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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 677) Index

(p. 677) Index

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by t and f.

A
Abortion, elective, 489
Abortion, spontaneous. See also Pregnancy loss
antepartum antidepressants and, 385–386
incidence of, 488–489
Acculturation and acculturative stress, 639–642
definitions of, 632–633
in Eastern cultures, 640–641
in Native cultures, 641
in other cultures, 641
process of, 632–633, 639
in Western cultures, 639–640
Acupuncture, for depression, 123
Adaptation
to pregnancy, 8–9
psychological, 7
in vulnerability-stress-adaptation model, 44
Adaptive process engagement, 46
Adiposity, on maturation, 580
Adolescent mothers, 583–592
brains of, 577–578, 668
child abuse and ineffective mothering in, 583
children of, 584
education and careers of, 583
social support for, 584–585
themes of, 583–584
Adolescent mothers, psychopathology, 585–591
depression in, demographics of, 587–588
depression in, measurement of, 586
depression in, prevalence of, 585
future directions for, 591–592
interventions for, 589–591
maltreatment and violence exposure in, 588
Pittsburgh Girls Study on, 576, 586–589
posttraumatic stress disorder postpartum in, 187–188
preexisting mental health problems in, 588–589
risk factors for, developmental, 587
“weathering the storm” in, 585
Adolescent pregnancy, 575–583
future directions in, 591–592
maturation in, adiposity on, 580–581
maturation in, endocrine disruptors on, 581
maturation in, stress biology on, 579–580
parental separation on, at 0-6 mos, 579
perinatal outcomes in, poor, 581–583
predictors of, biological, 577–579
predictors of, psychosocial, 576–577, 576t
prevalence of, 575
weathering hypothesis of, in African Americans, 582–583
Adoption
closed, 623
international, 623
in LGBT families, 623–624
open, 623
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, 31
breastfeeding on, 34
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 92–94, 103, 297
transmission gap and, 97–99
Agoraphobia, 151. See also Anxiety; Panic disorder and panic attacks
antepartum, 137
Ainsworth, Mary, 89–90
Air hunger, 30
Alaska Native women, 636–637. See also Native cultures, perinatal issues
Alcohol abuse
in American Indian mothers, 637
antepartum, on child attachment, 307–308
with drug dependence, 201–202, 203, 203t, 206, 209
with drug dependence, on newborn, 209
with posttraumatic stress disorder, 204–205
Alcohol use prevention, postpartum, 473–475
indicated interventions in, 474–475
need and opportunity for, 473
risk assessment in, 473–474
selective interventions in, 474
Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), 324–325
American Indian women, 636–637. See also Native cultures, perinatal issues
alcohol abuse in, 637
religious and spiritual beliefs in, 645–646
social support for, 644
trauma in, historical, 641
americanpregnancy.org, 435t
Anorexia nervosa. See also Eating disorders
body image disturbance in, 232. See also Body image disturbance
child neglect with, 305–306
dieting in, 239
pregnancy on, 240–241
sexual and physical abuse and, 117
Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ), 457
Antidepressants. See also specific agents and disorders
in breast milk, 121, 396–397
bupropion, 384–385, 387
for depression prevention, postpartum, 464
mirtazapine, 385, 387
monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 385
for panic disorder, 163
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 119–120, 208–209, 383–390, 464
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 384
tricyclic, 120–121, 385–389
Antidepressants, antepartum, 384–390
congenital malformations and, 119–120, 386–387
fetal effects of, long-term, 389–390
fetal growth and, 388
guidelines for, 383
hemorrhage and, postpartum, 388–389
hypertension and, 389
literature review on, 385
on neonatal outcomes, 120
neurobehavioral effects of, long-term, 120–121
persistent pulmonary hypertension and, 120, 209, 388
poor neonatal adaptation syndrome and, 389
on pregnancy outcomes, 119
prescriptions for, increase in, 384
preterm birth and, 387–388
spontaneous abortion and, 385–386
(p. 678) Antidepressants, herbal, 420–423
kava, 422–423
St. John’s wort, 420–422
Antidepressants, postpartum, 395–397
efficacy of, 368
nursing and, 121, 396–397
Antiepileptics, fetal effects
antepartum, 393
postpartum, 397
Antipsychotics, fetal effects
antepartum, 393–394
postpartum, 398
Antisocial personality disorder, with drug dependence, 205
Anxiety
on affective interactions, 300
after pregnancy loss, pregnancy-focused, 504–505
on child attachment, 300–302
on child attachment, with depression, 296
definition of, 132
on emotional displays, 300
in lesbian parents, 625
in other cultures, 638
from prematurity, 554–555
prevalence of, 635, 638
on sensitivity, 301
on social engagement, 301
in Western cultures, 635–636
Anxiety, antepartum, 11–12, 132–139. See also specific disorders
assessment of, 132–133
beneficial effects of, 136, 668
caveat on research on, 133
course of, 139, 142–143
with depression, 116
fear of birth in, 138
fear of pregnancy loss in, 138
fears and worries in, other, 138
on fetal/infant development, 171–172
future directions in, 145–146
generalized anxiety disorder in, 12, 116, 137
impact of, 135–136
on infant and child outcomes, 73, 268–273, 269t–270t, 272t
measures of, 135
on mother–infant attachment, 135
obsessive-compulsive disorder in, 136–137, 168, 171–172, 390, See also Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD)
panic disorder in, 137, 151–155, See also Panic disorder and panic attacks
pathological status in, 133–134
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 116, 137–138, 184–185, 273, See also Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
rates of, 134–135, 136–138
risks for, 139
screening on, frequent, 138
social anxiety disorder in, 137–138
treatment of, 144–145
Anxiety, paternal, 144
Anxiety, postpartum, 132–135, 139–144. See also specific disorders
assessment of, 132–133
caveat on research on, 133
course of, 142–143
fears and worries in, other, 142–143
future directions in, 145–146
generalized anxiety disorder in, 141, 469
impact of, 139–140
measures of, 135
obsessive-compulsive disorder in, See Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), postpartum
panic disorder in, 141, See also Panic disorder and panic attacks
pathological status in, 133–134
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 141–142, See also Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
rates of, 134–135, 140–142
risks for, 143–144
social anxiety disorder in, 142
treatment of, 144–145
Anxiety disorders. See also specific disorders
assessment of, 132–133
caveat on research on, 133
generalized anxiety disorder, 12, 116, 137, 141, 326–327, 469
impact of, 135–136
measures of, 135
obsessive-compulsive disorder, 136–137, 140–141, 167–178
panic disorder and panic attacks, 137, 141, 150–163
posttraumatic stress disorder, 116, 137–138, 141–142, 182–195
prevalence of, 252, 341
prevention of, postpartum, 469–470
social anxiety disorder, 137–138, 142
underdetection and undertreatment of, 319–320
Anxiety screening, assessment, and diagnosis, 325–328
fundamentals of, 325–326
for generalized anxiety disorder, 326–327
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 174–176, 327–328
for posttraumatic stress disorder, 328
Anxiety treatment, antepartum pharmacotherapy, benzodiazepine fetal effects in, 390–391
Anxiety treatment, antepartum psychotherapy
affect-focused psychotherapy, 348
cognitive behavioral therapy, 346–348
interpersonal psychotherapy, 346
mindfulness training, 348
Anxiety treatment, postpartum psychotherapy, 356–357
cognitive behavioral therapy, 356–357
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 356–357
paroxetine vs. paroxetine + cognitive behavioral therapy, 356
for posttraumatic stress disorder, 357
Arachidonic acid, 410, 410f, 411
Assessment. See Screening, assessment, and diagnosis; specific disorders
Assimilation, 633
Assisted reproductive technology (ART), 488, 525–527, 526t. See also Infertility; Pregnancy loss
Attachment
after pregnancy loss, to subsequent children, 506–507
genetic markers of, 101
intergenerational transmission of problems in, 506
on transition to parenthood, 45
Attachment, child, maternal psychopathology on, 284–308
anxiety in, 300–302
attachment theory on, 284–285, See also Attachment theory
bipolar disorder in, 302–303
borderline personality disorder in, 304–305
eating disorders in, 305–307
future directions in, 308
psychosis in, 303–304
substance abuse in, 307–308
Attachment categories
Adult Attachment Interview for, 92–94, 102, 297
dismissing, 92
hostile/helpless, 94
insecure-avoidant, 91
insecure-disorganized, 91
insecure-resistant, 91
preoccupied, 92
secure, 91
secure/autonomous, 91–92
strange situation and, 90–92, 90t
subcategories of, 91
unresolved, 92–93
Attachment representations, with depression, 297
Attachment security, adult measures, current state of mind in, 94, 103
Attachment security, infant, 94–97
atypical parenting behaviors on, 97
on child development, subsequent, 102
cultural differences in, 99
infant-centered factors in, 100–101
longitudinal development and influence of, 102
maternal sensitivity in, 94–95
mind-mindedness in, 95–97
social environmental factors in, 99
temperament in, 100–101
transmission gap in, 97–99
(p. 679) Attachment theory, 87–94, 284–285
Ainsworth’s work on, 89–90
attachment behavior in, 88–89
Bowlby’s work on, 87–89, 284
continuing bonds in, 511, 512
early empirical work on, 89–90
future directions in, 101–103
goal-corrected system in, 92
on grief models, 510
internal working model of, 92
protest, despair, and detachment in, 88
refinement of, 91–92
secondary drive in, 88
strange situation in, 90–91, 90t
Attention, 19–20
Attention deficit disorder (ADD) treatment, stimulant fetal effects
antepartum, 394–395
postpartum, 398
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
child, antepartum stress in, 269t, 271, 273, 275, 277–279
fetal effects of stimulant treatment, antepartum, 394–395
fetal effects of stimulant treatment, postpartum, 398
Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE), 97
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), antepartum
antidepressants and, 389–390
maternal stress in, 172, 270t, 271
Awakenings, infant, 16
B
“Baby blues.” See Depression, postpartum
Baby Blues phone app, 432t
Baby Bumps Supports Group, 431t
babycentre.co.uk, 435t
Baby & Me –Tobacco Free, 471–472
Back pain, 30
Balanced representations, 11
Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF), 21
Bayley Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index, 12, 273
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
for depression diagnosis, with anxiety, 116
eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on, 412
for infertility patients, 531
interpersonal psychotherapy on, 343
for NICU infants’ parents, 560
for postpartum depression risk assessment, 457
Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II)
cognitive behavioral therapy on, 353
family and social support in western cultures on, 643
interpersonal psycotherapy on, 350
for major depression screening, 322–323
Mámas y Bebés on, 369
mother-infant interaction on, 423
telephone-delivered psychotherapy on, 360
Bed rest, antepartum, parental responses to, 551–552
Behavior, child, antepartum maternal stress on, 269t–270t, 270–271
Behavior, infant
child abuse on, 66
maternal stress antepartum on, 269t–270t, 270–271
Behavioral changes, maternal, antepartum and early postpartum, 15–18
eating patterns in, 18
physical activity in, 16–17
sexual activity in, 17–18
sleep patterns in, 16
Behavioral problems, child, maternal stress in, antepartum, 269t, 270, 272–274, 276–278
Behavioral states
fetal, 56–57
infant, 65–68, 66t
Benzodiazepines
action of, 390
fetal effects of, antepartum, 390–391
fetal effects of, postpartum, 397
for panic disorder, 163
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11β-HSD2), 276
betterhealth.vic.gov, 434t
beyondblue.org, 434t
Biological changes, antepartum, 26–35, 252–263
in delivery and puerperium, 31–34
depression symptoms as normal in, 26–27
familial aggregation of, 253–254
in first trimester, 27–28
genetic studies of, 254–256
in second and third trimester, 28–31
Biological changes, postpartum, 252–263
delivery trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in, 262
in dopamine, 259
in estrogen and progesterone, 256–258
future directions in, 263
in gamma-aminobutyric acid, 259
in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, 259–260
in immune function, 261–262
major depressive disorder symptoms as normal in, 26–27
in melatonin, 261
in MHPG (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol), 259
in monoamine oxidases, 258
in noradrenergic system, 258–259
overview of, 666–668
in oxytocin, 261
reproductive subtype of depression and, 256
in serotonin, 258
in sleep disturbance, 262–263
in thyroid hormones, 260–261
Biphobia, 620
Bipolar disorder
on affective interactions, 302
on child attachment, 302–303
postpartum psychosis and, 218–221, 466–467, See also Postpartum psychosis
pregnancy and, 219
prevention of, postpartum, 465–467
research on, lack of, 668
screening, assessment, and diagnosis of, 324–325
on vocalizations, maternal, 302
Bipolar disorder treatment, antepartum, 391–399
antipsychotic fetal effects in, 393–394
medication in, 466
medication withdrawal and postpartum relapse of, 398–399
mood stabilizer fetal effects in, 391–393
Bipolar disorder treatment, postpartum, 397–398
Birth defects. See Congenital malformations
Birth weight, infants
of adolescent mothers, 668
antidepressants on, 119
anxiety on, 136
depression on, untreated, 204, 342, 603–604
drug dependency on, 209, 604
eating disorders on, 241
eicosapentaenoic acid on, 413
of incarcerated mothers, 607, 609
intimate partner violence on, 205
maternal stress on, 269t, 270, 273–275, 278, 603–604
panic disorder on, 160–161
physical abuse on, 604
smoking on, 604
social support on, 643, 644
very-low, 187, 553, See also Prematurity
Bisexual, 620
Blood flow to fetus, decreased, on fetal programming, 275
Blues Scale, 14–15
serotonin on, 258
Body dysmorphic disorder, 234. See also Body image disturbance
Body image
healthy, consolidation of, 491
reactions to, 9–10
(p. 680) Body image disturbance, 10, 231–247
clinical significance of, 234
definitions of, 232
future directions in, 247
history of, 231–232
prevalence of, 233
severity of, 234
specificity of, 233
theoretical models of, 232–233
treatment of, 246–247
Body image disturbance, antepartum, 234–241
assessment of, 246
changes over time in, 234
course of, 235
dieting status in, 239–240
eating disorder status in, 240–241
exercise status in, 238–239
impact of, 235–236
longitudinal studies on, 237–238
overweight and obesity pre-pregnancy in, 234
weight gain in, 234–237, 241, See also Weight gain, antepartum
on well-being, maternal, infant, and familial, 241
Body image disturbance, postpartum, 241–246
assessment of, 246
breastfeeding status in, 244
comparison to others in, 244
depression and, postpartum, 244–245
dieting and, 244
image dissatisfaction course in, 242–243
on infant feeding, 245
weight retention course in, 241–242
on well-being, maternal, infant, and familial, 245
Body Shape Satisfaction Scale, 10
Borderline personality disorder, 304
bipolar disorder and, 303
on child attachment, 304–305
comorbidities of, 305
with drug dependence, 205
heart rate variability in, 57
Bowlby, John, 87–89, 284. See also Attachment theory
Brain, adolescent, 577–578, 668
Brain development
fetal, 53–56, 55f
fetal, psychotropic drugs on, 384
infant, 64–65
Breakfast interview, 15
Breastfeeding
on adrenocorticotropic hormone, 34
on body image, 244
on cortisol, 34
for depression, 424
docosahexaenoic acid safety in, 414
eicosapentaenoic acid safety in, 414
on estrogen, 34
exercise and, 417–418
hormones in, 33
on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, 34
lithium and, 466
on mother, 33–34
for NICU infants’ parents, 559
St. John’s wort and, 422
on stress response, 34
Breast milk
antidepressants in, 121, 396–397
psychotropic drugs in, 384
Bright light therapy, for depression, 418–420
antepartum and postpartum, 418–419
duration and timing of, 419
intensity of, 419
mechanisms of, 419
safety issues with, 419–420
from seasonal affective disorder, 418
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, 576
Bulimia nervosa. See also Eating disorders
body image in, 232, 245, See also Body image disturbance
child neglect in, 306
depression and, postpartum, 245
dieting in, 239
pregnancy on, 240–241
sexual and physical abuse and, 117
Buprenorphine
in breast milk, 211
on neonatal abstinence syndrome, 207
Buprenorphine/methadone, for drug dependence antepartum, 203t, 206–208, 211
Bupropion, 384–385
congenital malformations and, 387
C
Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), 11–12, 326
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT), 119
Carbamazepine, 391–392
fetal effects of, antepartum, 393, 466, 467
for postpartum psychosis, 468
Child abuse
by adolescent mothers, 583, 589
in adolescent mothers, history of, 588
depression history in, 637
infant behavior with, 66
in Native Hawaiians, 641
prevention of, with intimate partner violence, 477
substance abuse on, 209, 211, 307
Childbirth expectations, self-efficacy in, 13–14
Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory (CBSEI), 14
Child development. See also specific topics
adolescent mother counseling on, 589
after pregnancy loss of previous sibling, 505–507
antipsychotics on, antepartum, 394
anxiety on, 301, See also Anxiety
depression on, 285–287, See also Depression
distress on, 556, 670
incarceration on, 610–611, 612
in LGBT families, 627
poverty on, 62, 603, 673
preterm birth on, 387
risk factors on, multiple, 298
Cis-genderism, 621
Cis-sexism, 621
Clozapine, fetal effects
antepartum, 393–394
postpartum, 398
Cocaine abuse. See also Substance abuse
on child attachment, 308
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 671–672
for anxiety, antepartum, 346–348
for anxiety, postpartum, 356–357
for depression, 122
for depression, antepartum, 345–346
for depression, postpartum, 351–353
for depression prevention, postpartum, 458–459
for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 176–177
for obsessive-compulsive disorder prevention, postpartum, 469
for panic disorder, 163
psychologist and social worker delivery of, 367–368
Cognitive changes, antepartum and early postpartum, 19–21
memory and attention in, 19–20
self-appraisals in, 20–21
Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), 20
Cognitive performance, child, antepartum maternal stress on, 269t, 270, 270t, 271
Cognitive self-appraisals, 7–8
Cognitive style
in depression, perinatal, 115
early postpartum, 8
on internal representations, 10
Cohabitation, on transition to parenthood, 47–48
Coherence, sense of, 500
Communalism, 643
Community-based participatory research (CBPR), for depression, 378–379
Complementary and alternative medicine, for depression, 122–123, 408–425. See also Depression treatment, complementary and alternative medicine
Complicated grief, 495–497
Complications, pregnancy. See Pregnancy complications
(p. 681) Conduct disorder
in adolescent mothers, 586
in adolescent mothers, with depression, 586–587
sexual promiscuity and precocity in, 576–577
stress and, antepartum, 269t, 271, 273, 275, 278, 279
Congenital malformations
antidepressants and, antepartum, 119–120, 386–387
benzodiazepines and, antepartum, 390–391
depression and worry in mothers of infants with, 558–559
parental responses to, 557–558
types of, 557
Consolidation, of adult identity and unique selfhood, 491
Continuing bonds theory, 511
Cooper Survey Questionnaire (CSQ), 457
Coping, 13
Coping, with infertility, 532
gender differences in, 533–534
psychological distress in, 532
Corrections, pregnancy and, 605–614. See also Incarceration
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 31
in depression, 115
in depression, postpartum, 259–260
Cortisol, 29t, 31
breastfeeding on, 34
in depression, postpartum, 259–260
in fetal programming, 275–277
postpartum, 262
in response to stressors, antepartum, 184–185
Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE), 560
Critically ill full-term infant
causes of complications in, 557
in NICU, parental responses to, 557–558, See also Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), full-term infant
Cross-cultural differences, 632–652, 673. See also specific topics and cultures
acculturation and acculturative stress in, 632–633, 639–642
adaptation and tailoring for, 651–652
anxiety in, 638
assimilation in, 633
childbirth in, 634
complexity of cultural context in, 651
cultural competence in, 652
culture in, 632
depression in, 637–638
ethnicity in, 632
family and social support in, 642–644
help-seeking and treatment access/utilization in, 646–649
integration in, 633
in Native, indigenous, and other international cultures, 633
postpartum period in, 634
pregnancy intention and marital status on, 633–634
prevalence in, 634–639, See also specific cultures
race in, 632
religious and spiritual beliefs in, 644–646
services and intervention in, 649–651
Crying, infant, 66, 66t
anxious mothers’ response to, 301
in attachment, 88, 89, 90, 91
cocaine exposure on, antepartum, 308
coping and, 143
in late preterm infants, 557
maternal sensitivity to, 301
on men/fathers, 144
in poor neonatal adaptation syndrome, 389
Cuarentena, la, 645
Cultural competence, 652. See also Cross-cultural differences; specific cultures
Culture, definition of, 632
D
Death, fetal, 488. See also Pregnancy loss
Debriefing, postpartum, 194–195, 672–673
for depression prevention, 462–463
for posttraumatic stress prevention, 470
Delivery
biological changes in, 31–34
medically indicated preterm, 549, See also Preterm birth
trauma of, in posttraumatic stress disorder, 262
Denial, pregnancy, 8
Depression, 111–118
after pregnancy loss, 497–499
in American Indians and Alaska Natives, 637
anxiety disorders with, 116
assessment for, 117–118
on attachment, mother–infant, 204
on child development, 285
childhood sexual abuse with, 117
course of, 113
cultural context on, 635
diagnosis of, 111
with drug dependence, 203–204, 203t, 208–209
eating disorders with, 117
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for, 112, 118, 157, 254, 322–323, See also Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
fish consumption on, 410–411
future directions in, 124–125
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in, 259–260
in incarcerated women, 606
negative cycle of, 298
with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 170
with panic disorder, 159–160
on parenting behavior, 285
personality in, 115
with posttraumatic stress disorder, 186
reproductive subtype of, 256
risk factors for, biological, 115–116
risk factors for, demographic and socioeconomic, 113–114
risk factors for, psychosocial, 114–115
screening for, 331–332
substance abuse with, 117–118
symptoms of, as normal in pregnancy, 26–27
in teenage pregnancy, 577
untreated, 123–124
Depression, antepartum
cultural context on, 635
in Eastern cultures, 636
on infant development, 72
on mother–infant attachment, 124
prevalence of, 111–112, 341
Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), 132–133
Depression, in adolescent mothers, 585–589
with conduct disorder, 586–587
demographics of, 587–588
measurement of, 586
prevalence of, 585
Depression, major. See Major depressive disorder (MDD)
Depression, on child attachment, 285–300, 288t–294t
chronicity on, 287, 295
comorbid psychiatric disorders on, 296
contextual factors on, 298
future research on, 299–300
infant temperament on, 298
meta-analyses on, 285–286
mother–infant interaction and maternal sensitivity in, 296–297
preterm birth on, 297–298
research limitations in, 299
severity on, 295–296
state of mind on attachment in, 297
timing in child’s life on, 286–287, 288t–294t
Depression, postpartum, 8, 14–15, 256
in adolescent mothers, 585–589, See also Adolescent mothers, psychopathology
on attachment, mother–infant, 73
body image and, 244–245
corticotropin-releasing hormone in, 259–260
cortisol in, 259–260
(p. 682)
cultural context on, 635–638
in Eastern cultures, 636
effects of, 457
estrogen and progesterone in, 256–258
estrogen replacement therapy on, 257–258
etiology of, 32–33
familial aggregation of, 253–254
in Hawaiian Natives, 637
heritability of, 667
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in, 259–260
on infant development, 73
in lesbian and bisexual mothers, 625
in medically fragile infants’ mothers, 558–559
with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 170
in Pacific Islanders, 637
from premature infants, 554–555
prevalence of, 112–113, 341, 456, 635–637
risk assessment for, 456–457
risk factors for, 457, 587
sleep disturbance and, 262–263
in Western cultures, 635
Depression During Pregnancy website, 435t
Depression in Pregnancy website, 435t
Depression prevention, postpartum, 457–465
cognitive behavioral therapy in, 458–459
development of, 457–458
doula support in, 463
interpersonal psychotherapy in, 459–460
limitations of, 464–465
midwife debriefing in, 462–463
nondirective interventions in, 461–462
pharmacological, 464
psychoeducational interventions in, 460–461
relaxation training in, 463–464
Depression treatment, complementary and alternative medicine, 122–123, 408–425. See also specific treatments
breastfeeding in, 424
bright light therapy in, 418–420
choice of, patient, 408–409
evidence-based treatments in, 408
exercise in, 416–418
infant massage in, 123, 423–424
mother–infant interaction in, 423–424
omega-3 fatty acids in, 123, 409–414, 410f
S-adenosyl-L-methionine in, 414–416
St. John’s wort in, 420–422
use of, 408
Depression treatment, pharmacotherapy, 118–121
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments on, 119
principles of, 118–119
Depression treatment, pharmacotherapy, antepartum, 119–121. See also Antidepressants, antepartum
antidepressants in, 119–120, 386–387
neonatal outcomes with, 120
neurobehavioral teratogenicity of, long-term, 120–121
Depression treatment, pharmacotherapy, postpartum, 121
Depression treatment, psychotherapy
alternative, 122–123
barriers preventing, 366
cognitive behavioral therapy in, 122
effectiveness of, 367
interpersonal psychotherapy in, 121–122
nondirective counseling in, 122
supportive therapy in, 122
Depression treatment, psychotherapy, antepartum, 342–346
affect-focused, 346
cognitive behavioral therapy in, 345–346
interpersonal psychotherapy in, 343–345
Depression treatment, psychotherapy, postpartum, 349–356
cognitive behavioral therapy in, 351–353
group treatment in, 354–355, 377t, 378
interpersonal psychotherapy in, 349–351
supportive psychotherapy in, 353–354
Depression treatment, therapy adaptations, 366–380
community-based participatory research model for, 378–379
effectiveness of, 376–378, 376t, 377t
future directions in, 378–379
Mámas y Bebés in, 368–369
Mindfulness Motherhood in, 379
nondirective counseling (listening visits) in, 371–373, 377t, 378, 379
no provider/information intervention in, 375–376, 377t, 378, 379
nurse delivery in, 370–374, 376t–377t, 377–378
paraprofessional delivery in, 374–375, 377t
peer support in, 122, 375, 377t, 378, 430, 431t, 438
psychologist and social worker delivery in, 367–370, 377t
purpose of, 366–367
Thinking Healthy Programme in, 374, 377t, 379
Detailed representations, 11
Development. See specific types
Diagnosis. See Screening, assessment, and diagnosis; specific disorders
Diagnostic parsimony, 163
Dieting
body image postpartum and, 244
prepregnancy, on body image in pregnancy, 239–240
Dilation and curettage (D&C), 488. See also Pregnancy loss
Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS), 175
Disenfranchised grief, 511
Dismissive attachment style, 92
Dissociation. See also specific disorders
parenting and, 97
peritraumatic, 500
in posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum, 190–191, 193f
Distress, infertility and, 528–529, 531, 532
coping and, 532
gender and, 532–534
in men, 531–532
research on, 531–532
Distress, maternal
from bedrest for high-risk pregnancies, 551
from hospitalization for high-risk pregnancies, 551–552
on infant development, 383, 670
on neurobehavioral development, fetal, 62–63
on neurobehavioral development, infant, 72–73
Postpartum Distress Measure of, 327–328
Distress, parental
on child development, 556, 670
on parent–preterm infant relationship, 556–557
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 410–414, 410f
breastfeeding safety of, 414
dosages of, 414
mechanism of, 412–413
population studies on, 410–411
pregnancy safety of, 413–414
sources of, 414
treatment with, 411–412
Domestic violence. See Intimate partner violence (IPV)
Dopamine
antipsychotics on, 393
in depression pathophysiology, 256
in infants of distressed mothers, 124
MAO inhibitors on, 385
in mood and psychotic disorders, 259
nicotine on, 204
nipple stimulation on, 33
postpartum, 259
psychostimulants on, 394
(p. 683) Doula support, 432t, 611
for incarcerated pregnant women, 611
for postpartum depression prevention, 463
Dreaming, 16
DVDs, 440–441, 441b
evaluation of, 446t, 450
Dysphoria, from prematurity, 555–556
Dyspnea of pregnancy, 30
E
Early Head Start (EHS), 605
Eastern cultures, perinatal issues
acculturation and acculturative stress in, 640–641
depression in, 636
help-seeking and treatment access/utilization in, 647–648
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 636
prevalence of, 636
religious and spiritual beliefs in, 645
services and intervention in, 650
Eating disorders. See also specific types
on child attachment, 305–307
on child attachment, with depression, 296
on depression, 117
pregnancy on, 240–241
research on, lack of, 668
Eating patterns, 18
Eclampsia
parental responses to, 550
posttraumatic stress disorder after, 187
Ecological Systems Theory, 576
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), 112, 118
for antidepressant efficacy, postpartum, 368
for anxiety screening, 133, 326
for depression screening, 112, 118, 157, 254, 322–323
eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid treatment on, 411
for postpartum depression risk assessment, 456–457
Education, patient, for postpartum depression prevention, 460–461
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 410–414, 410f
breastfeeding safety of, 414
dosages of, 414
mechanism of, 412–413
population studies on, 410–411
pregnancy safety of, 413–414
sources of, 414
stress, inflammation, and, 412–413
treatment with, 411–412
Elective abortion, 489
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 399
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11β-HSD2), 276
Embryo donation, 526t
Emotional development, infant, 72
Emotional displays, anxiety on, 300
Emotional problems, child, antepartum maternal stress in, 269t, 271–275, 277, 278
Emotional vulnerability, antepartum, 492
Endocrine disrupting chemicals, on maturation, 581
Epigenetic changes, in fetal programming, 276
Erikson, Erik, 665
Estrogen, 29t
antepartum, 256
breastfeeding on, 34
in depression pathophysiology, 256
postpartum, 33, 253
postpartum depression and, 32–33, 257–258
Estrogen receptor genes (ESR1/ESR2), 255–256
Estrogen replacement therapy, on postpartum depression, 257–258
Ethnicity, 632. See also Acculturation and acculturative stress; specific types
on depression, antepartum, 114
Evil oil, 645
Exercise, 16–17, 238–239
anti-inflammatory effects of, 417
on body image, 238–239
breastfeeding and, 417–418
for depression, 123, 416–418
on health, 238
Expectations, childbirth, self-efficacy and, 13–14
Expectations of Childbirth Questionnaire (ECQ), 14
Experience-dependent development, 64–65
Experience-expectant development, 64
Expressed Emotion tool, 11
F
Facebook, 440
Face-to-face support, 430, 431t, 438
evaluation of, 441, 447
Family support, cross-cultural, 642–644
on acculturative stress, 639
in Eastern cultures, 643–644
in Native cultures, 644
in Western cultures, 642–643
Father-infant interactions, on infant development, 75
Fatigue
in first trimester, 28
in major depressive disorder, 28
postpartum, 34
FDA Final Rule, 400
Fears, of childbirth, 138
parity and, 189
posttraumatic stress disorder and, 189
Fears, other. See also Anxiety
antepartum, 138
postpartum, 142–143
of pregnancy loss, 138
from prematurity, 553
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, on brain, 56, 206, 209, 472
Fetal death, 488. See also Pregnancy loss
Fetal demise, 488. See also Pregnancy loss
Fetal growth, 388
antepartum antidepressants on, 388
Fetal programming, 268. See also Stress, maternal, on infant and child outcome
anxiety in, antepartum, 136
definition of, 268
evolutionary significance of, 277–278
underlying mechanisms of, 275–277
Final Rule, FDA, 400
Fish consumption
on depression, 410–411
mercury from, 414
Fish oil supplements. See Omega-3 fatty acids, for depression
Food insecurity, on infant development, 74
Food Stamps, 605
Fragile infants, parental responses to, 558–559
Frozen/thawed embryo transfer cycle (FET), 526t
Functional psychoses, 219
G
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
benzodiazepines on, 390
in embryonic development, 55
postpartum, 259
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). See also Anxiety
antepartum, 12, 137
antepartum, in postpartum depression, 116
in drug-dependent perinatal women, 202
postpartum, 141, 469
posttraumatic stress disorder with, 186
rates of, 134–135
research on, paucity of, 357
screening, assessment, and diagnosis of, 326–327
transition to parenthood on, 666
Gestational age, 77
Gestational diabetes, parental responses to, 550–551
Gestational surrogacy, 622
Glucocorticoids. See also specific types
on developing fetus, 275–276
in fetal programming, 275–276
in milk production, 34
(p. 684) Goal-corrected system, 92
Graves disease, in postpartum psychosis, 261
Grief
attachment theory and, 510
complicated, 495–497
disenfranchised, 511
historical perspective on, 510–511
persistent complex bereavement disorder in, 497
of pregnancy loss, 511
from premature infants, 555
prolonged grief disorder in, 497
Grieving
after pregnancy loss, 514–515, See also Pregnancy loss treatment
gender differences in, 502–503
Group psychotherapy. See also specific types
for depression, postpartum, 121, 354–355, 377t, 378
for drug-dependent pregnant women, 348
vs. individual therapy, 358
for infertile couples, 538
mother–infant relational, 349, 354–355
H
Habituation
fetal, to vibroacoustic stimuli, 59–60, 62
infant, to emotions, 72
Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), postpartum, 357
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), 112, 457
for antidepressants, postpartum, 368
for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 411–412
for intrapersonal psychotherapy, 343–344
for light therapy, 419
for S-adenosyl-L-methionine, 415
Hand preference development, infant, 65
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, in postpartum psychosis, 261
Hawaiian Natives, 637. See also Native cultures, perinatal issues
help-seeking and treatment access/utilization in, 648–649
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 637
worries in, antepartum, 12
Healthy Start, 330–331, 334
Heartburn, 29
Heart rate, fetal
maternal stress on, 61
music and voice on, 60–61
neurobehavioral development of, 57–58
vibroacoustic stimuli on, 59–60
Heart rate variability, fetal
maternal relaxation on, 61–62
maternal stress on, 61
HELLP syndrome, 550
parental responses to, 550
posttraumatic stress disorder after, 187
Helplines, 431t–432t
Help-seeking, cross-cultural, 646–649
in Eastern cultures, 647–648
in Native cultures, 648–649
in other cultures, 649
in Western cultures, 646–647
Hemicentin 1 (HMCN1), 255
Hemorrhage, postpartum, antepartum antidepressants in, 388–389
Herbal antidepressants, 420–423
kava, 422–423
St. John’s wort, 420–422
Heterosexism, 620
High-risk infant
definition of, 548
future directions in, 562–563
parental responses to, 548–549
High-risk pregnancies, 549, 551
High-risk pregnancies, parental responses to, 549–552
fundamentals of, 549–550
future directions in, 562–563
gestational diabetes in, 550–551
HELLP syndrome in, 550
medical treatments in, 551–552
negative, interventions for, 552
preterm labor in, 549–550, 552
Highs, The, 324
Homophobia, 620
Hospitalization, antepartum, parental responses to, 551–552
Hostile/helpless attachment style, 94
Hostility, from premature infants, 555–556
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), 29t
in first trimester, 27–28
on thyroid gland, 28
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11β-HSD2), 276
Hyperemesis gravidarum, in first trimester, 27–28
Hypericum perforatum, 420–422
Hypertension, maternal
antidepressants and, antepartum, 389
cod liver oil and, 413
critically ill infants and, 557
in incarcerated, 606–607
major depressive disorder with, 115
persistent pulmonary, antepartum antidepressants and, 120, 209, 388
with schizophrenia, 217
Hyperthyroidism
depression and, antepartum, 260
in first trimester, 667
from human chorionic gonadotropin, 28
Hypocortisolism, in early menarche, 579–580
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 31
breastfeeding on, 34
in children, antepartum stress on, 270t, 271, 274, 276–278
in menarche, early, 579–580
postpartum, 259–260
prolactin and oxytocin in, 34
in stress, 579–580
I
Identity, adult, consolidation of, 491
IFN-γ/IL-10, postpartum, 262
Illusory mental health, 503
Immune function, 261–262
Incarcerated women, interventions for, 611–613
Doula support in, 611
nurseries in, 611–613
parenting programs in, 613
Incarceration, 605–611, 673
birth outcomes in, 608–609
on child development, 610–611
future directions in, 613–614
mental and physical health in, 606–607
postpartum experiences in, 610
poverty and race in, 606
pregnancy options in, 608
prenatal services in, 608
risk factors in, 605–606, 607
sexually transmitted infections and HIV in, 607
India
postpartum depression in, 637–638
postpartum depression in, paraprofessional therapy for, 374–375
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 638
Indicated interventions, 456
iNew Mommy Postpartum Adjustment Quiz, 432t
Infant awakenings, 16
Infanticide, postpartum psychosis and, 222
Infant–mother relationships. See Mother–infant relationship
Infant stepping reflex, 68
Infertility, 524–541, 673
causes of, biological, 525
causes of, psychological distress, 528–529, 531–532
on couples’ relationships, 536–537
definition of, 525
future directions in, 540–541
pregnancy and parenting after, 537
prevalence of, 525
primary vs. secondary, 526
psychological distress from, 529
psychosocial characteristics of patients with, 527–528
recent developments on, 524
treatment of, 525–527, 526t
Infertility interventions, 534–540
clinical implications of, 540
on couples’ relationships, 536–537
experience of, 534–535
psychotherapeutic, 537–539
termination of, 535
unsuccessful, adjustment to, 535–536
(p. 685) Infertility research, 529–534
clinic-based samples in, 529–530
on coping, gender differences in, 533–534
on distress, 531–532
on distress, gender and, 532–534
longitudinal cohort studies in, 530
methodological issues overview in, 529–530
on psychopathology, absence of, 530–531
stress measurement in, general vs. infertility-specific, 530
Inflammation
exercise on, 417
S-adenosyl-L-methionine, B vitamins, and, 415
stress, eicosapentaenoic acid, and, 412–413
Information intervention, for depression, 375–376, 376–377t, 378, 379
Insecure-avoidant attachment style, 91
Insecure-disorganized attachment style, 91
Insecure-resistant attachment style, 91
Instinctual responses, 88
Integration, 633
Intensive care unit (ICU) full-term infant, critically ill, 557–562. See also Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), full-term infant
Intercourse pain, postpartum, 32
Interleukin-1-β (IL-1β), postpartum, 261
Internal representations, of fetus and newborn, 10–11
Internal working model (IWM), 92
Adult Attachment Interview and, 92–94
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), 4
for anxiety, antepartum, 346
for depression, 121–122
for depression, antepartum, 343–345
for depression, postpartum, 349–351
for depression prevention, postpartum, 459–460
for intimate partner violence, postpartum, 477
for intimate partner violence prevention, postpartum, 476–477
for panic disorder, 163
for posttraumatic stress disorder prevention, postpartum, 470
psychologist and social worker delivery of, 367–368
Intimate partner violence (IPV)
adolescent mothers’ exposure to, 588
in depression, antepartum, 114–115
on maternal complications and birth outcomes, 604
Intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention, postpartum, 475–477
home-visiting interventions in, 477
importance of, 475–476
interpersonal therapy-based interventions in, 477
risk assessment in, 476–477
Intimate relationship, readiness for, 491
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 526t
Intrauterine abstinence syndrome, 207, 212
Intrauterine growth restriction, 388
Intrauterine insemination with donor semen (IUI-D), 526t
Intrauterine insemination with husband/partner’s semen (IUI-H), 526t
Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC), 21
In vitro fertilization (IVF), 488, 526t. See also Pregnancy loss
In vitro fertilization (IVF) surrogacy, 622
J
Jails, pregnancy and, 605–614. See also Incarceration
Japan
attachment security in, 99
expressing pain during childbirth in, 634
family and social support in, 644
fish consumption on depression in, 411, 413
immigrants from, 636, 640
in-home treatment in, 371
postpartum depression in, 112, 113, 636, 640
pregnancy before marriage in, 634
preterm labor in, parental responses to, 550, 552
worries in, antepartum, 12
Joint attention, infant, 71–72
K
Kangaroo care
for NICU full-term infants, 561–562
for NICU infants’ parents, 559
Kava, 422–423
Kinship LGBT parenting arrangements, 624
Kurdish women
family support for, 644
on pregnancy, 633
L
Labor, preterm, 549–550
parental responses to, 550
substance abuse on, 475
La cuarentena, 645
Lady Health Workers, in depression care, 374, 377t, 378
Lamotrigine, 391–392
antepartum fetal effects of, 393
postpartum infant effects of, 397
Lateralization, early brain, on development, 65
Latinas, U.S. See also Mexican-American women
adolescent mothers in, partnered, 587–588
age of menarche in, 580
body image in, postpartum, 242–243
depression in, postpartum, 634, 635
depression in, postpartum, cognitive behavioral therapy for, 458
family and social support for, 643
intimate partner violence in, 476
intimate partner violence prevention in, 476–477
Mámas y Bebés for, 368–369
religiosity and spirituality in, 647
social support for, 643
on unmarried pregnancy, 634
Lead exposure, on infant development, 74
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples, 619–628, 673
child outcomes in, 627
future directions in, 627–628
language and definitional issues in, 619–621
minority stress framework for, 619
pregnancy loss in, 504
prevalence of parenting in, 618–619
transition to parenthood in, 624–626
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) parenting pathways, 621–625
additional challenges in, 624–625
adoption in, 622–624
alternative insemination in, 621–622
kinship and alternative arrangements in, 624
surrogacy in, 622
Light therapy, for depression, 418–420. See also Bright light therapy, for depression
Listening visits
for depression, 122, 371–373, 377t, 378, 379
for depression prevention, postpartum, 461–462
Lithium, 391–392
breastfeeding and, 466
postpartum fetal effects of, 397, 466, 467
for postpartum psychosis, 468
Low-income women’s pregnancy, 602–605, 673
adverse outcomes in, 603–604
future directions in, 613–614
interventions for, 604–605
poverty as risk factor in, 602–603
prevalence of, 602–603
M
Major depressive disorder (MDD), 111. See also Depression
in adolescent mothers, 585, 586, 591
binge eating and bulimia with, 245
diagnosis of, 321–322
drug dependence with, 202
fatigue in, 28
(p. 686)
mania/hypomania screening with, 325
panic disorder and, 160
postpartum psychosis with, 218
screening, assessment, and diagnosis of, 321–324, 331
symptoms of, in pregnant women, as normal, 26
Major depressive disorder (MDD), postpartum
bipolar disorder with, 324
familial aggregation of, 253–254
prevalence of, 252
risk of, 454, 496
social engagement in, 301
Major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment
adapted treatments in, 369–370
antidepressants in, antepartum, 384
antidepressants in, postpartum, 395–396
cognitive behavioral therapy in, 352
eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in, antepartum, 411
exercise in, 416
help-seeking in, Western cultures, 647
home-visiting nurses in, 371–372
in-home treatment in, 371
light therapy in, 418
Mámas y Bebés in, 368
paraprofessionals in, 374
St. John’s wort in, 422
Malaysia, postpartum depression in, 112, 637
Mal ojo, 645
Maltreatment. See specific types
Mámas y Bebés (Mothers and Babies, MB), 368–369
MAPS (Motivation and Problem Solving), 471
marchofdimes.com, 435t
Marijuana dependence, 475
prevention of, postpartum, 475
with psychiatric comorbidities, 203t
Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Women’s Mental Health website, 433t
Massage, infant
for depression, 123, 423–424
for NICU full-term infants, 561
for NICU infants’ parents, 559
Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), 11
Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (MBQS), 94–95
Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) Study, 206–207
Maternal Self-Report Inventory, 21
Maternity Blues Scale, 637
Maturation
adiposity on, 580
endocrine disruptors on, 581
father absence and exposure to unrelated men on, 579
stress biology on, 579–580
stress on onset of, 578
time of onset of, 578
Medicaid, 605
Medically assisted reproduction (MAR), 525–527, 526t
Medically fragile infants
definition of, 558
parental responses to, 558–559
Melatonin
bright light therapy on, 419
methylation on, 415
postpartum, 259, 261
in sleep, 31
Memory
antepartum and early postpartum, 19–22
child, antepartum stress on, 172, 270t
dopamine in, 259
fetal, music and voice stimuli on, 60
fetal, vibroacoustic stimuli on, 60
fetal programming on, 278
oxytocin on, 33
postpartum thyroiditis on, 34
sleep consolidation of, 67
of trauma, anxiety from, 142
Menarche, early
adiposity in, 580
estrogen disruptors in, 581
hypocortisolism in, 579–580
parental separation in, at 0-6 mos, 579
sexual abuse in, 578–579
social factors in, 579
Methadone treatment, in pregnancy, 206. See also Substance abuse
breastfeeding in, 211
vs. buprenorphine, 206–208
buprenorphine for, 203
group psychotherapy with, 348
in incarcerated mothers, 611
psychiatric comorbidities in, 202–203, 203t
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), postpartum, 259
Methyltransferase-like (13-METTL13), 255
Mexican-American women. See also Latinas, U.S.
acculturation on pregnancy outcome in, 640
depression in, 633
family and social support for, 643
help-seeking and treatment access/utilization in, 647
pregnancy rates in, 634
religious and spiritual beliefs of, 645
unintentional pregnancies in, 634
Midwife debriefing, postpartum
for depression prevention, 462–463
for posttraumatic stress prevention, 470
Milestones, self-identification of, 9
Milk ejection reflex, 33
Mindfulness Motherhood, 379
Mind-mindedness, 95–97
on transmission gap, 98–99
Minimizers, 503
Minority stress framework, 619
Mirror neuron system, infant, 63, 70, 74
Mirtazapine, 385
congenital malformations and, 387
for hyperemesis gravidarum, 387
Miscarriage. See also Pregnancy loss
antidepressants and, antepartum, 385–386
definition of, 488
incidence of, 488–489
Mobile phone apps, 432t–433t, 438–439
evaluation of, 448
“Mommy brain,” 19
Moms Supporting Moms, 431t
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), 385
Monoamine oxidases, postpartum, 258
Monosexism, 620–621
Monotropy, 89
Mood changes, postpartum, 14–15
Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), 325, 467
Mood stabilizers, fetal effects
antepartum, 391–393
postpartum, 397
Mother–fetal attachment, antepartum, 11
Mother–infant attachment. See also Attachment
anxiety on, 135
depression on, 204
depression on, antepartum, 124
depression on, postpartum, 73
drug dependence on, 210–211
poor, on infant growth and development, 124
posttraumatic stress disorder on, 142, 182
prenatal attachment and, 8–9
Mother–infant interaction
for depression, 423–424
depression on, 285
depression on, and child attachment, 296–297
maternal sensitivity on, 296–297
Mother–infant psychotherapy group, for postpartum depression, 354–355
Mother–infant relationship
insecure-avoidant attachment style, 91
insecure-disorganized attachment style, 91
insecure-resistant attachment style, 91
in preterm infants, distress on, 556–557
secure attachment style, 91
Mother-Infant Transaction Program (MITP), 560–561
Motivational interviewing, for substance abuse, 348–349
Motor development, infant, 68–70, 69t
anxiety on, maternal, 12, 135
(p. 687)
cognitive behavioral therapy for mother on, 346
marijuana on, postpartum, 475
stress on, maternal, 269t, 272, 670
Motor resonance, 70
Movement, fetal
maternal relaxation on, 62
maternal stress on, 61
vibroacoustic stimuli on, 59–60
N
Native cultures, perinatal issues, 633. See also specific cultures
acculturation and acculturative stress in, 641
in Alaska Native women, 636–637
depression in, 637
help-seeking and treatment access/utilization in, 648–649
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 637
prevalence of, 636–637
religious and spiritual beliefs in, 645–646
services and intervention in, 650
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, 27–28
Negative cycle of depression, 298
Neonatal death, 488. See also Pregnancy loss
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), full-term infant, 557–562
causes of complications in, 557
Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment for, 559–560
future directions in, 562–563
kangaroo care for, 561–562
Mother-Infant Transaction Program in, 560–561
negative parental responses to, interventions for, 559–562
Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program for, 559–561
parental responses to, 557–558
netmums.com, 436t, 449
Neural plasticity, 64–65
Neurobehavioral development, fetal, 53–63
behavioral states in, 56–57
brain development in, 53–56, 55f
fetal heart rate in, 57–58
future directions in, 75–76
maternal distress and poverty on, 62–63
movement in, 58–59
responsivity to stimuli in, 59–62, See also Responsivity to stimuli, fetal
Neurobehavioral development, infant, 63–76
behavioral states in, 65–68, 66t
brain development in, 64–65
distress on, maternal, 72–73
emotional development in, 72
future directions in, 75–76
motor development in, 68–70, 69t
poverty on, parental, 73–74
sleep in, 67–68
social development in, 70–72
state regulation in, 65–67, 66t
Neurodevelopment
adolescent, 577–578
infant and child, antepartum maternal stress on, 269t–270t, 270–271
Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP), 559–561
New Haven Healthy Start (NHHS) program, 330–331
Nicotine abuse, with drug dependence, 204
Nicotine replacement therapy, 206
Nigeria
depression in, postpartum, 637
depression prevention in, in postpartum, 113
panic disorder in, antepartum, 151, 153–154
treatment access and utilization in, 649
Nondirective interventions for depression. See also specific types
counseling in, 122, 371–373, 377t, 378, 379
postpartum, 461–462
Nonprofessional resources, 429–452
face-to-face support in, 430, 431t, 438
fundamentals of, 429–430
future directions in, 450–452
mobile phone apps in, 432t–433t, 438–439
peer support in, 430, 431t, 438
print media, videos, and DVDs in, 440–441, 441b
telephone-based support in, 431t
websites, blogs, and social media in, 433t–436t, 439–440, 440b
Nonprofessional resources evaluation, 441–450, 442t–446t
of face-to-face support, 441, 447
of mobile phone apps, 448
of print media, 445t–446t, 449–450
of social support, 442t
of support groups, 442t–443t, 448
of telephone-based support, 443t–444t, 447–448
of videos and DVDs, 446t, 450
of websites, blogs, and social media, 444t–445t, 448–449
Noradrenergic system, postpartum, 258–259
Nortriptyline, for depression prevention, 464
Nurse delivery, of depression therapy, 370–374
effectiveness of, 376t–377t, 377–378
home-visiting nurses in, 371–372
primary care nurses in, 373–374
psychiatric nurses in, 370–371
Nurse Family Partnership, 278–279
Nurseries, prison and jail, 611–613
O
Obesity
pre-pregnancy, on antepartum body image, 234
with schizophrenia, 217
Obsessions, 167
Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), 469
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 167–178. See also Anxiety
after pregnancy loss, 500–501
biological models of, 172–173, 260
clinical presentation of, 168–169, 168t
cognitive behavioral models of, 173
compulsions in, 167–168
concealment of, 174–175
definition of, 167
depression with, 170
differential diagnosis of, 175
future directions in, 178
obsessions in, 167–168
oxytocin in, 172–173, 667
prevalence of, antepartum, 169–170
research on, lack of, 668
risk factors for, 173–174
screening, assessment, and diagnosis of, 174–176, 327–328
serotonin hypothesis of, 172
signs and symptoms of, 168, 168t
social support for, 175
treatment of, 176–178
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), antepartum, 136–137
on fetal/infant development, 171–172
triggering of, 168
worsening of, 390
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), postpartum, 140–141
Postpartum Intrusions Interview for, 176
vs. postpartum psychosis, 140–141, 170–171, 171t
Postpartum Thoughts and Behaviours Checklist for, 175–176
prevalence of, 170, 252
prevention of, 469
psychotherapy for, 356–357
risk factors for, 667–668
Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI), 175
Olanzapine, fetal effects
antepartum, 393–394
postpartum, 398
Omega-3 fatty acids, for depression, 123, 409–414, 410f
breastfeeding safety of, 414
dietary fat and, 409–410
in docosahexaenoic acid, 410, 410f
dosages of, 414
in eicosapentaenoic acid, 410, 410f
(p. 688)
mechanism of, 412–413
omega-6 to omega-3 ratio and, 410
population studies on, 410–411
pregnancy safety of, 413–414
sources of, 414
treatment with, 411–412
Omega-6 fatty acids, 409–410, 410f
omega-6 to omega-3 ratio and, 410
Oocyte donation (OD), 526t
Opiate abuse. See also Substance abuse
on child attachment, 308
Opioid dependence. See Substance abuse
Oppositional defiant disorder, in adolescent mothers, 586
Optimism, 8–9
Organic psychoses, 219
Overweight pre-pregnancy, on antepartum body image, 234
Ovulation induction (OI), 526t
Oxytocin, 29t, 34, 261, 667
antepartum, and postpartum depression, 115
on HPA axis, 34
on memory, 33
in obsessive-compulsive disorder, 172–173, 667
postpartum, 33
P
Pacific Islanders
air pollution and preterm delivery in, 603
depression in, postpartum, 637
help-seeking in, 647, 648–649
lack of studies on, 652
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 636
Panic disorder and panic attacks, 150–163. See also Anxiety
after pregnancy loss, 500–501
anxiety and mood disorders with, 159–160
course of, 157–159, 158t
definitions of, 150
future research in, 163
on infant well-being, 160–161
risk factors for, 160
symptoms of, 150–151
treatment of, 163
Panic disorder and panic attacks, antepartum, 137, 151–155
assessment of, 162–163
pre-existing, pregnancy on, 154–155, 155t
prevalence of, 151–154, 152t
progesterone in, 154
recurrence of, 154
symptom changes in, 154
Panic disorder and panic attacks, postpartum, 141, 155–157, 667
onset of, 155, 157, 161–162, 162t
prevalence of, 155–157, 156t
Parenthood, transition to. See Transition to parenthood
Parenting. See also specific topics
after infertility, 537
of subsequent children after pregnancy loss, 506
Parenting behaviors
on attachment security, 97
depression on, 285
Parenting Inside Out, 613
Parsimony, diagnostic, 163
Partner support, for depression, 122
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), for antepartum panic disorder, 153, 154
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), 116, 118, 152t, 153, 322–323
Peer support, 430, 431t, 438
for depression, 122, 375, 377t, 378
Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), 326–327
Perceived threat, 505
Perinatal Depression Management Program (PDMP), 331–332
Perinatal panic disorder. See Panic disorder and panic attacks
Perinatal PTSD Questionnaire, 194, 328
Peritraumatic dissociation, 500
Persistent complex bereavement disorder, 497. See also Pregnancy loss
Persistent pulmonary hypertension, antepartum antidepressants and, 120, 209, 388
Person-centered counseling, for depression, 122
Personhood, assignment of, 505
Phobic disorders, after pregnancy loss, 500–501
Phone apps, 432t–433t, 438–439
evaluation of, 448
Physical abuse
of adolescent mothers, earlier, 588
in depression, antepartum, 114–115
of incarcerated women, previous, 606
on maternal complications and birth outcomes, 604
Piper methysticum, 422–423
Pittsburgh Girls Study, 577, 586–589
Plasticity, neural, 64–65
Polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility from, 525
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), 409, 410f
Poor neonatal adaptation syndrome, antepartum antidepressants and, 389
Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), 14–15
Positively Pregnant, 435t
positivelypregnant.org, 435t
Positive predictive value, 321
Post and Antenatal Depression Association (PANDA), 431t
Postnatal depression website, 434t, 436t
Postpartum blues. See Depression, postpartum
Postpartum debriefing, 194–195, 672–673
Postpartum depression. See Depression, postpartum
“Postpartum Depression” phone app, 432t
Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory –Revised (PDPI-R), 457
Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS), 119, 163, 322–323
Postpartum Distress Measure (PDM), 327–328
Postpartum Intrusions Interview (PPII), 176
postpartum.net, 436t
Postpartum Progress blog, 437t
postpartumprogress.com, 437t
Postpartum psychosis, 218–226
autoimmune thyroid dysfunction in, 261
bipolar disorder and, 218–221, 466–467
classification of, 221–222
definition of, 219, 226
epidemiology of, 220, 467
etiology of, 222–224
genes in, 223
hormones in, 224
infanticide and, 222
medication changes in, 222
obstetric factors in, 223–224
parity in, 223
vs. postpartum obsessive-compulsive disorder, 140–141, 170–171, 171t
presentation of, 219–220, 467–468
prevalence of, 252, 467
prevention of, 467–469
prognosis for, 224, 226
psychosocial factors in, 223
recurrence risk for, 226
research on, lack of, 668
risk management for, 225
with schizophrenia, pre-pregnancy, 218
sleep deprivation in, 224, 263
sleep disturbance and, 263
suicide and, 222
treatments for, 224–226
triggers of, 218
vulnerability to, identifying, 224–225
Postpartum Support International, 432t
Postpartum Support International website, 436t
Postpartum Thoughts and Behaviours Checklist (PTBC), 175–176
Postpartum thyroiditis, 34
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). See also Anxiety
after pregnancy loss, 499–500, 501
alcohol abuse with, 204–205
anxiety and, 116
assessment and treatment of, 193–195, 193f
cortisol response in, 184–185
with drug dependence, 202, 204–205
(p. 689)
on fetus and infant, 192–193
future directions in, 195
on mother–infant attachment, 142, 182
from premature infants, 555
prevalence of, 252
screening, assessment, and diagnosis of, 328
on subsequent pregnancies, 193
symptoms of, 183–184
on women and families, 192–193
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), antepartum, 116, 137–138, 184–185
maternal stress in, 273
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), postpartum, 141–142, 185–195
in adolescent mothers, 187–188
in Africans, 638
in American Indians and Alaska Natives, 637
from birth, 183–184
birth factors in, 190–191
course and comorbidity of, 186
from delivery trauma, 262
in Eastern cultures, 636
etiology of, 188–192, 188f
high-risk groups for, 186–188
in India, 638
individual vulnerability in, 188f, 189–190
in Native Hawaiians, 637
in other cultures, 638
postpartum factors in, 191–192
with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome, 187
with preterm and special-care infants, 187
prevalence of, 185–186, 635–636, 669
prevention of, 193–194, 193f, 469–470
psychotherapy for, 357
with stillbirth and perinatal loss, 186–187
in Western cultures, 635–636
Poverty, parental. See also Socioeconomic status
infants and children with, 602–603
Poverty, pregnancy and, 602–605, 673
adverse outcomes in, 603–604
future directions in, 613–614
interventions for, 604–605
prevalence of, 602–603
as risk factor, 602–603
Powerlessness, from premature infants, 556
ppdsurvivor.blogspot.com, 437t
Preeclampsia, posttraumatic stress disorder after, 187
Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule, FDA, 384
Pregnancy complications, 548–563, 673. See also specific types
future directions in, 562–563
high-risk infants in, 548
high-risk pregnancies in, 549–552
NICU full-term infants in, critically ill, 557–562, See also Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), full-term infant
prematurity in, 552–557
preterm labor in, 550–551
Pregnancy denial, 8
Pregnancy effect, on relationships, 43
Pregnancy Experiences Scale (PES), 8
Pregnancy loss, 487–507, 673
adult developmental accomplishment and, 490–491
biopsychosocial sequelae of, 492–507
conceptual framework of, 489–492
consolidation of healthy body image and sense of self and, 491
context on meaning of, 488
on couples, siblings, and other family, 503–504
definition of, 488
depression after, 497–499
differential diagnosis of, 513–514
emotional vulnerability and, 492
fear of, 138
future directions in, 518
on gay and lesbian relationships, 504
grief of, 494–497, 510–511
grieving after, gender differences in, 502–503
incidence of, 488–489
on men, 501–502
obsessive-compulsive disorder after, 500–501
panic and phobic disorders after, 500–501
persistent complex bereavement disorder in, 497
posttraumatic stress disorder after, 186–187, 499–500, 501
prolonged grief disorder after, 497
replacement child syndrome after, 505
reproductive story in, 488, 490, 492
self-esteem and emotional regulation and, 491
spontaneous abortion, 385–386, 488–489
on subsequent children, 505–507
on subsequent pregnancy adjustment, 504–505
vicarious reparenting and, 491
vulnerable child syndrome after, 505
Pregnancy loss treatment, 507–518
countertransference in, 516–517
for couples, 515
for extended family, 516
grief process in, assisting with, 514–515
medication in, 514
for men, 515–516
psychotherapy process in, 511–514
research on, 507–510
therapist self-disclosure in, 517–518
Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS)
on physical activity, 17
on recognition and adaptation, 8
Prematurity. See also Preterm infants
definition of, 552
incidence and causes of, 552–553
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), on postpartum depression risk, 113
Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI), 11
Prenatal Coping Inventory, 13
Preoccupied attachment style, 92
Preterm birth
in adolescent pregnancy, 581
antidepressants and, antepartum, 387–388
with maternal depression, on child attachment, 297–298
spontaneous, 549
stress, lack of support, and maternal depression in, 603–604
Preterm infants
incidence and causes of, 552–553
morbidity and mortality risk in, 553
posttraumatic stress disorder with, 187
sequelae of, 553
Preterm infants, parental responses to, 552–557
depression and anxiety in, 554–555
grief in, 555
hostility and dysphoria in, 555–556
with late preterm infants, 556
parental distress on parent–preterm infant relationship in, 556–557
posttraumatic stress in, 555
powerlessness and uncertainty in, 556
stress in, 553–554
worry and fear in, 553
Preterm labor, 549–550
parental responses to, 550
substance abuse on, 475
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), 549
Prevention, of postpartum psychopathology, 454–479. See also specific disorders
anxiety disorders in, 469–470
bipolar disorder in, 465–467
future directions in, 478–479
indicated interventions in, 456
integrated approaches to, 477–478
intimate partner violence in, 475–477
mood disorders in, 456, See also specific types
on mother and infant, 455
obsessive-compulsive disorder in, 469–470
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 469–470
prevalence and importance of, 454–455
psychosis in, 467–469
selective interventions in, 456
substance abuse and drug dependence in, 470–475, See also Substance abuse prevention, postpartum
targets of intervention in, 455–456
universal interventions in, 456
(p. 690) Primitive reflexes, 68
Print media support, 440–441, 441b
evaluation of, 445t–446t, 449–450
Prisons, pregnancy and, 605–614. See also Incarceration
Progesterone
adiposity on, and early maturation, 580
in childbirth, 32–33
in depression, pathophysiology of, 256
in depression, postpartum, 32–33, 257–258
for depression prevention, postpartum, 464
depressogenic effect of, 257–258
in obsessive-compulsive disorder, postpartum, 172
in panic disorder, antepartum, 143, 154
in panic disorder, postpartum, 154, 667
postpartum, 33, 253
in postpartum psychosis, 224
for postpartum psychosis prevention, 468
pregnancy effects of, 27, 28–30, 29t, 256
Programming, fetal. See Fetal programming
Prolactin
antepartum, 29t
antipsychotics on, 393
on HPA axis, 34
postpartum, 29t, 33
Prolonged grief disorder, 497. See also Pregnancy loss
Psychoeducational interventions
for depression prevention, postpartum, 460–461
for grief in pregnancy loss, 514
Psychological distress. See Distress
Psychopharmacology, antepartum, 384–395, 672. See also specific drugs and disorders
in amniotic fluid and cord blood, 384
antidepressants in, 384–390
antipsychotics in, 393–394
benzodiazepines in, 390–391
in brain, fetal, 384
in breast milk, 384
clinical management of, 398–401
dosing of, 399
FDA classification of, 384
future directions in, 401
guidelines for, 383
mood stabilizers in, 391–393
patient education on, 399–400
stimulants in, 394–395
Psychopharmacology, postpartum, 395–398. See also specific drugs and disorders
antidepressants in, 395–397
antipsychotics in, 398
benzodiazepines in, 397
clinical management of, 398–401
future directions in, 401
mood stabilizers in, 397
patient education on, 399–400
stimulants in, 398
Psychosis
on affective interactions, 304
on caregiving, 303–304
on child attachment, 303–304
functional, 219
organic, 219
postpartum, 218–226, See also Postpartum psychosis
research on, lack of, 668
Psychotherapy, antepartum, 342–349, 672–673. See also specific disorders and therapies
for anxiety, 346–348
for depression, 342–346
discontinuation of, premature, 671
future directions in, 360–361
meta-analytic data on, 357–359
participation in, lack of, 671
for substance abuse, 348–349
treatment delivery in, 359–360
Psychotherapy, postpartum, 349–357, 672–673. See also specific disorders and therapies
for anxiety, 356–357
for depression, 349–356
future directions in, 360–361
meta-analytic data on, 357–359
treatment delivery in, 359–360
Psychotic disorders. See also specific types
prevalence of, 252
PTSD Symptoms Scale–Self-Report, 194, 470
Puberty. See Maturation
Puerperal psychosis. See Postpartum psychosis
Puerperium
biological changes in, 31–34
definition of, 32
Q
Q-Sort, 94–95
Queer, 620
R
Race, 632
rcpsych.ac.uk, 434t
Recognition, of pregnancy, 8–9
Reflective functioning (RF), 93–94
parental, in transmission gap, 98–99
Reflexes
infant stepping, 68
milk ejection, 33
primitive, 68
survival, 68
Relationship
birth of child on, 666
on depression, perinatal, 113–114
on transition to parenthood, 46–47
Relationship and sexual functioning, 40–42
definitions of, 39
future directions in, 48–49
of parents vs. nonparents, 40
strengths and limitations of, 48
in transition to parenthood, 38–39, 44–48
Relationship and sexual functioning, antepartum, 40–42
Relationship and sexual functioning, postpartum, 42–49
prospective studies with first assessment in, 42–43
prospective studies with prepregnancy baselines in, 43–44
in transition to parenthood, predictors of, 44–48
Relaxation (training)
for anxiety, 144–145
for anxiety, postpartum, 346–347
for depression, postpartum, in adolescents, 590
for depression prevention, postpartum, 463–464
on fetal neurobehavior, 279
for infertility, 538, 539
for NICU infants’ mothers, 357
in telephone-based psychotherapy, 360
Religious and spiritual beliefs, cross-cultural
in Eastern cultures, 645
in Native cultures, 645–646
in other cultures, 646
role and importance of, 644–645
in Western cultures, 645
Reparenting, vicarious, 491
Replacement child syndrome, 505
Representations, internal, of fetus and newborn, 10–11
Reproductive story, 488, 490, 492, 673
Reproductive trauma, 488, 489, 673. See also Pregnancy loss
Residential Parenting Program, Washington State corrections, 612
Responsivity to stimuli, fetal, 59–62
maternal state changes in, 61–62
music and voice, 60–61
vibroacoustic, 59–60
Revised Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R), 11–12
Rituals, 167–168
S
S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), for depression, 414–416
Sad Scale, 433t
Salmon Item List (SIL), 13–14
Schizophrenia, 216–218
adverse obstetric and infant outcomes with, 216–217
clinical management of, 217–218
clinical risk assessment with, 218
comorbidity with, 217
incidence of, 216
(p. 691)
maternal stress in, antepartum, 270t, 271
obesity with, 217
postpartum illness risk with, 218
Screening, assessment, and diagnosis, 319–335. See also specific disorders
for anxiety disorders, 325–328
barriers to, 332–333
for bipolar disorder, 324–325
challenges and future research on, 334–335, 670–671
for depression, major, 321–324
in depression management models, 331–332
in high-risk pregnancies, 552
identification, assessment, and diagnosis in, 320–321
need for, 319–320
positive predictive value of, 321
purpose of, 320
recommendations for, 333–334
sensitivity of, 320
specificity of, 320–321
United States Preventive Services Task Force recommendations on, 320
use and effectiveness of, 328–331
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 417–418
bright light therapy for, 418–420
Secondary drive, theory of, 88
Secure attachment style, 91
Secure/autonomous attachment style, 91–92
Selective interventions, 456
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antepartum, 119, 208–209, 383–390
congenital malformations and, 120, 386–387
fetal effects of, long-term, 389–390
fetal growth and, 388
mechanisms of, 383
persistent pulmonary hypertension and, 120, 209, 388
poor neonatal adaptation syndrome and, 389
postpartum hemorrhage and, 388–389
on pregnancy outcomes, 119
preterm birth and, 387–388
spontaneous abortion and, 385–386
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), postpartum, for depression, 464
Self-appraisals
antepartum and early postpartum, 20–21
cognitive, 7–8
Self-efficacy, maternal, 20–21
childbirth expectations and, 13–14
Self-esteem, maternal, 20–21, 491
of adolescent mothers, on outcomes, 584, 585
body image in, 232, 234, 238, See also Body image disturbance
in depression, 115
doula support on, 463
of drug-dependent mothers, on attachment, 211
infertility on, 535, 538
NICU hospitalization of infant on, 560
panic disorder on, 151, 162t
pregnancy loss on, 492, 497, 499, 510, 511, See also Pregnancy loss
pregnancy on, 487, 491
relaxation training on, 464
Self-help pamphlet, for depression, 375–376, 377t, 378, 379
Selfhood, consolidation of, 491
Self–nonself boundary, 9
Self-regulation
child, parental eating disorders on, 306
infant, 65–66
infant, depressed mothers on, 73
Sensitivity, 320
Separation-individuation process, 490–491
Serotonin
in depression, 415
in fetal programming, 277
in infants of depressed mothers, 124
in major depressive disorder, 115
maternal stress and, 277
postpartum, 258
S-adenosyl-L-methionine on, 415
sex hormones on, 256
St. John’s wort on, 421
Serotonin hypothesis, of obsessive-compulsive disorder, 172
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), antepartum, 383–390
congenital malformations and, 387
mechanisms of, 383
poor neonatal adaptation syndrome and, 389
preterm birth and, 387–388
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 177–178
Serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR), 254–255
Sertraline. See also Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
for depression, 464
Sexual abuse
depression and, 117
in incarcerated women, previous, 606
posttraumatic stress disorder and, 189
Sexual abuse, childhood
depression and, 117
menarche and, early, 578–579
Sexual activity, 17–18
Sexual functioning, 39. See also Relationship and sexual functioning
shirinwadia.com, 436t
Skewed representations, 11
Sleep, infant, 67–68
Sleep deprivation, in postpartum psychosis, 224, 263
Sleep disturbance
antepartum, 16, 30–31
postpartum depression and, 262–263
postpartum psychosis and, 263
Sleep patterns
antepartum and early postpartum, 16
in infancy, 67
Small for gestational age infants, psychotropic meditations and, 388
Smoking
on infant well-being, 241
negative consequences of, 471
prevalence of, 470–471
Smoking prevention, postpartum
hospital-based interventions in, 472
phone-based interventions in, 472–473
physician-delivered interventions in, 472
relapse prevention in, 471
selective interventions in, 471–472
Social anxiety disorder
antepartum, 137–138
postpartum, 142
Social development, infant, 70–72
Social media, 433t–436t, 440
evaluation of, 448–449
Social referencing, infant, 72
Social releaser, 88–89
Social support. See also Nonprofessional resources; specific types
for adolescent mothers, 584–585
on depression, perinatal, 114
evaluation of, 442t
Social support, cross-cultural, 642–644
on acculturative stress, 639
in Eastern cultures, 643–644
in Native cultures, 644
in Western cultures, 642–643
Social suppressor, 88–89
Social worker, depression therapy from, 367–370, 377t
Socioeconomic status
on depression, 114
on neurobehavioral development, fetal, 62–63
on neurobehavioral development, infant, 73–74
on panic disorder risk, 160
on posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum, 189–190
Sodium valproate, 391–392
antepartum fetal effects of, 393, 466, 467
Sparse representations, 11
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 604–605
Specificity, 320–321
Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 12
Spontaneous abortion. See Pregnancy loss
Spontaneous preterm birth, 549
(p. 692) St. John’s wort, 420–422
State of mind, maternal. See also Attachment, child, maternal psychopathology on
on attachment, with depression, 297
current, on childhood attachment experiences, 93, 94
State regulation, infant, 65–67, 66t
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 12
State version (STAI-S), 133, 135, 142–143
Trait version (STAI-T), 133, 142–143
Stepping reflex, infant, 68
Stillbirth. See also Pregnancy loss
definition of, 488
posttraumatic stress disorder after, 186–187
Still-Face Paradigm, 301
Stimulants, fetal effects
antepartum, 394–395
postpartum, 398
Strange situation, 90–91, 90t
Stress. See also Anxiety; Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); specific types
assessment of, 132–133
biology of, on maturation, 579–580
coping with, 12–13
definition of, 132
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in, 579–580
inflammation, eicosapentaenoic acid, and, 412–413
management of, antepartum, 76
on mother and fetus, 61
from premature infants, 553–554
response to, 12–13
Stress, maternal, on infant and child outcome, 268–279
altered outcomes in, 268–271, 269t–270t
antepartum, on fetal/infant development, 171–172
antepartum, on panic disorder risk, 160
causality of stress in, 273–275
clinical implications of, 278–279
cortisol in, 275–277
evolutionary significance of, 277–278
fetal programming in, 136, 268, 275–278
future directions in, 279
magnitude of effects in, 273
mechanisms of, 275–277
on neurobehavioral development, fetal, 62–63
prevention and treatment of, 278–279
serotonin in, 277
stress types in, 271–273, 272t
11β-HSD2 in, 276
Stress response
antepartum, 12–13, 31, 184–185
breastfeeding on, 34
postpartum, 12–13
Stroop color-word matching task, 61, 62
Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), panic disorder in, 153–154
Substance abuse, 201–212
in American Indian mothers, 637
with depression, 117–118, 296
with posttraumatic stress disorder, 186
prevalence of, 307
research on, lack of, 668
Substance abuse, antepartum, on child attachment, 307–308
biology and caregiving in, 307–308
with depression, 296
Substance abuse, postpartum, relapse to, 454–455
Substance abuse and drug dependence
alcohol abuse with drug dependence in, 201–203, 203t, 206, 209
antepartum, 202
depression with, 208–209
future directions in, 211–212
intrauterine abstinence syndrome in, 207, 212
mother–infant attachment issues in, 210–211
neonatal abstinence syndrome in, 208, 209–210
newborns in, 209–211
nicotine abuse with, 204
personality disorders with, 205
posttraumatic stress disorder with, 202, 204–205
prevalence of, 201–202
psychiatric comorbidity in, 202–205, 203t
Substance abuse prevention, postpartum, 470–477
for alcohol use, 473–475
for illicit drugs, 475
for smoking, 470–473
Substance abuse treatment, antepartum, 205–209
buprenorphine/methadone in, 203t, 206–208, 211
future research on, 349
group psychotherapy in, 348
motivational interviewing in, 348–349
Suffocation false-alarm hypothesis, 154, 159, 667
Suicide
postpartum depression and, 170, 204
postpartum depression and, in adolescent mothers, 585
postpartum psychosis and, 222, 227, 468
Suicide risk
after pregnancy loss, 496, 497
eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on, 412
infertility on, 536
medication prescription and, 399
Support. See Social support; specific types
Support groups, 431t. See also Nonprofessional resources; specific types
evaluation of, 442t–443t, 448
Surrogacy
gestational, 622
in LGBT families, 622–623
traditional genetic, 622
in vitro fertilization, 622
Survival reflexes, 68
Synaptic pruning, 64
Synaptogenesis, 64
T
T-ACE screening tool, 473
Teenage pregnancy. See Adolescent mothers
Telephone-based support, 431t
for depression prevention, postpartum, 461–462
evaluation of, 443t–444t, 447–448
for smoking relapse prevention, postpartum, 472–473
Theory of secondary drive, 88
Therapy. See Psychotherapy; specific disorders
Thinking Healthy Programme, 374, 377t, 378, 379
Threat, perceived, 505
Threat appraisal, 505
Thyroid autoantibodies, postpartum, 260–261
Thyroid dysfunction, autoimmune, in postpartum psychosis, 261
Thyroiditis, postpartum, 34
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), postpartum, 260–261
Thyroxine, free (T4), antepartum depression and, 260
Tobacco use. See Smoking; Substance abuse
Traditional birth attendants, 649
Traditional genetic surrogacy, 622
Transgender relationships, 620. See also Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples
Transition to parenthood, 666
motherhood in, 15
personality on, 45
Transition to parenthood, relationship and sexual functioning in, 38–39, 43, 44–48
individual factors in, 44–46
in LGBT couples, 625–627
relational factors in, 46–47
situational factors in, 47–48
Transmission gap
attachment security on, 97–99
mind-mindedness on, 98–99
Transphobia, 620
Trauma history, 641
posttraumatic stress disorder and, 189, See also Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
(p. 693) Treatment access and utilization, cross-cultural, 646–649
in Eastern cultures, 647–648
in Native cultures, 648–649
in other cultures, 649
in Western cultures, 646–647
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), 385
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), antepartum, 386–389
congenital malformations and, 386–387
fetal growth and, 388
neurobehavioral teratogenicity of, long-term, 120–121
poor neonatal adaptation syndrome and, 389
preterm birth and, 387
Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), 13
Tryptophan ratio, postpartum, 258
U
Universal interventions, 456
Unplanned pregnancies
psychological response to, 114
on transition to parenthood, 47–48
Unresolved attachment style, 92–93
Urinary frequency, 29
US Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women’s Health website, 433t
V
Valproate, sodium, 391–392
antepartum fetal effects of, 393, 466, 467
Valproic acid, postpartum fetal effects of, 397
Very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants. See also Prematurity
developmental problems in, 553
posttraumatic stress disorder in mothers of, 187
Vibroacoustic stimuli, fetal response to, 59–60
Vicarious reparenting, 491
Videos, 440–441, 441b
evaluation of, 446t, 450
Vulnerability-stress-adaptation (VSA) model, for transition to parenthood, 44
Vulnerable child syndrome, 505
W
“Weathering hypothesis,” 582–583
Websites, 433t–436t, 439
of community-based groups or individuals, 435t–436t
evaluation of, 444t–445t, 448–449
of institutions, governments, and statutory authorities, 433t–435t
Weight gain, antepartum, 234–237
attention on, attitudes after, 236–237
on fetus and newborn, 235
guidelines on, revised, 235
retention of, 234, 241–242
risks of, 234–235
Weight retention, postpartum, 234, 241–242
Western cultures, perinatal issues. See also specific issues and disorders
acculturation and acculturative stress in, 639–640
anxiety in, 635–636
depression in, postpartum, 635
help-seeking and treatment access/utilization in, 646–647
posttraumatic stress disorder in, 635–636
prevalence of, 635–636
religious and spiritual beliefs in, 645
services and intervention in, 649–650
What Is Antenatal and Postnatal Depression? website, 434t
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 604–605
Women–depression during pregnancy website, 436t
womenshealth.gov, 433t
Women’s Health (iTunes), 432t
womensmentalhealth.org, 433t
Worries, other. See also Anxiety
antepartum, 11–12, 138
in mothers of medically fragile infants, 558–559
postpartum, 142–143
from premature infants, 553
Y
Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), 175–176, 327
Young Schema Questionnaire, 21