- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- Becoming Human: From the Embryo to the Newborn Child
- The Demography of Infancy and Early Childhood in the Ancient World
- Babies in the Well: Archeological Evidence for Newborn Disposal in Hellenistic Greece
- Infant Exposure and Infanticide
- The Child Patient of the Hippocratics: Early Pediatrics?
- Raising a Disabled Child
- Children in Archaic and Classical Greek Art: A Survey
- Children as Learners and Producers in Early Greece
- Shifting Gender: Age and Social Status as Modifiers of Childhood Gender in Ancient Athens
- Children in Athenian Religion
- Play, Pathos, and Precocity: The Three P’s of Greek Literary Childhood
- Children in Latin Epic
- The Socialization of Roman Children
- Slave and Lower-Class Roman Children
- Children and Childhood in Roman Commemorative Art
- Toys, Dolls, and the Material Culture of Childhood
- Roman Children and the Law
- Education in Plato’s <i>Laws</i>
- Boys, Girls, Family, and the State at Sparta
- Engendering the Scroll: Girls’ and Women’s Literacy in Classical Greece
- Educating the Youth: The Athenian Ephebeia in the Early Hellenistic Era
- The Ancient Child in School
- Children in Ptolemaic Egypt: What the Papyri Say
- Children in Roman Egypt
- Adoption and Fosterage in the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean
- Pictorial Paideia: Children in the Synagogue
- Children and “the Child” in Early Christianity
- Elite Children, Socialization, and Agency in the Late Roman World
- Remembering Children in the Roman Catacombs
- Stages of Infancy in Roman Amphora Burial
Abstract and Keywords
The Spartan citizen training system (agoge) has long been essential to the Spartan mirage. Current debate centers on the suitability of Hellenistic- and Roman-period material for reconstructing the Classical system. The relevant evidence yields a coherent picture that conforms generally to the traditional view of Spartan training—boys grouped into teams under a state official and girls publicly engaged in athletic and other pursuits—while highlighting notable differences. State euthanasia of disabled infants was not practiced. The system was not totalizing: boys might leave Sparta for several days, and fathers’ participation was vital to its functioning. Rather than training in a full range of athletic events, girls participated in ritual footraces, dances, and choral performances, probably while naked; such public activities made Spartan women notoriously self-confident. The system was closely linked with family life. When that link dissolved in the later fourth century BCE, Sparta’s distinctive way of life faltered.
Nigel M. Kennell, Lecturer in Classical, Near Eastern, and Religious Studies, University of British Columbia (Canada).
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