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date: 27 September 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines changes in the Athenian ephebeia during the last thirty-five years of the fourth century BCE. The evidence suggests that under the Lycurgan reforms the mostly military training was subsidized by the state and took on a more broad-based approach that fostered civic cohesion at a moment when Athens’s military future was in doubt. Honorary inscriptions suggest the presence of civic and religious content in the ephebic experience and supplement the brief description of the institution in the Athenaion Politeia. Near the end of the fourth century, ephebic training became voluntary and enrollments dropped sharply. By starting his school at this moment and choosing a location without athletic facilities, Zeno may have provided a model for a more intellectual form of ephebic training. The specific language of an unprecedented public decree for Zeno suggests that Athens was acknowledging his role in shifting the nature of ephebic education.

Keywords: Athenaion Politeia, Cynics, Diogenes Laertius, ephebeia, ephebic oath, hoplites, Lycurgus, military training, Painted Stoa, Stoics, sophrosyne, Zeno

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