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date: 30 November 2020

(p. ix) List of Contributors

(p. ix) List of Contributors

Lieselotte Anderwald is Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Kiel, Germany. She specializes in the description and comparison of the dialect grammar of varieties of English, and the historical effects of prescriptivism. Her authored books include Negation in Non-Standard British English (Routledge, 2002), The Morphology of English Dialects (Cambridge University Press, 2009), and Language between Description and Prescription (Oxford University Press, 2016).

Zhiming Bao is Professor of Linguistics at the National University of Singapore, having been trained as a phonologist at MIT. He has two active lines of research, phonology and contact linguistics, although most of his recent publications are on Singapore English, and on contact-induced grammatical change.

Laurie Bauer FRSNZ is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He has published widely on morphology, and on international varieties of English, especially New Zealand English.

Rakesh M. Bhatt is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He specializes in the area of multilingualism, with special focus on world Englishes. He has authored a book on the syntax of Kashmiri (Verb Movement and the Syntax of Kashmiri, Kluwer 2003) and co-authored (with Rajend Mesthrie) another book on World Englishes (World Englishes, Cambridge University Press, 2008). He is currently working on finishing his book manuscript on Kashmiri in Diaspora, under contract with Cambridge University Press.

Anne-Katrin Blass is a research assistant in English linguistics at the University of Trier. She specializes in corpus linguistics and has a strong interest in syntax. This is also reflected in her PhD project, which aims at presenting a comprehensive description of the so-called “big mess construction” (e.g., This is too big a problem to ignore).

Barbara E. Bullock is currently Professor of Linguistics in the Department of French & Italian at the University of Texas at Austin. In her research program, she seeks to empirically document the effects of code-switching and convergence at multiple levels of the grammar both as a window on language variation and as a reflection of social identity.

Karen P. Corrigan has lectured at University College Dublin, and the Universities of Edinburgh and York (UK). She is currently Professor of Linguistics and English Language at Newcastle University. She has published several articles in the fields of corpus linguistics and language variation and change as well as Irish English, (p. x) Volume 1: Northern Ireland (Edinburgh University Press, 2010). She has co-edited Syntax and Variation (Benjamins, 2005, with L. Cornips) in addition to three Palgrave Macmillan volumes dedicated to corpus development issues: Creating and Digitising Language Corpora, Vols. 1 and 2 (2007, with J. C. Beal and H. L. Moisl) and Vol. 3 (2016, with A. J. Mearns).

Julia Davydova is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Mannheim (WOVEN funding scheme), where she also teaches English linguistics. She is the author of one monograph (The Present Perfect in Non-Native Englishes. A Corpus-Based Study of Variation, Mouton de Gruyter, 2011) and numerous peer-reviewed articles. She has co-authored one edited volume (Multilingualism and Language Diversity in Urban Areas: Acquisition - Identities - Space - Education, John Benjamins, 2013, with Peter Siemund, Ingrid Gogolin, and Monika Edith Schultz) and one textbook (The Amazing World of Englishes. A Practical Introduction, Mouton de Gruyter, 2012, with Peter Siemund and Georg Maier). Her main areas of research include language variation and change as well as language attitudes in non-native speaker varieties of English. She has published widely on the present perfect and quotation. Her most recent work focuses on the perceptions and use of quotative markers in indigenized and Learner English.

Markku Filppula is Professor of English at the University of Eastern Finland. He is a member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters. His research deals with present-day and past varieties of English spoken in the British Isles and World Englishes. He is the author of Hiberno-English in a Functional Sentence Perspective (University of Joensuu Press, 1986), The Grammar of Irish English: Language in Hibernian Style (Routledge, 1999), and co-author (with Juhani Klemola and Heli Paulasto) of English and Celtic in Contact (Routledge, 2008). He is co-editor (with Juhani Klemola and Heli Pitkänen) of The Celtic Roots of English (University of Joensuu Press, 2002), (with Juhani Klemola, Marjatta Palander, and Esa Penttilä) Dialects across Borders (Benjamins, 2005), (with Juhani Klemola and Heli Paulasto) Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts (Routledge, 2009), and (with Juhani Klemola) of the Special Issue on “Re-evaluating the Celtic Hypothesis” for English Language and Linguistics 13:2 (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Vivienne Fong received her PhD in linguistics from Stanford University. She has taught at the National University of Singapore, New York University, and Stanford University, and is currently Research Programs Director in the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research at Stanford. Her research interests in linguistic variation include spatial and nominal expressions in Finnish and English, aspect, and the phonology of Singapore English.

Ravinder Gargesh is currently Visiting Professor at the Centre for Linguistics at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi. His areas of interest are Indian English, Linguistic Stylistics, Lexicography, and Phonology. Some of his publications are Linguistic Perspective of Literary Style (1990), An Introductory Grammar of Urdu (2002), and six (p. xi) volumes of Persian-Hindi-English-Urdu Dictionary (with a team of four compilers) published out of the planned ten volumes.

Carlos Gussenhoven is Emeritus Professor of General and Experimental Phonology at Radboud University Nijmegen. He has taught as a visiting professor at UC Berkeley, Universität Konstanz, and the University of Nanjing and held a position at Queen Mary, University of London. He has worked and published on the phonological structure of many languages. Besides over seventy journal articles and numerous book chapters, he has co-edited three volumes, co-authored three books, among which is Understanding Phonology (4th ed., Routledge), and is the author of The Phonology of Tone and Intonation (Cambridge University Press, 2004). He is a member of the Academia Europaea.

Ulrike Gut currently holds the Chair for English Linguistics at the University of Münster. She received her PhD from Mannheim University and her Habilitation from Freiburg University. Her research interests include postcolonial varieties of English and L2/L3 phonological acquisition and she has compiled the LeaP corpus of non-native German and English and ICE-Nigeria.

Lauren Hall-Lew is Lecturer in Sociolinguistics in Linguistics and English Language, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, at the University of Edinburgh. She received her PhD and MA in Linguistics from Stanford University and her BA in Linguistics from the University of Arizona. She is a sociophonetician, with particular interests in indexicality, sound change, and methodology.

Raymond Hickey is Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Duisburg and Essen, Germany. His main research interests are varieties of English (especially Irish English and Dublin English), sociolinguistics and general questions of language contact, variation, and change. Among his recent book publications are Motives for Language Change (Cambridge University Press, 2003), Legacies of Colonial English (Cambridge University Press, 2004), Dublin English: Evolution and Change (2005), Irish English: History and Present-day Forms (Cambridge University Press, 2007), The Handbook of Language Contact (Blackwell, 2010), Eighteenth-Century English (Cambridge University Press, 2010), Areal Features of the Anglophone World (Mouton de Gruyter, 2012), The Sound Structure of Modern Irish (Mouton de Gruyter, 2014), Researching Northern English (John Benjamins, 2015), Sociolinguistics in Ireland (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), Listening to the Past: Audio Records of Accents of English (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Lars Hinrichs (PhD, Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, 2006) is Associate Professor of Language and Linguistics in the English Department at the University of Texas at Austin. His research focuses on varieties of English in the Caribbean and North America and explores the roles of ethnicity, mobility, and language ideologies in language variation. He also directs the “Texas English Linguistics Lab,” which is dedicated to studying variation and change in Texas English.

(p. xii) Sebastian Hoffmann is Professor of English Linguistics at Trier University. His research predominantly focuses on the application of usage-based approaches to the study of language; recent research topics include: syntactic change, tag questions, the lexico-grammar of New Englishes and corpus linguistic methodology involving Internet-derived data. He is a co-author of BNCweb, a user-friendly web-interface to the British National Corpus.

Jennifer Jenkins is Professor of Global Englishes at the University of Southampton, UK. She has published numerous papers on English as a Lingua Franca as well as three monographs, The Phonology of English as an International Language (Oxford University Press, 2000), English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and Identity (Oxford University Press, 2007), and English as a Lingua Franca in the International University (Routledge, 2014). She has also published a university coursebook, Global Englishes (3d ed., 2015), and is founding editor of the book series, Developments in English as a Lingua Franca (De Gruyter Mouton).

Yamuna Kachru was Professor Emerita in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She authored and edited over a dozen books and monographs and published over a hundred papers and reviews on South Asian Languages, cross-cultural dialogue, and communicative styles in World Englishes. We note with sadness that Professor Kachru passed away before the final publication of this volume.

Juhani Klemola is Professor of English Philology at the University of Tampere and a member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters. His teaching and research interests are in dialect syntax, contact linguistics, and historical dialectology. Dr. Klemola is co-author of English and Celtic in Contact (Routledge, 2008, with Markku Filppula and Heli Paulasto), and co-editor of a number of publications, including Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond (Routledge, 2009, with Markku Filppula and Heli Paulasto), Types of Variation: Diachronic, Dialectal and Typological Interfaces (John Benjamins, 2006, with Terttu Nevalainen and Mikko Laitinen), Dialects across Borders (John Benjamins, 2005, with Markku Filppula, Marjatta Palander, and Esa Penttilä), and The Celtic Roots of English (University of Joensuu Press, 2002, with Markku Filppula and Heli Pitkänen).

Véronique Lacoste is Assistant Professor of English Linguistics at the Université Lumière Lyon 2. Her research interests include sociolinguistics, language variation and change, World Englishes, English-based Creoles, and child acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. She is the author of Phonological Variation in Rural Jamaican Schools (Benjamins, 2012). She has also a keen interest in promoting theoretical discussions around key concepts in sociolinguistics, which her co-edited book (with Jakob Leimgruber and Thiemo Breyer) Indexing Authenticity: Sociolinguistic Perspectives (de Gruyter, 2014) has sought to accomplish.

Lisa Lim is Associate Professor and Head of the School of English at the University of Hong Kong. Her research and teaching center on World Englishes, especially Asian (p. xiii) Englishes in multilingual ecologies, minority and endangered languages, language contact, and the sociolinguistics of globalization. She has co-edited several books and special issues, including The Typology of Asian Englishes (English World-Wide, Special Issue 2009, with Nikolas Gisborne), recently co-authored Languages in Contact (Cambridge University Press, 2016, with Umberto Ansaldo), and is co-editor (with Umberto Ansaldo) of the new journal Language Ecology. She writes a column “Language Matters”—on language issues in multicultural Asian contexts—for Hong Kong’s Sunday Morning Post’s Post Magazine.

Christian Mair was at the English Department of the University of Innsbruck, Austria, before being appointed to a Chair in English Linguistics at the University of Freiburg in Germany in 1990. His research over the past two decades has focused on the corpus-based description of modern English grammar and on variability and change in standard Englishes worldwide. From 2006 to 2012, he was a member of the Wissenschaftsrat, an advisory body to the German Federal Government and state governments. From 2011 to 2014 he served as President of ISLE, the International Society for the Linguistics of English. Mair’s current research focuses on the role of global English in a multilingual world, on multilingual and nonstandard language practices in computer-mediated communication, and on the sociolinguistics of diaspora and migration.

Anna Mauranen is Professor of English at the University of Helsinki. Her main research focuses on English as a lingua franca, modeling spoken language, corpus linguistics, and academic discourses. She is co-editor of Applied Linguistics and founding co-editor of the Journal of English as a Lingua Franca. She is currently director of a collaborative language and brain research project “Chunking in Language: Units of Meaning and Processing” (CLUMP), corpus-based research projects on spoken and written academic English as a lingua franca (ELFA & WrELFA,, and the director of a research consortium on Changing English. Her major publications include: Exploring ELF (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Linear Unit Grammar (John Benjamins, 2006, with John McH. Sinclair), Translation Universals—Do They Exist (John Benjamins, 2004), and Cultural Differences in Academic Rhetoric (University of Birmingham, 1993). She is currently the Pro-vice-Chancellor of the University of Helsinki.

Lea Meriläinen is a post-doctoral researcher in English language and culture at the University of Eastern Finland. Her research interests are learner English, second language acquisition, learner corpus research, and world Englishes. Her current research combines perspectives from learner English and world Englishes in the study of non-native English use worldwide.

Rajend Mesthrie is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Cape Town, where he holds a National Research Foundation (NRF) chair in Migration, Language and Social Change. He has served as head of the Linguistics Section at UCT (1998‒2009), President of the Linguistics Society of Southern Africa (2001‒2009), and co-editor of English Today (2007‒2012). He is President of the International Congress of Linguists (p. xiv) (Cape Town, 2018). Among his publications are Language in South Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2002), World Englishes (Cambridge University Press, 2008, with Rakesh Bhatt), and A Dictionary of South African Indian English (University of Cape Town Press, 2010).

Joybrato Mukherjee holds the Chair of English Linguistics at Justus Liebig University Giessen. His research interests include corpus linguistics, English lexicogrammar, and World Englishes (with a focus on South Asian Englishes). He has published widely in these fields. He has been the coordinator of various corpus projects, including the Sri Lankan component of the International Corpus of English and the South Asian Varieties of English Corpus.

Heli Paulasto is Senior Lecturer in English Linguistics at the University of Eastern Finland. She specializes in dialectology, sociolinguistics and contact linguistics, with a focus on the morphosyntax of Welsh English, other contact-induced varieties, and learner Englishes. She is the author of Welsh English Syntax: Contact and Variation (Joensuu University Press, 2006), co-author of English and Celtic in Contact (Routledge, 2008, with Markku Filppula and Juhani Klemola) and co-editor of numerous publications, most recently Language Contacts at the Crossroads of Disciplines (Cambridge Scholars, 2014, with Lea Meriläinen, Helka Riionheimo, and Maria Kok).

Danae Perez Inofuentes completed her PhD on language contact and identity among the descendants of Australian immigrants in Paraguay at the University of Zurich. She is currently doing research as a postdoctoral research fellow on Iberoromance contact varieties at the University of Bremen. Her research interests include contact linguistics, language typology, and language and culture, among others, with a particular focus on English, Spanish, and Portuguese in the Atlantic region.

Robert Phillipson is Emeritus Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark. His books have been published in twelve countries. Best known are Linguistic Imperialism (Oxford University Press, 1992), also published in Shanghai and Delhi, and in translation into Arabic and Japanese; English-only Europe? Challenging Language Policy (Routledge, 2003); and Linguistic Imperialism Continued (Routledge, 2009). He has also edited books on language rights and multilingual education. He was awarded the UNESCO Linguapax prize in 2010. He functions as an expert for the European Commission on language policy. For details of CV and publications, see

Frank Polzenhagen is Assistant Professor of English Linguistics at Heidelberg University, Germany. His work in the field of Word Englishes focuses on the application of the cognitive-linguistic and cultural-linguistic framework to the study of L2-varieties of English and on their lexicographic description. His book publications include Cultural Conceptualisations in West African English (Peter Lang, 2007) and World Englishes: A Cognitive Sociolinguistic Approach (Mouton de Gruyter, 2009, with Hans-Georg Wolf), and he is involved in ongoing dictionary projects on Indian English and West African English.

(p. xv) Pingali Sailaja is Professor at the Centre for English Language Studies, University of Hyderabad, India. Her current teaching and research interests are in the areas of sociolinguistics, varieties of English, historical and linguistic aspects of English in India, and testing and assessment. She has published several articles in her areas of interest. Her books include: English Words: Structure, Formation and Literature (Pertinent Publishers, 2004) and Indian English (Edinburgh University Press, 2009).

Josef Schmied has held the Chair of English Language & Linguistics at Chemnitz University of Technology since April 1993. His main research interests are in Language & Culture (sociolinguistics, English in Africa and South-East Asia, Academic English) and in Language & Computers (corpus linguistics, e-learning, www English and Wiki+). His current research projects focus on disciplinary conventions of academic writing, and national and subnational variation of Englishes in Africa and China.

Edgar W. Schneider holds the Chair of English Linguistics at the University of Regensburg, Germany. He is an internationally renowned sociolinguist and World Englishes scholar, known widely for his “Dynamic Model” of the evolution of Postcolonial Englishes. He has lectured on all continents, given many keynote lectures at international conferences, and published many articles and books on the dialectology, sociolinguistics, history, semantics and varieties of English, including the Cambridge University Press books Postcolonial English (2007) and English around the World (2011).

Daniel Schreier is Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Zurich. His publications include Isolation and Language Change (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), St Helenian English: Origins, Evolution and Variation (John Benjamins, 2008), and English as a Contact Language (Cambridge University Press, 2013, co-edited with Marianne Hundt). He is co-editor of English World-Wide: A Journal of Varieties of English (Benjamins).

Devyani Sharma is Professor of Sociolinguistics at Queen Mary, University of London. Her research deals with dialect variation in postcolonial and other Englishes, sociolinguistics, bilingualism, language contact, language and dialect typology, and syntax. She has developed new methodologies for the study of language variation, including metrics for studying social networks, style repertoire, and real-time quantitative interactional analysis. Recent work includes Research Methods in Linguistics (Cambridge University Press, 2013, co-edited with R. Podesva) and English in the Indian Diaspora (Benjamins, 2014, co-edited with M. Hundt). She was Associate Editor at the Journal of Sociolinguistics until 2016.

Peter Siemund has been Professor of English linguistics at the University of Hamburg since 2001. He has written four monographs (Intensifiers in English and German, Routledge, 2000; Pronominal Gender in English, Routledge, 2008; The Amazing World of Englishes, Mouton de Gruyter, 2012, with Julia Davydova and Georg Maier; and Varieties of English, Cambridge University Press, 2013), published six edited volumes, and has written on a wide range of topics in articles to journals and edited volumes. He has (p. xvi) worked on reflexivity and self-intensifiers, pronominal gender, interrogative constructions, speech acts and sentence types, argument structure, tense and aspect, varieties of English, language typology, and language contact.

Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, emerita, bilingual from birth in Finnish and Swedish, has written or edited around 50 monographs and over 400 articles and book chapters, in 48 languages, about minority education, multilingualism, linguistic human rights, linguistic genocide, subtractive spread of English and the relationship between biodiversity and linguistic diversity. For publications, see

Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (PhD, Cornell University, 1993) is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Spanish & Portuguese and affiliated faculty of the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies and the Department of African & African Diaspora Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. Her scholarly interests rest at the intersection of linguistics and the sociology of language, examining the ways in which the structural facts of contact and rural varieties can be brought to bear on issues central to linguistic theorizing and the contributions of specific language behaviors, attitudes, and dispositions to the understanding of the configurations of communities and societies in which speakers find themselves.

Peter Trudgill is a theoretical dialectologist who has held Professorships at the Universities of Reading, Essex, and Lausanne. He is currently Professor of Sociolinguistics at Agder University, Norway; Emeritus Professor of English Linguistics at Fribourg University; and Honorary Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of East Anglia. He has honorary doctorates from the Universities of Uppsala, East Anglia, and La Trobe University. He is the author of Dialects in Contact (Blackwell, 1986), New-Dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes (Edinburgh University Press, 2004), and Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity (Oxford University Press, 2011).

Christian Uffmann currently works at the departments of English Linguistics of the Universities of Düsseldorf and Stuttgart after having been Senior Lecturer at the University of Sussex. His research is in phonology, with publications mainly on phonological theory, loanword adaptation, and creole phonology.

Bertus van Rooy is Professor of English Linguistics at the North-West University in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa. His principal research interests are the grammatical properties of New Varieties of English, including the processes by which new constructions come to be conventionalized and accepted. He is the author of more than sixty scholarly publications, including various contributions to World Englishes, English World-Wide, and the Journal of English Linguistics.

Caroline R. Wiltshire is Associate Professor and past Chair of the Department of Linguistics at the University of Florida. She has published over forty articles in major journals, books, and conference proceedings. She has also co-edited three books, including Romance Phonology and Variation with Joachim Camps (John Benjamins, 2002). (p. xvii) The focus of her research and teaching has been on theoretical phonology and its interactions with morphology, phonetics, and second language acquisition.

Donald Winford is Professor of Linguistics at the Ohio State University. His teaching and research interests are in creole linguistics, contact linguistics, variationist sociolinguistics, and African-American English. He is the author of Predication in Caribbean English Creoles (John Benjamins, 1993), and An Introduction to Contact Linguistics (Wiley, 2003). He served as President of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics from 1998 to 2000 and is currently President of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, and Editor of the Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages.

Hans-Georg Wolf is Chair Professor for the Development and Variation of the English Language at Potsdam University, Germany. His research interests include World Englishes (including Military English), Cultural Linguistics, Cognitive Sociolinguistics, corpus linguistics, pragmatics, colonial language policy, and lexicography. His most recent book is the co-edited volume (with Gerhard Leitner and Azirah Hashim) Communicating with Asia: The Role of English as a Global Language (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Debra Ziegeler is a graduate of Monash University, Australia (PhD 1997) and is now a professor at the Université Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris III. She is author of three books: Hypothetical Modality: Grammaticalisation in an L2 Dialect (Benjamins, 2000), Interfaces with English Aspect: Diachronic and Empirical Studies (Benjamins, 2006), and Converging Grammars: Constructions in Singapore English (Mouton de Gruyter, 2015).

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