars, begging 88, 94, 136, 137, 139, 140, 566, 654
Benedict, St., Rule 569, 570
Berger, Adolf 293
Bernstein, Basil 458
Beth Alpha (Palestine), synagogue mosaic 533, 550–2
betrothal 213, 254, 266, 268, 273
bibasis 152, 389–90
bilingualism 275, 456, 475
birth 3, 6, 10, 17–35, 40–41, 44–58, 66–77, 85–93, 96–9, 110–12, 125–31, 134, 136, 138, 153–5, 161, 167, 196–200, 208–14, 222, 239, (p. 666) 252, 259, 261, 264–8, 274, 281, 287, 288, 292, 305, 312, 313, 317, 345, 350–3, 367, 381, 411, 468–70, 472–3, 477, 478–9, 486–8, 499, 505, 511, 513, 523, 544, 553, 560, 565, 567, 580, 583, 585, 605, 625–7, 640, 650
multiple 20, 21, 24, 90, 608–9 (see also twins)
order of, in family 90, 92
premature (preterm) 21, 48, 70–1, 73, 85, 87, 505, 560, 640
rituals of 35, 83, 208–10, 268, 473, 560, 567, 626, 640
role of men in 266, 470
stillbirth 20, 21, 35, 56, 208, 271, 275, 494, 505, 560
trauma 48, 73, 76
birthday 47, 268, 271, 335, 455, 472, 478, 480
birthmarks 28
birth stool 266, 469
Bisel, Sara 290–1
bishop 98, 562, 565, 566, 567, 575, 584, 592, 598
Bithynia 93, 96
black-figure (vases) 150–4, 156, 201, 202, 220
bladder 110
blindness 126, 127, 131, 133–7, 139–40, 566, 657
night blindness 115
board games 323, 536. See also games
body 17, 18, 30, 52, 54, 108–10, 112, 113, 128, 134, 138, 155, 187, 276, 304, 318, 325, 330, 333, 366, 370, 374, 379, 432, 477, 549, 564, 574, 604, 658
of child 25, 65–7, 71, 76, 77, 85, 100, 108, 109, 113, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 123, 132, 157, 198, 260, 265, 268, 378, 383, 396, 451, 478, 587, 627, 630, 640, 651
of fetus 17, 19
passages of 109, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119, 122,123
physical abnormality in 22, 23, 28, 74, 84, 87, 88, 125–9, 131, 133, 134, 137–40, 209
size of 57, 69, 72, 74, 113, 150, 229, 313, 609, 612, 625, 635, 636, 640
bona fide serviens, bona fide servi 288
bones. See skeletons
book scrolls 310–11, 397–406, 408, 411–12, 414
Boswell, John 57, 83, 84, 97, 98, 99, 101, 488, 521, 573
bowls 65, 66, 165, 183
Brauron, Brauronia 155, 167, 199, 208, 215, 216, 222, 389. See also Artemis
breastfeeding 20, 27, 44, 47, 50–57, 74, 164, 259, 260, 273, 274, 468–9, 471, 488–9, 505, 560–1, 627. See also milk; nursling; wet nurses
bregma 121
brephos 6, 18, 100, 479
Briseis 447
Britain, Roman 55, 70, 92, 335, 455, 651. See also Poundbury
Bronze, bronze-working 65, 148, 174, 178, 184–90, 239, 325, 384, 422, 432–4, 437, 478, 549, 561, 652
Bronze Age 73, 148, 172, 647
brothel 91, 404, 410, 563
brothers. See siblings
brother–sister marriage. See siblings, marriage of
brutality 241, 381, 383, 384, 476–7
bulla 45, 268, 272, 304–8, 335. See also amulets
bureaucracy 446, 453, 584
burial 4, 8, 25, 33–5, 62–77, 92, 98, 172, 173, 183–5, 197, 220–1, 277, 282, 294–5, 313, 324, 326, 330, 333, 335, 336, 438, 467, 478, 514, 525, 526, 569, 600–20, 625–40, 648. See also catacombs; cemeteries; graves; tombs
posture 630
rites of 8, 76, 167, 207, 220–1, 324, 583
buttocks 188, 331
buttocks jumps 25, 152, 389, 412 (p. 667)
Cadmus 447
caesarean section 24
calculator 298
Callimachus 219, 241, 249, 465, 470
canteen 66
capillatus, capillati 298
Capitoline Games 249, 311
capsa, capsarius 454–5
caregivers, caretakers 63, 76, 77, 201, 235, 260, 270, 273, 274, 382, 475. See also nurses
carelessness 175, 176, 229, 230, 233, 242, 260, 384
Carthage 252, 254, 257, 626, 628–30, 633, 636, 640
case histories 111–12, 121–2
Cassius Dio 92, 272, 276, 279–81
catacombs 8, 316, 600–20, 657
Cato the Elder 44, 270, 291, 450, 451, 457, 649
Distichs (pseudo-Cato) 450, 457
Cato the Younger 27, 277
Catullus 250, 252, 655
cause of death 46, 69–71, 76, 115, 259
cauterization 115, 123
celibacy 8, 561, 572. See also asceticism
cemeteries 8, 25, 33–4, 62, 67, 173, 183–5, 198, 220, 467, 478, 489, 600, 601, 602, 620, 625–40. See also burial; catacombs
Censorinus 23, 45, 70, 209, 473
census, in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt 46–47, 91, 94, 467, 485, 487–8, 491–503, 505, 523–5
cerebral palsy 119
Chalkeia 216
Chariton, Chaereas and Callirhoe 31, 87
Charon 44, 162, 220
Chaucer 458
cheese 129, 384
chicken-pox 114
child, children passim. See also childhood
abandonment of (see abandonment; exposure)
acculturation of (see acculturation)
and compassion 88, 95, 222
and passions 258, 370, 378, 559, 568, 570, 574, 575, 593
and warfare 154, 156, 159, 178, 233–6, 253–5, 258, 259, 268, 269, 272, 279, 345, 381, 499, 648–51
as ideal disciple 575
as marginalized 4, 201, 223, 323, 341, 358, 580, 647
as proportion of the population 41–4, 57, 173, 646
as slaves (see slaves, children as)
bearing of 9, 45–6, 87, 99, 128, 388, 411, 572 (see also birth)
body of (see body)
circulation of 95, 488, 505
daily life of 130, 138–40, 150, 155, 157, 168, 174, 201, 288, 323, 325, 485, 499, 506, 559, 580, 586, 589, 593–5, 648, 657–9
death of (see death)
definition of 6–7, 58, 112, 466, 626–7
education of (see education)
episcopal responsibility for 565–6
fatherless 4, 85, 233–4, 341, 487, 500, 502, 524, 585 (see also orphans)
foster 95, 237, 258–60, 277, 289, 336, 510–26 (see also alumnus; threptos)
handicapped 87–8, 125–40, 560, 656 (see also disability)
illegitimate 53, 85, 268, 304, 311, 347, 348
Jewish 532–53, 656
killing of 1, 10, 21–2, 26, 53, 74, 76, 93–100, 115, 129, 131, 149, 160, 227, 229, 235, 236, 238, 253, 260, 279, 356, 357, 452, 488, 510, 568 (see also infanticide)
legitimate 23, 86, 89, 209, 213, 252, 303, 304, 312, 317, 513, 515, 522, 525
malformed 20, 22, 28, 32, 34, 73, 74, 129, 132, 470
orphaned (see orphans)
production by 115, 123, 172–91, 571
rearing of 9, 23, 42, 48, 52, 84, 87–90, 92, 93, 95–6, 98, 99, 130, 237–8, 265, 292, 409, 411, 472, 505, 521, 561, 572, 583, 588, 635, 640, 649, 656
representation of (see child, depiction of)
sacrifice of 215, 222, 223, 235, 250, 257, 544, 550–1, 657
sale of (see sale)
segregation/separation of 33, 210, 237–9, 241, 293, 369, 371, 384, 393, 459, 476, 591, 594, 626, 635
sexual abuse of 1, 2, 296, 357, 485, 566, 659 (see also abuse)
sexualization of 1, 204
socialization of (see socialization)
spacing of 43, 49, 56, 488, 494, 500
supervision of 132, 180, 369, 383–4, 385, 389, 392–3, 422, 426, 427, 450, 453–5, 472, 474, 586
unborn 17–35, 86, 350–3, 357, 372, 477, 478–9 (see also embryo; fetus)
vernae as substitute 294
child care 1, 76, 77, 89, 110, 150, 154, 159, 163, 201, 228, 242, 251, 266, 274–7, 280, 281, 323, 471, 493, 499, 503, 512, 522, 585, 588, 589, 590, 596
child support 89, 97, 234, 236, 238, 240, 281, 337, 343–9, 352–7, 479
childbirth. See birth
childhood passim. See also child
archeological evidence for (see evidence, archeological)
death in (see death)
education (see education)
Jewish 532–53
mortality 40–58, 127, 173, 207, 210, 235, 302, 478, 500, 646 (see also death; infant mortality; mortality)
of slaves (see slaves, children as)
stages of 6–7, 17, 25, 48, 57, 70, 77, 110, 116, 148, 168, 177, 197–8, 215, 251, 303, 313, 324, 326, 451, 452, 466, 544, 604–5, 625–40 (see also life stages)
studies 2, 4, 147, 195, 484–5, 580
childlessness 62, 88, 95, 296, 342, 510, 512, 513, 515, 519, 524, 525, 560
Chios 452
choes, Choes 166, 210, 212
choirades 117
cholera 46, 49
chora (countryside, in Egypt) 467
chreia 456–7
Chrysippus (Stoic) 432, 435–8
Cicero. See Tullius
Circensian games 281
Cisalpine Gaul 308
citizenship 91, 166, 178, 197, 203, 213, 270, 272, 303–6, 376, 383, 386, 413, 422–3, 426, 467, 515, 522, 552, 615
Classical period 1, 8, 63, 147, 156–68, 173, 176, 178, 208, 221, 358, 381, 382, 384, 388, 389, 393, 407, 447, 513–15, 647
Claudius (emperor) 86, 88, 131–2, 136, 355
Claudius Ptolemaeus 6
Cleanthes (Stoic) 432, 437, 438
cleft palate 74–5, 88
Cleisthenes 514
Clement of Alexandria 568, 658
Cleomenes 383, 412, 432
club feet 129
Code of Hammurabi 511–12, 519
coffin 25, 154, 626–9, 631, 635. See also sarcophagus
colostrum 53
columbarium, columbaria 294–5
commemoration 8, 207, 209, 221, 222, 277, 293–9, 302–19, 324, 335, 425, 428, 450, 457, 547, 552, 567, 590, 600–20, 625–6, 640, 648. See also epitaphs; funerary altars; funerary monuments; memorials; tombs
of Christians 8, 600–20
of former slaves 293–9, 302–19
of slave children 293–9
order of names in 295
commemorative art 302–19, 450, 534, 547, 552. See also funerary art
Commodus (emperor) 40, 280, 347
community concept 136–7
conception 5, 7, 10, 17–20, 23, 25, 29, 31, 44, 51, 56, 83, 85, 86, 128, 293, 486, 575
conclamatio 316–18
congenitality 28, 73, 75, 126–32, 137, 139, 383
congiarium 344–5
Constantine (emperor) 89, 97–9, 138, 139, 601, 617, 618
constitution (physical) 52, 113
contraception 25–6, 43, 55–6, 83
controversia 57, 84, 94, 97, 452. See also Seneca the Elder
contubernalis, contubernium 287, 291–3, 299
copronyms 95, 488
Corinth, Corinthian 137, 139, 149, 152, 153, 155, 176, 180–2, 187, 389, 449, 513, 568, 570
Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi 44, 53, 270, 450
Cornelius Fronto, M. 44, 278
Cornelius Statius 42, 329
Corpus Hippocraticum. See Hippocratic Corpus
cough 111
courting 152, 155, 159, 404
craft production 174, 176, 178, 185, 186, 189, 190, 332, 612, 618–20, 655
Crates (Cynic) 430
crawling 157, 166, 168, 260
Crepereia Tryphaena 336
Crete, Cretan 86, 148, 211, 238, 366, 367, 372, 375, 376, 393, 512. See also Gortyn
cribra orbitalia 127
crises (in illness) 110
crying 26, 100, 119, 122, 128, 168, 221, 233, 234, 236, 238, 239, 256, 259, 260, 266, 275, 281, 378, 561, 568, 573, 650
cultural knowledge/memory 174, 189, 264, 270, 278, 366, 449, 571, 580, 583, 589, 595. See also socialization
cultus (adornment) 333–4. See also dolls
Cupid, cupids 229, 255, 313
cupping 31–2, 123
cura ventris 351–3
Cyril of Scythopolis 564, 569
Cyrus 237, 240
Damastes 23, 53, 70
Damonon 391–2
dangers 22, 25, 42, 44, 45, 51, 52, 55, 76, 77, 83, 121–3, 128, 159–61, 167, 168, 200, 210, 233, 236, 238–40, 267, 281, 337, 371, 374, 473, 477, 542, 649, 650, 658
David (biblical king) 542–3, 547–50
(p. 670) deafmutes 131, 133, 135, 136, 139, 140
deafness 88, 126, 131, 133, 135, 136, 139, 140
Deianeira 406
Deiotarus of Galatia 271
dekate 77, 209
delicatus 256, 258, 294. See also pueri delicati
delicium, delicia, deliciae 95, 297–8
deltion, deltos (writing tablet) 406, 412
deMause, Lloyd 1, 2, 235
Demeter 29, 182, 210, 217, 221–2
Demetrius of Phalerum 221, 427, 428, 430
Demetrius Poliorcetes 427
demography 7, 9, 26, 40–58, 84, 90, 93, 125–7, 136, 173, 341–3, 345–6, 486–90, 499, 500, 502, 505, 510, 523, 560, 585, 646–8, 652
demographic transition 47, 48, 510
Demosthenes 76, 94, 213, 407, 420, 421, 426, 514, 515
dentition 74, 110, 116, 120. See also teeth; teething
development (of child). See child, development of
developmental defects 28, 74–6, 88, 90, 92, 126, 128, 131, 134, 135, 137, 383. See also disability
diagnosis 114, 125, 127, 132, 575, 627
diaita 394
Diana (goddess) 266–7, 310
diarrhea 46, 49, 55, 73, 118, 120
dice 229, 323, 325, 337, 561
didaskalos 422, 426, 474
Dido 252, 254, 255
Didymus the Blind 135
diet 27, 33, 52–5, 71, 115, 122, 123, 126, 127,129, 259, 278, 383, 384, 470, 471, 487, 489, 534, 561, 571, 659. See also nutrition
dii familiares 267
Dio Cassius. See Cassius Dio
Dio Chrysostom 87, 89, 275
Diocletian 518, 524
Diodorus Siculus 468
Diogeiton 407. See also Lysias
Diogenes Laertius 426, 429–38
Diogenes the Cynic 19, 430, 432, 457
Dionysius of Halicarnassus 84, 90, 243, 269, 654
Dionysus, Dionysos 154, 166, 204, 212, 214, 219, 238, 367, 413, 422, 427
Dioscuri 310
discipline 44, 159, 269, 357, 369, 381, 386, 392, 426, 429, 455, 477, 565, 570, 582, 589, 590, 651
disfigurement 128, 134, 137, 574
Distichs. See Cato the Elder
divination 407
divorce 23, 26, 85–7, 92, 96, 269, 277, 351–3, 355, 409, 478–9, 485, 486, 492, 495, 496, 498, 500, 501, 524
DNA analysis 91
doctors 19, 26, 109, 111, 114–16, 121–3, 127, 130, 266, 467, 470, 476
dogs 63, 67–8, 100, 153, 154, 166, 186, 221, 241, 259, 306, 310, 316, 325, 379, 431, 450, 563, 613. See also puppies
dolls 179, 200, 324, 325, 329–36, 473, 561, 584
domestic rituals 199, 267, 272, 323, 472, 533
domestic space 323, 533 (p. 671)
Domitian (emperor) 256, 276, 311
domus 46, 266, 267, 271, 274, 275, 277, 281, 299, 593. See also household
Douris cup 152, 405–6
Down’s syndrome 88, 127
dowry 86, 92, 348–9, 479, 510, 526
dress 157, 198, 216, 222, 271, 280, 332, 351, 353, 383, 388, 393, 396, 422, 431, 471, 522, 563, 568, 571, 591, 609
drinking, drunkenness 28, 54, 74, 85, 111, 112, 120, 128, 166, 212, 234, 251, 367, 376, 377, 404, 448, 589. See also symposia; wine
dropsy 115, 117, 123
Drusus the Elder 132, 298, 308
dung heap 93–5, 100, 488, 521, 543
Dura Europos 520, 533, 535–6, 542–6, 548, 550
dysentery 46, 49, 117, 118, 120
dystocia 24, 470
eczema 118
Edictum Carbonianum 348–51
Edictum de inspiciendo ventre 351–3
education 1–10, 127, 134–6, 139, 159, 178, 196–201, 211, 219, 227, 239, 242, 250, 259, 265, 269–70, 275, 287, 311, 313, 316–7, 325, 353, 357, 365–79, 381–94, 396–414, 418–38, 444–59, 467, 469, 474–6, 480, 486, 533–7, 548–52, 565, 570–2, 575, 580–91, 594–6, 615, 647, 651, 653–4. See also agoge; instruction; Kimbros; Plato; schools; socialization; teacher, teaching
compulsory 370, 373–5, 393, 418, 428
declamatory 261, 452 (see also declamation)
grammar 275, 429, 451–4, 474
history of 4, 366, 394, 397–8, 444, 447, 449, 549, 580, 615, 659
ideological 365–79, 424, 445, 449, 533, 564, 652
in Ptolemaic Egypt 467, 469, 474–6, 480
in Roman Egypt 504, 505
in Rome 4, 250, 265, 269, 270, 311, 412, 449–55, 580, 615
lifelong 195, 369, 378–9, 458
literary 199, 201, 250, 371, 372, 374, 401, 402, 411, 413, 474, 475, 581, 653
mathematical 135, 298, 371, 372, 375, 378, 390, 407, 444, 446, 451, 456, 653
military 281, 371, 373, 381, 384, 390, 418–38
moral 378, 379, 446, 457, 570
musical 159, 199, 201, 259, 365, 367, 370, 371, 373–5, 378–9, 387, 402, 405, 412, 447, 448, 475, 480, 583, 651 (see also music; women and music)
of boys (see boys, education of)
of girls (see girls, education of)
on Athenian vases 397–409, 413–14, 448, 453
physical 199, 201, 218, 370, 371, 374, 376, 381, 387, 393, 410–13, 421, 426, 431, 447, 450, 452, 453, 467, 475, 586
rhetorical 265, 429, 450, 451, 453, 454, 457
scribal 449
Eileithuia, Eileithyia 68, 154, 208
ekphora 220
Elvira, council of 566
eloquence 52, 250, 456
embryo 7, 17–35, 367, 648
embryotomy 24
Ennius 251, 257, 452
enslavement, of children 4, 95, 96, 98, 99, 235, 286–99, 650. See also slavery; slaves
ensoulment 17–19
ephebeia, ephebes 111, 112, 208, 213–14, 217, 390, 394, 418–38, 452, 649
ephors 385–6
Ephorus 211, 392
epic poetry 7, 8–9, 222, 228, 236, 243, 249–61, 400, 407, 432, 446, 451, 459, 472. See also poetry
Epictetus 40, 41, 275, 323
Epicurus 428, 431, 432
epidelos 110
epikleros (“heiress”) 213, 422, 515
epilepsy 118–20
erastes 203, 230, 386, 392–3, 411
Eretria 68, 179, 182, 212
eromenos 203, 392–3, 411. See also erastes
erysipelas 122
ethnography 134, 176, 186, 197, 252, 333, 656
Eucharist 562, 567, 583
Euboea 112, 175
Eumelus of Larissa 111, 122
Euphragoras (Knidian eponym) 65
Euripides 77, 84, 215, 220–2, 235, 236, 240, 388, 406, 412, 433
Eurotas river 384, 389
Euryalus 256
evidence, for study of childhood in antiquity 1–10, 644–59 and passim
ethnographic (see ethnography)
epigraphic (see epigraphy; inscriptions)
legal 2, 5, 9, 20, 23, 26, 48, 57, 84, 86, 90, 96–8, 101, 130, 196, 289, 341–58, 421, 511, 519 (see also Digest
literary 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 44, 76, 84, 85, 90, 101, 127, 130, 136, 137, 140, 165, 168, 176, 196, 197, 208, 227–44, 249–61, 289, 290, 324, 327, 329, 372, 373, 375, 386, 389, 397, 399, 406–8, 419, 421, 450, 454, 484, 615, 647, 651, 659)
medical 2, 5, 7, 17–35, 53–5, 76, 85, 108–24, 125–33, 265, 389, 488
papyrological (see papyri)
patristic 4, 8, 101, 128, 559–75, 580–96
philosophical 4, 9, 19, 26, 40–1, 51–2, 84, 89, 92, 99, 129, 134, 196, 243, 265, 381, 427, 445 (see also philosophy)
rabbinic 512, 532–53
skeletal (see osteology; skeletons)
Evil Eye 134, 268
exanthemata 114–15
exempla 269–70
Exodus 512, 542, 545, 546, 548, 551
expositus/-a, expositi/-ae 83, 87, 89, 90, 93–100. See also anairetos; exposure; threptos
extended family 209, 213, 264, 270, 273, 277–8, 306, 346, 353, 491, 505, 564, 590–2. See also family
fable 446, 451, 457, 459, 536
familia 266–8, 351
used of slaves 296 (p. 673)
famine 88
farming 42, 136, 139, 176, 232, 276, 289–93, 343, 412, 467, 489, 652
Faustina the Younger 40, 334
Favorinus 51–52, 53, 57
Fayum 467, 475, 487
feast days 472–3, 567–8, 575. See also festivals
feces 110
fecundity 21, 29, 218, 272
feeding bottles 50, 53, 55, 65–6, 473
fertility 41, 44, 47, 50, 52, 56–7, 89, 172, 203, 211, 223, 334, 388, 487, 491, 499, 500, 560, 616
festivals 85, 132, 166, 178, 186, 189, 196, 199, 200, 203–4, 207–23, 231, 243, 272, 278, 311, 367, 369, 374–5, 379, 385, 389, 391, 408, 411, 425, 427, 433, 447–50, 473, 475, 534. See also feast days
fetus 7, 17–35, 48, 51, 56, 58, 64, 69–71, 74, 100, 110, 127–8, 470, 477, 478, 635
fever 46, 114, 118, 120, 122, 564
figurines 30, 148, 167, 172–3, 178, 185–90, 330, 388, 389, 408, 469, 471, 474
filiation 311, 510, 516
Finley, Moses I. 644–8, 654–5, 659
Flavian period (69–96 CE) 8–9, 96, 256, 258, 261, 276, 280, 311, 353
Florence (Italian city) 94
folk healing 109
foster children; see child, foster. See also alumnus; threptos
foundlings 53, 93, 94, 96, 98–100, 286, 287, 289, 511, 517, 521. See also abandonment; exposure; threptos
fractures 67, 71–2, 121
France 34, 627, 635
free birth. See child, freeborn
freedmen/women 10, 49, 92, 95, 96, 131, 250, 268, 271, 274, 275–7, 288, 292, 294, 295, 297–9, 304–6, 309–10, 317–18, 336, 346–8, 353, 452, 454, 455, 496, 519, 562, 588, 615, 616, 653
commemoration of 294, 295, 297, 298–9, 304–6, 310, 317–18, 615
imperial 50, 297–8
freedwomen. See freedmen/-women
friendship 27, 267, 271, 276–7, 295, 537, 584, 593–6
funerary altars 249, 303, 309–13, 316–8. See also funerary rituals
funerary archeology 4, 25, 33, 183, 197–8, 303, 330, 473, 478, 600–20, 625–40
funerary art 4, 63, 148, 154–6, 163, 227, 302–19, 450, 455, 469–70, 600–20, 657
funerary inscriptions. See commemoration; epitaphs; inscriptions, funerary
funerary meal 583, 617
funerary rituals 8, 33, 35, 63, 67, 150, 154, 155, 162, 167, 173, 174, 176, 183, 207, 220–1, 235, 324, 583, 603, 604, 611, 613, 616–20. See also burial; ekphora; prosthesis
funerary urns 295, 634
Furius Philocalus 450
Gaius (jurist) 273, 291, 351, 518
Galen 17, 19, 26–30, 52–53, 55, 100, 127, 175, 327, 472
(p. 674) games 158, 167, 229, 231, 275, 313, 322–37, 365, 369, 370, 378, 448, 457, 536, 559, 561–3, 587, 593, 650. See also board games; dice; knucklebones
festival 218, 249, 278, 281, 311, 391, 424, 536
funeral 235
gladiatorial 132, 276, 279, 280, 586
Gangra, synod of 573
garbage 100. See also dung heap
gardens 216, 562–4
Garden of Eden 657
Garden (Athenian philosophical site) 431–2
Gaul 33, 134, 138, 287, 308, 537, 581, 586, 651. See also schoolbook
church council in 98, 100 (see also Vaison)
Gellius, Aulus 21, 23, 27, 31, 51–3, 57, 265–7, 272, 274, 334
gems 31–33. See also jewelry
gender 5, 6, 7, 9, 18, 21, 27, 35, 45, 46, 91, 108, 111–12, 113, 130, 139, 140, 148, 173, 183, 195–204, 220, 232, 265, 267, 268, 307, 318, 322, 324, 330–5, 371, 383, 396–414, 437, 449–52, 465, 466, 473, 480, 486, 487, 491, 587, 594, 605, 609–12, 627, 646
of exposed infants 90–2, 488 (see also girls, exposure of)
roles 9, 13, 15, 16, 20, 28) 51, 53, 195, 197, 199, 204, 211, 265, 325, 334, 337, 408, 410, 414, 453, 582, 585–6, 587, 654
genethlia/genesia 472
Genita Mana 68
genre 84, 228, 251–2, 318, 659
Genetullis, Genetyllis 68, 208
Geometric period 33, 76, 148, 174–7, 183–9, 220–1, 227, 386
Germanicus 44, 132, 280, 308
gestation 17–35, 45, 70, 118, 367. See also embryo; fetus; pregnancy
gestures 44, 136, 140, 150, 155, 156, 159, 168, 201, 306–7, 316, 318, 465, 560, 564, 592
girls 8, 10, 18, 45, 55, 90–5, 111–12, 121, 130, 133, 137–40, 150–6, 159, 165–7, 177, 179, 196–201, 204, 207, 210–23, 229–32, 236, 239–41, 254, 256, 259, 266, 268, 272–3, 278, 286, 289–91, 294, 296, 304–11, 314–17, 326–36, 372, 381, 387–90, 393, 396–414, 444, 448–54, 466, 468, 470, 473–4, 480, 488, 491, 494, 504, 510, 512, 518–25, 542–3, 548–9, 561–5, 569, 573–4, 587–95, 609–10, 619, 626, 650. See also Sparta, girls at
and dolls 330–4, 561 (see also dolls)
choruses of 148, 219–20, 231, 388–9, 450 (see also choruses)
exposure of 90–5, 286, 289, 468
literacy of 396–414
nudity of 131, 133, 198, 210, 216, 388–9, 564
physical activity of 155, 159, 165–7, 218, 220, 231–2, 371, 381, 387–90, 393, 411, 413
socialization of 10, 183, 199, 272–3, 317, 325, 332, 472, 583, 584, 587, 588, 590, 594–5 (see also socialization)
training of (see training, of girls)
gladiators (see games, gladiatorial)
glands 113, 117
glandular tissue 13, 116, 123
gnomai 446, 457, 459
Gnomon of the Idiologos 95, 519, 521
Gomme, A.W. 409
Gorgo 412
Gortyn (Crete) 86, 513–5. See also Law Code of Gortyn
grammarian 86, 96, 287, 298, 429, 474
grammatikos 474, 534, 537
grandparents 87, 96, 132, 148, 154, 160, 163, 209, 254, 258, 267–9, 277–8, 288, 407, 470, 485, 491, 492, 494–502, 505, 515, 520, 522, 570, 588, 591
grave goods 53, 62–77, 183, 324, 329, 332, 335, 336
graves, of children 34, 40, 62–77, 150, 162, 163, 172–6, 183–5, 198, 200, 212, 221, 282, 294, 324, 330, 332, 333, 335–7, 398, 480, 516–17, 526, 600–20, 625–40. See also tombs
gravestones 154, 163–4, 166, 221, 238, 600–20. See also epitaphs
Gregory of Nazianzus 137, 565, 567, 575, 582–5, 587, 589, 591, 592
Gregory of Nyssa 88, 98, 138, 561, 562, 565, 571, 585, 587, 591
Gregory of Tours 128, 133, 134, 136
grief 2, 41, 46, 92, 201, 221, 235, 249, 254, 290, 302–4, 316, 318, 335, 368, 476, 564
guardian 32, 210, 212, 213, 270, 271, 273, 342, 354–5, 373, 427, 479, 485, 487, 500, 502–4, 585, 590, 594. See also tutela; tutor
guilt 128, 129, 250, 254, 430, 594, 657
gymnasium 421, 427, 429, 431–2, 452, 467, 474–5, 521
Gymnopaideia 385
gynecology 24, 32, 53, 77, 108, 109, 130, 470, 626. See also Soranus; women, health of
Hadrian (emperor) 23, 51, 87, 296, 345–7, 349–53, 356–7, 453
Hadrian’s Wall 455
hagiography 137, 559, 563, 566, 569, 573, 575, 581
hagneia (purity) 207, 220
hairdressers 297
Haloa 218
Hannibal 7, 253, 257–8, 272
harps 402
Harpocrates 32, 471
head (of body) 23–5, 27, 65, 69, 71–3, 76, 109, 112, 116–23, 129, 133, 148, 149, 153–5,157, 159, 163, 165, 180, 185, 188, 214, 216, 217, 234, 239, 242, 254, 258, 398, 401, 454, 547, 569, 612
headache 112, 114
healing
inscriptions 133
religious 28, 68, 109, 133, 137, 563, 657
hebontes (age grade) 383, 385–6, 392
Hebrew Bible/Scripture 512, 532–3, 657. See also Bible
Hecabe, Hekabe 221
Hecate, Hekate 68
Hector, Hektor 148, 159, 233–5, 253
hedra 121
Heliodorus 28, 569
Helios 249, 250, 545
hellebore 123
Hellenistic world 1, 34, 62–77, 88, 127, 167, 208, 213, 214, 382, 383, 390, 394, 418–38, 445, 449, 450, 452, 455, 465–80, 511, 516–17, 519, 522, 650, 655, 656. See also Greece, Hellenistic
helots 384, 386–7, 411, 649
Helvidiae sisters 46
hemorrhoids 118
Hephaestus 63, 161, 238
Heracles, Herakles, Hercules 154, 159–60, 213, 235, 238–40, 267, 310, 406, 420, 447
Herculaneum 290, 296
heredity 28, 128, 213, 422, 653
hermeneumata 456. See also schoolbook
Hermes 154, 230, 241
hermits 585–6, 590
Hermopolis (Egypt) 499, 522
Herod 568
Herodas, Herondas 455, 474
Herodes Atticus 135
Herodian 279, 280
Herodotus 133, 137, 228, 240, 373, 387, 406, 412, 452, 513
heron 402
Herondas. See Herodas
Herophilus 19, 31, 470
hetaira, hetairai 94, 396, 403, 409–10
Hesychius 68, 198, 208, 209, 217
hippeis 385–7
Hippocratic corpus 7, 17–35, 108–24, 128, 130, 132, 645
Affections 114–17
Airs, Waters, Places 108, 117–19
Aphorisms 27, 108, 110–13, 116, 117, 119, 120, 123
Breaths 119
Coan Prognoses 110, 117, 120
Dentition 116–17
Diseases 108, 117
Diseases of Girls 200
Diseases of Women 18, 24, 29
Epidemics 25, 29, 70, 108, 111–17, 119–23
Excision of the Fetus 25
Eyesight 115
Fleshes 23, 70, 110, 112, 116, 117
Generation 18, 24, 128
Glands 113, 117
Head Wounds 121–2
Humors 108
Joints 113, 132
Nature of Man 108, 113
Nature of the Child 18, 24, 25, 33
Nature of Women 24
On Superfetation 24, 25, 27
On the Seventh/Eighth Month Fetus 17, 18, 33, 70, 110, 130
Places in Man 115
Precepts 108
Prognosis 108, 110, 120
Prorrhetic 110, 114, 115, 117, 119
Regimen 20, 108, 110, 112, 265
Regimen in Acute Diseases 108
Regimen in Health 108, 120
Sacred Disease 117–20, 128
Hippocratic oath 25
Histiaeus 111
history of childhood. See childhood, history of
Hittites 446
Homeric hymns 221, 228, 230, 231, 236, 238, 241
Homoeroticism. See erastes; eromenos; pederasty
Honorius (emperor) 98
hoops 158, 161, 166, 329, 561, 609, 612
Hopkins, Keith 487, 566–7, 603, 646, 658
hoplites 149, 420, 422–4, 429, 434, 447
Horace 77, 267, 268, 275, 278, 327, 329, 455, 457, 650, 653
hospital 53, 94, 100, 139–40
housing 490
humors, humoral theory 114, 115, 127, 128, 368
hunting 67, 241, 242, 253, 254, 276, 281, 310, 356, 376, 384, 392, 404, 584, 587
hydria, hydriai 148, 150, 159, 160, 179, 221, 400–5, 408
hydrocephalus 72–3, 119, 129
hygiene 46, 53, 55
Hyperides 426
Hypsipyle 260
identity 17, 27, 28, 77, 195–204, 211, 212, 220, 223, 228, 240, 243, 306, 331, 437, 446, 448, 449, 473, 475, 477, 480, 532–5, 549, 552, 553, 584, 595, 600, 601, 604, 615, 620, 626, 640
ilai 383, 390, 391, 393
illegitimacy. See child, illegitimate
imagination 28, 128, 233–5, 252, 274, 325, 332, 334–5, 381, 390, 446–7, 452, 456, 532, 536, 548, 572, 612, 647, 650
imitation 135, 177, 178, 185–7, 256, 270, 278, 323, 331, 333, 390, 444, 445, 453, 457–9, 562, 583, 587, 592, 629
immunity (to disease) 53, 55, 110, 114
impuberes 342
incest 94, 518. See also siblings, marriage of
incision 115–16, 121, 178, 180, 216, 290, 325, 454
infans, infantes 26, 250, 278, 290, 567, 606, 608, 610, 612
infant exposure. See exposure of newborns
infant mortality 4, 6, 8, 21, 23, 33–5, 40–58, 62–77, 83–101, 127, 130, 173, 207, 209, 210, 221, 223, 235, 256, 302, 341, 472, 478, 485, 487–90, 500, 510, 560, 563, 565, 568, 606–12, 617, 625–40, 646, 648, 656
infant mortality rate (IMR) 47, 53
relationship to adult mortality levels 49, 487
infant sacrifice 257. See also children, sacrifice of
inflammation 73, 121
influenza 49
ingenuitas (free birth) 98. See also child, freeborn; social status
inhumation. See burial
initiation 136, 197, 203, 210, 212–15, 218, 387, 407, 433, 532, 568, 575, 586, 589
innocence (of children) 8, 228, 229, 235, 254, 256, 575, 606, 615
Innocent III (Pope) 100
instruction 30, 85, 135, 177, 180, 186, 211, 274, 366, 371, 378, 390, 391, 396, 402, 405, 408, 410, 418, 419, 422, 427, 435, 444, 452–3, 474, 537, 595, 651, 653. See also education; training
religious 219
intestacy 269, 346–8
intestines 110
Ionia, Ionian 213, 448
Iphigeneia 222, 232, 235, 406
Irenaeus 568, 570
Iris 397, 400
Isaac 541, 543, 544, 550, 551, 657
Isaeus 514–5, 522, 524
Isaiah 550
Ischomachus 408, 413
Isis 471
Isocrates 426–7, 456, 515, 524
isotope analysis 55, 488
Italy 10, 28, 29, 33, 44, 55, 88–9, 161–2, 212, 250, 252, 254, 271, 274, 294, 299, 302, 303, 308, 309, 343–5, 534, 581, 610, 615, 626, 627, 635
Iulus (son of Aeneas) 253–4. See also Ascanius
(p. 678) ius alimentorum 353, 357
ius exponendi 85
ius occidendi 356. See also ius vitae ac necis
ius (trium) liberorum 130, 346, 347
ius vitae ac necis 85. See also ius occidendi; vitae necisque potestas
jaw 116
Jesus Christ 518, 561, 567, 568, 570, 573, 609. See also Christianity
jewelry 30, 179, 291, 330, 333. See also gems
John Chrysostom 129, 137, 139, 243, 560–9, 571–2, 574, 575, 581–5, 587–90, 592–5, 658
John Colobos 563, 574
John Moschus 562, 563, 567, 573
John of Ephesus 562, 569, 572
Josephus 280, 534
Julia the Younger (Augustus’ granddaughter) 86
Julian (jurist) 19, 292, 342, 347, 350, 356
Julius Caesar 257, 280
Julius Obsequens 23, 129
Julus. See Iulus
Juno 31, 266–7
Lucina 31, 266
Jupiter 254, 258
Justin Martyr 94, 565
Justinian (emperor) 99, 358
Institutes 269, 355, 358, 518
Juvenal 6, 26, 56, 93, 266, 267, 275, 286, 289
kanephoros, kanephoroi 155, 199–200, 215, 217, 223
Kellis (Dakleh Oasis, Egypt) 34, 94
Kerameikos cemetery (Athens) 67, 163, 183–5, 198, 436
kerykeion (herald’s staff) 400
Khirbet Wadi Hamam (Palestine) 533, 545–7
kidnapping 98, 288, 566
Kimbros, mosaic of 537–41, 590
kinship 27, 351, 354, 466, 514, 596
kleros 383, 467, 468
knucklebones 158, 166, 323, 325, 326, 562
kore, korai 112, 155, 173
kosmetes 213, 423, 426, 427, 429
Koureotis 213, 219
kouros/kouroi 155, 172–3, 210, 447
kourotrophos/kourotrophoi 147, 148, 150, 155, 172, 210, 238
krater 66, 148, 152, 153, 158–61, 165, 166, 175
krateriskoi 155, 216, 389
Krypteia 376, 386–7
Kyrana 239
Lacedaemonians 96, 381, 392. See also Sparta
Laconia 371, 388–9, 391, 394
Lactantius 94, 97, 100, 138, 518, 652, 657
lactaria columna (nursing column) 93
Lampito 388–9, 411
Lamta (Tunisia) 628, 630–3, 635, 640
Laslett, Peter 42
Latin, study of 249, 275, 450–2, 588, 653
laughter 134, 230, 233, 239, 242, 243, 259, 260, 562, 588. See also mockery
Law Code of Gortyn 86, 513–5
learning disorders 135
leasing, of children 566. See also pledging
(p. 679) lectus funebris 316, 318
legislation. See law
legitimacy. See child, legitimate
leisure 231, 232, 234, 379, 402, 413, 423, 473. See also play
lekane, lekanis (vessel) 66, 165
lekythoi (vases) 44, 152, 160–3, 220, 398, 402
Leonidas 453
leprai 114, 120
leprosy 114, 138
Lesbos 220, 404, 448
letters (epistles preserved on papyri/tablets) 54, 90, 450, 455, 465, 466, 469–72, 475–7, 480, 485, 490, 493, 499, 504–6, 524–5
leukai 114
lex Atilia 354
lex Iulia et Papia. See marriage, Augustan legislation on
lex sacra of Ptolemais 472
Libanius 8, 215, 275, 296, 382, 581, 584–6, 589–93
liberal arts/education 366, 373, 390, 413, 445, 453
liberty, claim for 96. See also adsertores
lichen 114
life expectancy 47–50, 136, 617, 646
life stages 6, 7, 17, 44, 48, 55, 57, 58, 70, 110, 112, 116, 148, 157, 168, 196–8, 215, 223, 251, 273, 303, 316, 289, 451, 475, 486, 506, 544, 625–40. See also childhood, stages of
limbs 18, 23, 26, 67, 71–2, 74–5, 122, 148, 185, 265, 560
dislocation of 113, 132