Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 21 November 2019

(p. 779) Subject Index

(p. 779) Subject Index

A8 countries, 340–2, 343, 345
abnormal transmission, 195–6
academic purposes, languages for, 117, 283–4, 561, 735–50
accents (manner of pronunciation)
British Asians, 239–40, 242
in cognitive linguistics, 151
Convent accent (Trinidad), 397
in corpus linguistics, 116
Ethan Experience, 234
ideology of “standard” accents, 153
lingua franca varieties of English, 550
load-bearing accent features, 239
low-prestige accents (US), 380
peer influence, 242
Received Pronunciation (RP), 65, 78, 118, 151, 375, 392, 413
as social symbols, 154, 155
accents (syllable stress). See stress (prosodic)
accessibility hierarchy, 131–2
accommodation
code-switching/ mixing, 462
cross-dialectal accommodation (koinéization), 49
and dialectology, 257
and the Dynamic Model, 47
lingua franca varieties of English, 551, 554–5, 556, 560, 739
and sociolinguistic theory, 244
acculturation, 189, 284, 442
acoustic research methods, 363n18, 431, 476, 477, 478, 520
acquisition, language (L1/ child)
age effects, 243–4, 245
child-language studies, 179
critical period, 243
family influence, 241–2
fossilization, 299–302
frequency criterion, 613, 615
as gradual constraint demotion, 75
and markedness, 606
natural acquisition, 182, 207
simplification processes, 206
and universals, 680
and vernacular universals, 263
acrolects
(post)creole continuum, 391
in Caribbean, 391–2, 397
in corpus linguistics, 114
definition of, 392
in dialect studies, 179, 180
social status, 203
Southeast Asia, 456
Standard Jamaican English, 392
and universals, 135
West Africa, 496
acronyms and initialisms, 418
Acts of Identity framework, 224, 244
address forms, 281, 283
adjectives, 220, 415
adstrate groups, 49
adverbs, 136, 265, 436, 484, 524, 631
advertising, 303–4, 441, 518, 725
affrication, 150, 500
Afghanistan, 425, 430
Africa
East Africa areal profile, 472–88
language education in, 324, 326
South Africa areal profile, 508–25
West Africa areal profile, 491–504
African Union, 324
after perfect, 353, 378
age of speaker, 245, 279
agreement
collective noun concord, 414
default (singular) agreement, 136, 261, 678 (p. 780)
negative concord, 356–7, 382 (See also multiple negation)
subject-verb agreement, 135, 206, 459, 523
was/were alternation, 85, 90
ah particle, 435, 460, 462, 710
aid agendas, 315, 316
ain’t, 128, 382, 402–3, 503
aks/ask, 382
Aktionsart, 96, 97
allophone variation, 148–55
already (perfective), 86, 89, 91–3, 139, 187, 205, 459, 625, 720
also, 631–4
alternation (language mixing pattern), 216–17
alveolar stops, 382, 603
ambilingualism, 300, 301, 302
Americana (Brazil), 28, 663
Amish, 536
analogy, 130
analyticity versus syntheticity, 132
anaphora, 525, 720
Anglicist-Orientalist divide, 426
Anglo-Saxons, 15–16, 254, 348, 350
angloversals, 88, 105, 135–6, 178, 676–91
Anguilla, 21, 23, 395, 396, 401
anthropology, 158, 161–2, 167n15
anti-deletions, 190
anti-formal usages, 115, 153
Antigua, 21, 395
anti-languages, 204, 212–13
apologizing, 279
Appalachian Mountains, 663, 665, 667
Apparent Time Hypothesis, 234, 243–4
applied linguistics, 176, 223, 245
approximation, 47, 48, 201, 742, 743
archaeology, 349, 351
articles
Caribbean Englishes, 401
construction grammar, 727
definiteness, 281–4
East African English, 483
Indian English, 434
lingua franca varieties of English, 552, 744
West African English, 502
ASEAN countries, 41, 53, 467n1, 562
Asian Corpus of English (ACE), 550
aspect
Caribbean Englishes, 401–2
clustering of substrate features in Singapore English, 625–7, 634–5
completive perfect meaning, 138, 205, 401, 459, 503, 625–6
construction grammar, 719, 731
durativity, 96, 719, 731
South African English, 522–3
Southeast Asian Englishes, 459
superstrate influence, 205
syntactic theory, 85–6, 89, 91–3, 94
tentative aspect, 634–5
for/in test, 96–7
West African English, 503
aspiration, 150, 151, 152, 431, 458, 520, 574
assimilation, 20, 313, 427, 536–7, 662
atlases, dialect, 256–7, 258–9, 379–80
Atlas of North American English, 259
auditory phonetic analysis, 476
Australia, 24, 29, 409–22, 540, 641–50, 660, 669
Australian Corpus of English (ACE), 104
autonomous description of varieties, 65
Autosegmental Phonology, 64
auxiliaries
do + not, 524
done (as verbal auxiliary), 401, 503
inflection of, 667
modal auxiliaries, 483–4, 640–53
omission of auxiliary do, 403
preverbal auxiliaries, 503
semi-auxiliaries, 641
subject-auxiliary inversions, 90, 98n7
/aw/ pronunciation, 377
backchannelling, 278, 279, 280, 746
Bahamas, 21, 24, 29, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398
Bamako International Forum on Multilingualism, 324
Bangladesh, 425, 427, 428, 433
Barbados, 20, 22, 201, 391, 396, 659
(p. 781) Barbuda, 21
bare conditionals, 627–8, 632
bare nominals, 87, 94–7, 716, 717, 720, 724–8, 729–30
baseball metaphors, 156–9
basilangs, 190
basilects
cline of creolization, 200
Colloquial Singapore English (CSE) as, 200, 203–4, 205
continua of, 218, 391
Indian English, 135
Liberian English, 71
(post)creole continuum, 391
second language acquisition, 176, 179, 186
Singlish, 623
and social class, 238
Southeast Asia, 456
West Africa, 496
bath vowel, 266, 399, 476–7, 478, 519
BBC Voices, 361
be
be + V-ing, 503, 646–51, 724
habitual be, 382, 401
passives, 503, 641, 646–51, 724
past tense forms of, 667
was/were alternation, 85, 90, 382
be like, 129–30, 359–60, 415
Belize, 21, 389, 391, 392, 395–6, 536
Bermuda, 20, 21, 398
between you and me/I, 415
Bhuddism, 429
Bhutan, 425, 429–30, 440
bilingual education, 327, 426, 453–4
bilingualism
additive versus subtractive, 177
children, 205
code-switching/ mixing, 211–18
and contact, 189
convergence, 218–21
in Costa Rica, 27–8
and the Dynamic Model, 49, 50
elite bilingualism, 49
emergent bilingualism, 544
functional bilingualism, 301
as goal of second language acquisition (SLA), 177, 300
idealization of, 300
and identity, 243, 244
in Ireland, 202
and language dominance, 138
Matrix Language Frame (MLF), 215
and sociolinguistic theory, 235, 237
bilingual mixed languages, 175
biodiversity, 320–4
“Black Atlantic,” 109
Bologna Process, 326
Bonin Islands, 27, 531, 532, 666–7
borrowing
agentivity of transfer, 138
borrowing scales, 137–8
construction grammar, 720
as convergence phenomenon, 218–19
as form of code-mixing, 215–16
versus imposition, 138
nonce borrowing, 216
prestige borrowing, 189
boundedness, 131, 717, 724, 729, 731
Bounty, HMS, 24
“brands,” linguistic, 108
Brazil, 28, 279, 535, 544, 663
British Africa, 315
British Asians, 239–40, 241–2, 245, 246
British Council, 302, 306, 315, 327
British India, 426
British Isles
areal profile, 335–62
ethnolinguistic identification, 339–48
history of English, 14–31
indigenous ethnolinguistic minorities, 343–4
and linguistic imperialism, 315–16
British National Corpus (BNC), 127, 128, 356
British Sign Language Corpus (BSLC), 361
Brown corpus, 104, 745
buccaneering, 21
busy + present participle, 523
cadet colleges, 427–8
California, 224, 373, 377, 383
(p. 782) call-centres, 466
calquing, 216, 220, 221, 442, 636n8
Cambodia, 463
Cameroon, 46, 110, 160–1, 238, 274, 491–504
campaigns, language, 623
Canada
areal profile, 376–8
history of English, 20, 23–4, 26, 660
internal dialect patterning, 666
loss of indigenous languages, 29
in the Three Circles model, 41
Canadian Rising pronunciation, 377, 378, 520, 661
Canadian Vowel Shift, 377
Cape Breton Island, 23
Caribbean
areal profile, 389–404
creoles, 195, 204, 206, 659
death of indigenous languages, 29
history of English, 20–1, 22–3, 24, 25, 26, 27–8
case marking, 403, 415
casino industry, 466
caste, 305, 313
Catholicism, 412, 438, 474
Cayman Islands, 21, 402
census data, 339–48, 475
Ceylon. See Sri Lanka
Channel Islands, 30, 264
children
peer influence, 234, 241–2
role in emergence of indigenized varieties, 204, 205
role in stabilization of varieties, 45
choice vowel, 378, 399, 499, 521
Christian missionaries, 315, 426, 473, 474, 493, 511–12, 513, 622
chunks, 179, 678, 683
class. See social class
CLAWS (part-of-speech tagger), 701
cleft constructions, 484
cline of creolization, 200
cliticization, 644
clitics, 80n5
cloth vowel, 399, 498
clustering tendencies, 621–35
cluster reduction. See consonant cluster reduction
CNN, 118
coda consonants
creoles, 74
East African English, 478
Indian English, 600–16
Liberian English, 71–2
phonological constraints, 71–2, 73, 74, 78, 382
South African English, 521
South East Asian substrates, 458
West African English, 73, 500
code-switching (CS)/ code-mixing
alternation (language mixing pattern), 216–17
and bilingualism, 189
blurred boundary with loanwords, 481
in Caribbean, 393–4
competence-related switching, 223–4
conventionalization of, 212–13
in corpora, 117
creoles, 393–4
definition of, 218
digital versus speech, 226
as divergence, 218
and the Dynamic Model, 50
East Africa, 481, 485
emblematic switching, 216
ethnography of diasporic web forums, 115
flagged switching, 216
insertion (language mixing pattern), 215, 216–17
inter- versus intra-sentential, 216
(ir)regularity of, 213–18
lingua franca varieties of English, 552, 556–7, 558, 561–2
pragmatics, 280
social contexts of, 221–7
South Asian Englishes, 440–1
Southeast Asia, 461–2
use of the terms, 215–16, 218
and World Englishes, 211–27
codification
and dialectology, 255
and the Dynamic Model, 50 (p. 783)
functional codification, 294
and language ideologies, 294
lingua franca varieties of English, 558
of loanwords, 479
North American Englishes, 374
South African English, 518
West African English, 504
cognitive linguistics
and World Englishes, 147–66
and angloversals, 678
construction, 635n4
construction grammar, 715–31
and count nouns, 483
embedded inversion, 682
and lingua francas, 742, 746
‘look-ahead’ mechanism, 678
second language acquisition, 140, 186–7
socio-psychological isolation of dialects, 535, 537
underlying emergence of grammar, 130
Cognitive Sociolinguistics (CS), 147–66
cohesive devices, 281
coinages. See neologisms/ coinages
Colebrook-Cameron educational reforms, 428
collective noun concord, 414
collocations
cognitive linguistics, 160
collocational research, 485
corpora, 106
Dynamic Model, 50, 52
East African English, 480, 482, 485
lingua francas, 553
Singapore English, 632
South Asian Englishes, 433, 436
collostructions, 52
collostructural nativizations, 482
Colombia, 20–1, 28
‘colonial lag,’ 540, 664–5
colonization processes
17th century expansion of English, 19–23
‘colonial lag,’ 540, 664–5
creoles, 198–200
Dynamic Model, 47–53
East Africa, 473–4
ecolinguistic diversity, 314
settler Englishes, 657, 658, 670
Southeast Asia, 450
West Africa, 492
comma vowel, 499, 519
commodification of linguistic “brands,” 108
common ground, 165
communicative approaches to teaching, 300–1
communicative efficiency, 740
communities of practice (CoP)
code-switching/ mixing, 226
corpus linguistics, 114
and lingua franca varieties of English, 557–8, 559–60, 737, 742, 749
sociolinguistic theory, 245
community/ family domain, 160–2, 163–5
community languages, development of, 198
community versus individual self, 276–7
comparative doubling, 414, 435, 553
competence
competence-related switching, 223–4
and language ideologies, 296, 298
lingua francas, 740, 744
native-like competence, as goal of SLA, 176–7, 300–1, 681, 688, 689, 740
and settler Englishes, 657–8
and transmission methods, 254
See also proficiency
complement clauses, 502
completeness hypothesis, 300
completive perfect meaning, 138, 205, 401, 459, 503, 625–6
complexity, 134–5, 184
compliments, responding to, 278
Compound Rule, 593
compound words, 274
computer-mediated communication, 104, 109, 225, 535
Concentric Circles model. See Three Circles model
conceptual transfer, 498
conceptual variation, 148, 155–9, 275
concession, 632–3
congruent lexicalization, 217–18
connected speech features, and lingua francas, 555
(p. 784) connotative meanings, 487
conservatism, 28, 35, 50, 244, 294, 317, 539–42, 662, 664–5, 671
consonant cluster reduction
African American English, 382
American and Canadian English, 376
Caribbean Englishes, 396
creoles, 73–5, 206, 207
East African English, 478
emergence of unmarked with different substrate influences in Indian Englishes, 600–16
-in’ versus -ing, 384, 397
lingua franca varieties of English, 555
markedness, 129
phonological constraints, 73–5, 76
in settler Englishes, 662–3
South African English, 521
South Asian Englishes, 431
Southeast Asian Englishes, 458
West African English, 500
conspiracy, 67
constraints
constraint-based phonology, 64–78, 599–616, 662–3
constraint-based syntax, 91–4
construction grammar, 719
and convergence, 648–9, 652
correspondence constraints, 599, 607–8, 611
and dialectology, 263
on transfer, 181–2
construction grammar, 715–31
contact linguistics
African American English, 381
and angloversals, 678
and bilingualism, 189–91
British Isles, 345–62
Caribbean, 389–90
and construction grammar, 716, 717–18, 720–3, 728–31
contact literature, 284–5
contact motivations often rejected, 221
and convergence, 221, 640, 653
creoles, 194–208
dialect contact, 25
and dialectology, 254, 264, 668–70
and the Dynamic Model, 47, 52–3
embedded inversion, 682, 689
and the extended progressive, 649–50
and feature bundles, 132
grammaticalization, 140
high-contact/ low-contact varieties, 254, 542–3, 653
and homophony avoidance, 669
India, 600
indigenized varieties versus creoles, 194–6
intensity of, 137–8
and isolation, 539–43
Jopará in Paraguay, 538
and language universals, 136–40
lingua franca, 549–62
micro-level parameters, 207
in North America, 372–6, 383
prehistoric English, 14–15
research on lesser-known varieties, 532
and second language acquisition (SLA), 676
second-order contact, 735–50
and settler Englishes, 661
and simplification, 746
and social networks, 138
South Africa, 509–16
South Asia, 430–1, 442, 600
Southeast Asia, 454–7, 461
as sub-field of multilingualism, 175
and syntactic/ semantic theory, 89
systemic nature of substratum transfer, 621–35
tag questions, 699
Tristan da Cunha, 25
and variationist research, 235
in West Africa, 492
context of situation, 278
contractions, 378, 702
Conventionalized Scenarios, 721, 724
convergence
versus code-switching/ mixing, 218–21
and contact, 221, 640, 653
convergence to substratum, 625, 635n1, 636n8
“old” and “new” Englishes, convergent developments between, 639–53
and second language acquisition (SLA), 189 (p. 785)
social contexts of, 221–7
South African English, 518, 522
and World Englishes, 211–27
conversational analysis (CA), 278, 280, 750
co-occurrence relations, 51–2
Cook Islands, 26
copula deletion, 135, 206, 382, 402, 455
co-referentiality, 723
corpus linguistics
and World Englishes, 103–19
annotation, 106
British Isles Englishes, 361
canonical tag questions in Asian Englishes, 697–712
conceptual metaphors, 159–65
convergent developments between “old” and “new” Englishes, 639–53
definition of corpus, 103
and dialectology, 264–5
East African English, 483
embedded inversion as an angloversal, 676–91
English for Academic Purposes (EAP), 741–2
ethnography of diasporic web forums, 109–16
and the functional-typological approach, 127
future research, 106–7, 117, 118–19
history of documentation of New Englishes, 104–6
potential ways forward, 106–7
and second language acquisition (SLA), 178
and sociolinguistic theory, 245
South Asian Englishes, 433, 434, 442
spoken corpora, 104
syntactic and semantic theory, 84
See also specific corpora by name
Corpus of Cameroon English (CCE), 160–1
Corpus of Cyber-Cameroonian (CCC), 109–16
Corpus of Cyber-Jamaican (CCJ), 109–16
Corpus of Cyber-Nigerian (CCN), 109–16
Corpus of Early Ontario English (CONTE), 106
Corpus of Finnish Matriculation Examination compositions, 684, 687–90
Corpus of Global Web-Based English (GloWbE), 107, 486
Corpus of Nigerian Pidgin, 105
Corpus of US English (C-US), 641
correspondence constraints, 599, 607–8, 611
Costa Rica, 27
Council of Europe, 326
counter-urbanization trends, 337
count/mass nouns
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 415
construction grammar, 719–20, 725–30
creoles, 207
dialectology, 262
East African English, 483
and embedded inversion, 680
in lingua francas, 551–2, 744
syntactic theory, 87–8
West African English, 502
covert/ overt prestige, 114, 223, 239
creoles
and World Englishes, 194–208
abrupt creoles, 195
in the Caribbean, 22, 390, 393
cline of creolization, 200
code-switching/ mixing, 393–4
complexity, 134
consonant inventories, 77
creole continua, 22, 105, 110, 114, 117, 204, 391
creole exceptionalism, 195–6
creole studies separate from World Englishes, 194
creolist hypotheses of African American English, 381
creolization, 137, 196, 200, 659, 661
definition of varieties as, 255
as English as a Second Dialect classification, 195
versus English as a Second Language (ESL), 176
feature bundles, 132–3
versus ‘indigenized’ varieties, 194–6, 200
influence in North America, 373
koinéization, 49, 64, 243, 244, 510, 541, 672
in models of English, 43, 46
mutual intelligibility, 190
nativization, 189
as “New” or “postcolonial” Englishes, 137 (p. 786)
non-standard basis of, 393
not focus of ICE, 105
and Optimality Theory, 70
as part of contact linguistics, 175
and phonological theory, 65, 70
and plantation colonies, 199
(post)creole continuum, 391
progressive, 649
and second language acquisition (SLA), 205
similarity to shift varieties, 190
social contexts of creole formation, 200–2, 205
in the Three Circles model, 41
and tone languages, 465
and transfer, 181
typical features of, 205
as a variety of English, 253
in West Africa, 493–5
See also specific creoles by name in Languages index
creoloids, English-based, 24, 25, 205
crimes against humanity, 324
critical discourse analysis (CDA), 165
critical period, 243
crossing, 222, 534–5, 557
cultural capital, English as, 305
cultural diversity, 320, 322–3
cultural keywords, 159–65
cultural metaphors, 158–65
cultural model theory, 158, 161–2
Cuper’s Cove settlement, 20
Curaçao, 404n2
cure vowels, 477, 499, 519
curvilinear principle, 233, 239
C-US (Corpus of US English), 641
cyclic developments. See Dynamic Model
DARE (Dictionary of American Regional English), 379
data collection
authentic data sources, 472–3, 487
constraint-based phonology, 603–4
corpora, 103–19, 701 (See also corpus linguistics)
Internet, 480–1, 485–6, 487
‘messy’ data, 237
in modern dialectology, 259–60, 264–5
quantitative sociolinguistics, 235
sociolinguistic interviews, 241
of syntax, 256–7
tag questions (corpus studies), 701
theory-driven, 96–7
in traditional dialectology, 256
dative of advantage, 191, 525
deaccentuation, 569, 570, 575
Deaf people, 319
deaspiration, 520
death, language
caused by English, 19, 29–30
Celtic, 16
and genocide, 29
linguicide, 313
positive effects of Internet against, 225
rapid modern pace of, 320–1
research on isolated varieties, 532, 543, 544
statistics on, 29–30
terminology of, 317–18
DECTE corpus, 361
deduction processes, 179
default (singular) agreement, 136, 261, 678
deficit discourses, 295, 297
definite articles
Caribbean Englishes, 401
East African English, 483
Indian English, 434–5
lingua franca varieties of English, 552
pragmatics, 281–4
syntactic theory, 87
universals, 136
West African English, 502
definiteness, 87, 96, 281, 483, 726–8
defossilization, 300–1
deixis, 363n19
deletion
anti-deletions, 190
copula deletion, 135, 206, 382, 402, 455
emergence of the unmarked, 607, 611–12, 615
final consonant deletion, 382
phonological theory, 67, 71–4
syllable deletion, 382
t/d deletion, 376
democracy, 325
(p. 787) demonstratives, 483, 523
dental fricatives
as alveolars, 458
Indian English, 603
as labiodentals, 359, 395, 458, 500–1, 520
lingua franca varieties of English, 555
dental stops, 603
Determiner Phrases (DP), 88
determiners, 282
Deterministic Model, 45, 52, 668–70
devices of otherness, 303
devoicing
emergence of the unmarked, 605, 607, 610, 614
phonological constraints on final devoicing, 66, 67, 68, 69, 75–6, 78
South African English, 521
Southeast Asian Englishes, 458
West African English, 500, 501
diachronic language change
changes-in-progress, 384n2
and construction grammar, 730
and corpora, 105, 106, 260, 361
DECTE corpus, 361
and frequency, 129
and phonological constraints, 69, 72, 78
research on isolated varieties, 532, 543
speech-related text types, 712
and women, 236, 258
dialect studies
dialectology and World Englishes, 252–66
in the British Isles, 335–62
and the Deterministic Model, 45
dialect apexes, 666
dialect atlases, 256–7, 258–9, 379–80
dialect contact, 25, 45
dialect dictionaries, 255
dialect levelling, 257, 264, 337, 672
dialect obsolescence, 532
dialectometry, 259
islands and dialect continua, 534
and isolation, 534–5, 539
new dialects of nativized varieties, 50
diaspora
code-switching/ mixing, 222, 223
diaspora varieties, 663–4
Indian, 536
and sociolinguistic theory, 237
and the Web, 108, 109–16
West African, 495
dictionaries
American English, 374
Celtic substrate influences, 354
codification of loanwords, 479
dialect dictionaries, 255
in language ideologies, 295
of new varieties, 50, 165–6, 255, 274
of Nigerian English, 504
South African English, 518
and standard forms, 255
differentiation, and the Dynamic Model, 50, 197, 239, 257, 371, 443, 671
diffusion, 138–9, 245, 539, 735
diglossia, 391, 623
diminutives, 414
diphthong flattening, 662, 663
diphthongization, 358, 397, 398, 411, 457, 499, 521
diphthong shift, 411
directional serial verbs, 206
direct versus indirect questions, 684, 686
discontinuous transmission, 195
discourse analysis, 165, 293, 750
Discourse Communities, 737, 741
discourse givenness, 435
discourse markers
British English, 359–60, 709
in code-switching, 189, 216
East African English, 484–5
South African English, 517, 524
South Asian Englishes, 436–7
Southeast Asian Englishes, 460–1
tag questions, 706–7
discourse particles, 216, 414–15, 460–1, 464, 467, 482, 517, 627, 634, 708–9
discourse pragmatics. See pragmatics
discourse structure, 359–60, 747–8
divergence, 218
diversity, linguistic
ecolinguistic diversity maintenance, 318–24
language dominance, 312–27
and language ideologies, 295, 297
lingua franca varieties of English, 558 (p. 788)
loss of diversity as language-ecological disaster, 30
Singapore, 623
threats to, 320–4
and the Web, 108
in West Africa, 494
and World Englishes field, 272
do
do-support, 129, 435, 523
emphatic, 667–8
functions of, 205
omission of, 403, 435
domain loss, 325
dominance, language, 138, 314–18
Dominica, 26, 391
Dominican Republic, 26, 28, 664
done (as verbal auxiliary), 401, 503
double/ multiple negation, 135, 191, 206, 261, 262, 265, 356–7, 402–3, 414
double/ triple modals, 357
downstep intonation, 573–4, 575–6, 579–84, 586, 595
dress vowel
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 411, 413, 665
Caribbean Englishes, 399
East African English, 477
South African English, 518, 665
Drukyul. See Bhutan
durativity, 96, 719, 731
Dynamic Model
outline of, 45–53
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 419
and convergence, 642
creoles, 197
innovation, 670–1
North American Englishes, 371
phonological theory, 80
sociolinguistic theory, 244
South Asian Englishes, 443
Southeast Asian Englishes, 449, 453
tag questions, 700, 711
dynamic social positioning, 246
early start fallacy, 315
ease of perception, principle of, 140, 206
ease of production, principle of, 140, 187, 206, 613
East African English (EAE) corpus, 160–1
Ebonics Controversy, 381
ecolinguistics, 88, 312–27, 345, 349
ecology, linguistic, 88, 312–27, 449, 464–5, 621–4, 635, 649
economics
casinos and call-centres, 466
of education, 299, 315–16
and language endangerment, 327
and language ideologies, 293, 295, 299, 303, 305
and linguistic imperialism, 315, 316, 326
economy of production principle, 187
ecoregions, 320, 322
education
in Africa, 486, 495–6
bilingual education, 327, 426, 453–4
bilingualism as goal of, 177, 300
and colonization, 199
communicative approaches to teaching, 300–1
economics of, 299, 315–16
education policies, 244
emergence of indigenized varieties, 197, 202–5
and endangered languages, 318
in Expanding Circle Englishes, 681
in India, 304, 426
in Ireland, 202
in language ideologies, 295, 297–8
and linguistic imperialism, 316
mother-tongue-based multilingual education (MLE), 324, 326, 454
native-speaker teachers, 315
and religion, 315
and settler Englishes, 661
in Singapore, 622
in South Africa, 510, 511–13, 514–15
in Southeast Asia, 463–4
and the Three Circles model, 40
and the use of modal auxiliaries, 644
vernacular-language education, 451, 452
(p. 789) ejectives, 150
Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English (eWAVE), 643, 646, 677, 682
ELFA Corpus (English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings), 550, 741, 743, 744–6
elites
access to education, 202, 203, 204–5
East Africa, 474
elite bilingualism, 49
and English as a lingua franca, 317, 495
hegemonic worldviews of, 316–17
and language ideologies, 246, 299, 305
in South Asia, 426, 427, 428
in Southeast Asia, 451
embedded inversion, 676–91, 744
embedded languages, 215
emblematic switching, 216
embodiment, 155
Emergence of the Unmarked, The (TETU), 600, 606, 612
emergent bilingualism, 544
emergent structures, phonological, 73–8
emphatic markers, 484, 589, 591, 627, 667, 707
enclave communities, 534, 535, 544
endangered languages
causes of, 327
dialects as, 255
and ecolinguistic diversity maintenance, 318–24
English as, 28–9
Internet’s positive effects on, 225
and loss of local knowledge, 323
statistics on, 320–1
terminology of, 317–18
endonormative stabilization, 50, 197, 239, 244, 255, 298, 443, 449, 671, 672, 687
England and the history of English, 16–17, 335–62
English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
classification of contact situations, 40–1, 195, 253
development into English as a Second Language, 46
versus English as medium of instruction, 324–5
Expanding Circle countries as classification of, 40–1, 253
as ‘performance varieties,’ 176
in South Asia, 425
in Southeast Asia, 463–4
statistics on, 317
use of the term, 39, 681
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
in academia, 735–50
communities, 736–8
and ecolinguistic diversity maintenance, 313, 317
ELFA Corpus (English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings), 550, 741, 743, 744–6
in Expanding Circle, 549–62
parallels with second language acquisition, 680
as second-order contact, 736–9
English as an Additional Language (EAL), 342
English as a Native Language (ENL)
and creoles, 195
and dialectology, 253–4
Inner Circle countries as classification of, 40–1
as model for academia, 741
and settler Englishes, 657
use of the term, 39, 681
English as an International Language (EIL), 550
English as a Second Dialect (ESD), 195
English as a Second Language (ESL)
versus creoles, 176
embedded inversion as an angloversal, 676–91
versus lingua franca varieties, 744
as Outer Circle countries, 40–1, 195, 253
and second language acquisition (SLA), 176
in South Asia, 425, 442
statistics on, 317
use of the term, 39, 681
in West Africa, 495
English as a World Language (EWL), 194
Englishes (pl. of English), usage of, 39, 313
(p. 790) English for Academic Purposes (EAP), 486, 741–9
English for Specific Purposes (ESP), 486
English Language Complex model, 44
English Language Teaching (ELT), 296–9, 300–1
English Today (journal), 40, 295
English World-Wide (journal), 39
ENROLLER project, 361
entextualization, 291
environmental social science, 313
epenthesis
/h/ insertion, 520–1, 542
constraint-based phonology, 70, 71–2
paragoge (word-final epenthesis), 71
vowel insertion, 70, 71, 72, 363n19, 431, 478, 500, 617n4, 617n9, 664
eponymy, 517
erasure, 246, 293, 296–7, 303, 306, 307n1
errors
‘correction’ of, 670
error analysis, 182
as evidence of learning, 179, 300
Gradual Learning Algorithm (GLA), 613–15
versus innovations, 676
in learner English models, 679
and lingua franca varieties of English, 551, 553, 559, 560
versus neologisms, 742
Ethan Experience, 234
Ethiopia, 472
ethnicity
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 421
in Ireland, 339–40
language ideologies, 301
North American Englishes, 380–4
sociolinguistic theory, 238–9
South Asian Englishes, 437–40
ethnocentrism, 301
ethnography of speaking, 278, 280, 298
ethnolects, 220
Ethnologue, 319
euphemism, 487, 517
European Union, 325–6, 340, 562
Event X, 50, 51, 374, 377
ever, 625
evolutionary models of World Englishes, 45–51
eWAVE (Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English), 643, 646, 677, 682
existentials, 132, 382, 459, 553, 629–30, 633
exonormative stabilization, 49, 197, 254, 670, 672
Expanding Circle countries
dialectology, 253
embedded inversion, 681, 682, 686–90
English as a Foreign Language (EFL) as, 40–1
English as a lingua franca in, 549–62
language acquisition, 179
and Southeast Asian Englishes, 448, 463–4
expert discourses, 292, 293, 295, 297
expletives, 517
explicitation, 743, 747–8
exploitation colonies, 199, 314, 450, 622
exponence, 625–6, 629
extended progressive, 522–3
face (pragmatic concept), 276–9, 280, 706
Facebook, 486
face vowel
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 411
British English, 358
Caribbean Englishes, 398, 399
North American Englishes, 378
South African English, 521
Southeast Asian Englishes, 457
West African English, 499, 501
faithfulness constraints, 91–2
Falkland Islands, 26, 532, 533, 543, 666
falling tones, 432
false friends, 553
falsifiability, 125
familial versus individual self, 276–7
family/ community/ kinship domain, 160–2, 163–5
family resemblance, 149
family tree models of Englishes, 37–8
fast speech phenomena, 138, 150, 555
features
angloversals and shared features, 677–9
clustering of substrate features, 625–35
competition, 88
complexity, 134–5
and dialectology, 260–1, 265 (p. 791)
diffusion of, 138–9
disappearance of, 668
feature bundles, 132–4, 150
feature innovation and retention, 657–72
feature pools, 47, 88, 89, 90, 181, 358, 464
frequency criterion, 89, 128, 129–30, 159–60, 613, 615, 669
Lingua Franca Core (LFC), 555
Minimalist Program, 89–90
and the New Dialect Formation model, 669
selection of features, process of, 138–9
selection processes, 138–9
shared innovations versus feature continuity, 665
fellowships of discourse, 293
films, 441, 464
final consonant deletion. See coda consonants
final devoicing. See devoicing
Finnish learners of English, 687–90
first language acquisition. See acquisition, language (L1/ child)
flagged switching, 216
fleece vowel, 399, 411, 476–7, 498–9, 519
FLOB corpus, 161
flora and fauna terms, 49, 417, 480, 516–17, 544
Flowerpod Corpus, 726
fluency, 301
See also competence
focusing, linguistic, 666–7
food terms, 480
foot vowel
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 412, 413
British English, 355, 668
Caribbean Englishes, 399
East African English, 476–7
South African English, 519
West African English, 498–9
force vowel, 399
for/in test, 96
formal/ informal distinctions
code-switching/ mixing, 226, 441
cognitive linguistics, 152
corpus linguistics, 115, 116, 117
covert prestige, 223
and creole continua, 391
and lectal continua, 457
shifts in, 460
South Asian Englishes, 437
stylistic variation, 240–1
formalism versus functionalism, 124, 125
fossilization, 177, 179, 299–302
founder effects, 532, 538, 541, 543, 660, 672
fractal recursivity, 293, 296, 306
FRED corpus, 259
Freiburg Dialect Corpus, 127, 356
frequency criterion, 89, 128, 129–30, 159–60, 613, 615, 669
fricative fronting, 382, 395
fronting devices, 354
front vowel raising, 518–20, 541, 665
FROWN corpus, 161
functionalist approaches, 124, 125–6, 127, 139–40, 149, 186–7, 262
functional nativeness, 40
fused lects, 218
future research
cognitive linguistics, 165
constraint-based phonology, 76, 77, 79
construction grammar, 730–1
contact linguistics and SLA, 691
corpus linguistics, 106–7, 117, 118–19, 264
dialectology, 264–5, 361–2
discourse pragmatics, 712
Dynamic Model, 52–3
East African English, 485–6, 487
informal spoken language in corpora, 264
isolated language contact situations, 538, 541
lexicography, 165
lingua franca varieties of English, 560
longitudinal studies, 188
macroacquisition, 188
markedness in constraint-based phonology, 616
micro-level parameters of contact, 207
morphosyntactic dialectology, 261, 264
new potential uses for ICE, 117
pragmatics of Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 422
shared features, 679
sign languages, 361
West African English, 504
future tense, 502
gender (of people)
cluster simplification, 129
code-switching/ mixing, 441
in corpus studies, 110
and dialectology, 257–8, 259
North American Englishes, 383
and rhetorical strategies, 283
sexism, 313
in sociolinguistic theory, 233, 236, 239–40
gendered pronouns, 130–1, 183, 262, 502
generative grammar, 124–5, 139, 215, 299–302, 625
generative phonology, 64, 67
genetic linguistics, 37, 261, 262
genocide, 29
genocide, linguistic, 324, 327
genre, 284, 285, 745–6
geography, 263, 533–4
See also topography
geolinguistics, 356, 360
George Mason University Speech Accent Archive, 603
gesture, 485
Gibraltar, 51
givenness, 501
glide reduction, 382, 519, 520
Global Commons, 323
global communities, 737
“Globalish,” 561
globalization
corpus linguistics, 108, 119
creation of hybrid forms, 285
and cultural model theory, 162
dialectology, 260, 266
language ideologies, 304
lingua francas, 549, 559, 736
and models of English, 52–3
and Southeast Asian Englishes, 465–6
glocalization, 260, 266
glottaling, 150, 151, 152–3, 382
GloWbE (Corpus of Global Web-Based English), 107, 486
goat vowel
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 413
British English, 358, 544
Caribbean Englishes, 398, 399
Corby English (UK), 544
North American Englishes, 378, 379
South African English, 519, 521
Southeast Asian Englishes, 457
West African English, 499, 501
Google, 418, 480
goose vowel
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 411, 413
Caribbean Englishes, 399
East African English, 476–7
North American Englishes, 379
South African English, 519
West African English, 498–9
got construction, 629–34
Gradual Learning Algorithm (GLA), 600–1, 613–15
grammar. See morphosyntax
Grammar of Spoken Singapore English Corpus (GSSEC), 462
grammars, 50, 255
See also codification
grammaticalization, 140, 197, 205, 627, 636n8, 719, 723
gratitude expressions, 482
gravity models, 539
greetings and farewells, 484, 517
Grenada, 23, 25, 396, 397
Grenadines, 23, 25, 403, 405nn11–12
Guyana, 23, 237–8, 389, 391
Hainan Island incident, 279
Handbook of the Varieties of English (Kortmann and Schneider, 2004), 260, 261, 518, 523
happy-tensing, 398, 399, 411, 499, 519
h-dropping, 355, 397, 412, 438, 539, 670
Hebridean Islands, 19, 30, 650
hesitation markers, 744
High (H)/ Low (L) situations, 49, 350, 352, 391
high-contact/ low-contact varieties, 254, 542–3, 653
(p. 793) higher education/ universities
East Africa, 474
internationalization of higher education, 326
South Africa, 515
South Asia, 427–8
Southeast Asia, 466
West Africa, 493, 495–6
High Rising Terminal pattern, 353, 412
historical linguistics, 257, 263, 265, 531, 712
homogeneity, 50, 52, 162, 200, 294, 296, 378, 420–1
honorifics, 281, 283
Hoosier Apex, 666
hub and spokes models, 41–3
human language faculty, 135, 139, 640, 678
Hutterites/ Anabaptists, 536
hybridity
and code-switching, 212
hybrid constructions, 722–4
hybrid similect repertoires, 738–9
and language ideologies, 303
lexical items, 433, 498
and pragmatics, 285
in South Asia, 441, 442
hyperclarity, 187
hypercorrection, 154–5, 396, 397, 402, 403, 476, 542
hyperliterate speakers, 154
iconization, 246, 293, 306, 307n1
idealized cognitive models, 162
identity
Acts of Identity framework, 224, 244
American distinctiveness, 374–6
and bilingualism, 243, 244
in Canada, 377
and code-switching, 216, 224, 557
creoles as markers of, 204
dialects of socially peripheral groups, 534
and the Dynamic Model, 47, 671
and emergence of indigenized varieties, 198
functionality of non-standardness, 260
group identity, 208
in-group memberships, 223, 226–7, 279
identificational quotatives, 360
Irish Gaelic, 344
and kinship terms, 482
learner identities, 740
and lingua franca varieties of English, 552, 554, 557
markers of solidarity (South Africa), 518
micro-level parameters of contact, 207
and migration, 347
multicultural/ multilingual identities, 50
multiethnic identity markers, 222
New Zealand English, 410
North American Englishes, 383
phonemic identity markers, 151
re-writings of, 49
and sociolinguistic theory, 234, 244
speakers’ choices of social identity, 207–8
and styles/ stances, 224
West African pidgins, 495
ideologies, language
and World Englishes, 291–307
conceptual backgrounds, 165
core processes in formation of, 246
and cultural model theory, 162
and ecolinguistic diversity maintenance, 312–27
nationalist ideologies, 375, 451
and sociolinguistic theory, 246
speakers’ choices of social identity, 208
“standard” accents, 153
theories of, 292–3
idiomatic expressions, 158–9, 163–4, 276, 479, 481, 482, 553, 684
if-clauses, 484, 553, 684–90
illocutionary force, 277
imagined communities, 737, 741
immigration. See migration
imperatives, 721
imperialism, linguistic, 302–6, 314–18
implicational hierarchies, 126, 130–2
imposition, 138, 221, 316
impressionistic observation techniques, 117, 431, 442
inclusivity, choice of code as form of, 117
indefinite articles, 435, 483, 552, 727, 730
indexical meanings, 224–5, 246, 275, 303–4
Index of Biocultural Diversity (IBCD), 322
Index of Linguistic Diversity (ILD), 321
indigenization, 189
indigenized varieties
Caribbean, 405n7
cline of indigenization, 200
versus creoles, 194–6, 200
definition of, 3–4, 196–7
social contexts of emergence, 202–5
and sociolinguistic theory, 237–44
Indigenous knowledge, 323
Indigenous languages, endangerment of, 29, 321, 323, 327
Indigenous/ tribal peoples and minorities (ITMs), 324
indirect speech, 484, 684, 686
individuality, continuum of, 131
individual speaker lexicon, 90
Indonesia, 463
infinitives, 183, 553
inflectional morphology
and code-switching, 214
lingua francas, 744
settler Englishes, 667
simplification, 206
Southeast Asian Englishes, 459
in traditional dialectology, 256
universals, 134
zero past tense forms, 401–2
information processing factors, 130
in-group memberships, 223, 226–7, 279
initiative design, 244
Inner Circle countries
convergent developments between “old” and “new” Englishes, 639–53
embedded inversion, 684–5
English as a Native Language (ENL) as, 40–1, 195
innit? 704
innovation
be like, 129–30
in British Isles Englishes, 358–60
and complexity, 184
East African English, 481
and frequency, 129–30
lexical, 274 (See also neologisms)
lexico-syntactical innovation in South Asian languages, 433, 436
in settler Englishes, 657–72
shared innovations versus feature continuity, 665
social network theory, 737
syntactic, 190, 274
urban hierarchy diffusion model, 539
will/shall + be V-ing, 651
input, second language acquisition, 179, 182, 187–8, 600
insertion (language mixing pattern), 215, 216–17
intelligibility, 190, 275, 301–2, 390, 554–5, 557, 749
interaction-management tools, 275
interaction patterns, cultural differences in, 279–81
intercultural communication, 275–6, 278, 479, 482–3, 487, 495, 549–62
interdisciplinary work, 313, 318
interference, 178, 181, 221, 516, 521, 544
See also transfer
interjections, 517
interlanguage
code-switching/ mixing, 216
final devoicing, 76
fossilization, 177, 299–302
and the Minimalist Program, 186
phonology, 70
pidgins as, 439
in second language acquisition (SLA), 176, 181, 182, 188
and transfer, 181, 182
universals, 134
intermarriage, 201, 204, 409, 438, 537, 538
intermediate systems of phonology, 73–7
International Association of World Englishes (IAWE), 40, 52
International Corpus of English (ICE)
African corpora, 161
challenges of using, 691, 727
in corpus linguistics, 104–6
and dialectology, 264
ICE-AUS, 119n2, 641, 645
ICE-CUP, 105, 701
ICE-East Africa, 473, 482, 485, 643, 647, 683, 686 (p. 795)
ICE-GB, 105, 106, 641, 642, 645, 646, 683, 684, 697–8, 701, 702–12
ICE-Ghana, 491
ICE-HK, 697, 699, 702–12
ICE-India, 282, 434, 482, 643, 647, 649, 682, 683, 686, 697–8, 699, 702–12
ICE-IRL, 643, 646, 682, 683, 684
ICE-Jamaica, 115, 117, 396, 402, 643
ICE-MAL, 449
ICE-Nigeria, 491
ICE-PHI, 449, 461, 643, 647
ICE-SA, 523
ICE-SIN, 106, 449, 460, 647, 682, 683, 686, 697–8, 699, 702–12
ICE-Sri Lanka, 482
ICE-T&T, 402
ICE-USA, 105
monolingual bias, 117–18
new potential uses for, 117
syntactic parsing of, 701
International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), 683, 685–6, 687–90, 691
International Council for Science (ICSU), 323
International English, in hub and spokes model, 42–3
Internationally Acceptable English, 392
Internet
code-switching/ mixing, 225
as corpus, 107–8
data collection, 480–1, 485–6, 487
ethnography of diasporic web forums, 109–16
Internet chat room corpus, 726 (See also GloWbE (Corpus of Global Web-Based English))
and linguistic isolation, 535
social media, 535
interrogatives
Caribbean Englishes, 403
convergence, 645
East African English, 484
embedded inversion, 682–90
South Asian Englishes, 435
Southeast Asian Englishes, 459, 460
and tone, 583–4, 592
interruptions, 280
intonation
British English, 570–4
Celtic substrate influences, 353–4
discourse pragmatics, 273, 274
downstep intonation, 573–4, 575–6, 579–84, 586, 595
East African English, 478, 484
High Rising Terminal pattern, 353, 412
South Asian Englishes, 432
tag questions, 706
and tone languages, 465, 569–94
West African English, 501
Inuit people, 27
invariant question tags, 703–4, 710
inversion, question, 136, 553, 676–91
-in’ versus -ing, 384, 397
Ireland
history of English, 18, 27, 31, 349–52
Irish Famine, 352, 361
population, 337–8
settlement patterns, 202–5
Viking raids, 351
irregular verb levelling, 135, 206, 538, 667, 680, 744
Islam, 465–6
islands, as sites of linguistic research, 533
Isle of Man, 19, 31
isoglosses, 256, 257, 258, 259, 355
isolated varieties, areal profiles of, 531–44, 663
isolationist policies, 380
IViE corpus, 361
Jamaica, 21, 25, 27, 224–6, 239, 391, 402, 659
Jamaican diaspora, 109–16
Jamestown settlement, Virginia, US, 20, 26–7, 372
Japan, 27
jargon, 418
/j/ reduction (yod-dropping), 382, 412
Kachru’s circle model. See Three Circles model
keywords, cultural, 159–65
kin/pin split, 520
kinship terms, 160–2, 163–5, 281, 480, 482, 498, 517
(p. 796) kit vowel
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 411, 412, 413
Caribbean Englishes, 398, 399
East African English, 476–7
Indian English, 240
North American Englishes, 379, 382
South African English, 518–19, 520, 521
West African English, 498–9
koinéization, 49, 64, 243, 244, 510, 541, 672
Kolhapur corpus of Indian English, 104, 434
L1 and L2 varieties, convergent developments between, 639–53
labiodental /th/ and /dh/
aspiration, 431
in East African English, 476
fronting, 359, 382, 395, 498
stopping, 395
lah particle, 206, 460, 467, 708–9
Lancaster-Oslo/ Bergen (LOB) corpus, 104
Language (journal), 46, 51
Language in Society (journal), 45
languages, counting, 319–20
Language Vitality and Endangerment (UNESCO), 321
Laos, 463
/l/ as /r/, 476
leadership, conceptions of, 159, 164
lectal continua, 456–7, 496
lesser-known varieties, 531–44
letter stress pattern, 477, 499, 519
lexical borrowing
into American English, 380
anglicization of, 380–1
into Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 416–19
calquing, 216, 220, 221, 442, 636n8
and code-switching, 216
as convergence phenomenon, 218–19
and the Dynamic Model, 49, 50
East African English, 479–83
extensions of meaning, 433
in the history of English, 350
in isolated varieties, 544
place names, 372
scale of contact intensity, 137
South African English, 517
South Asian Englishes, 432–4
West African English, 497
lexicogrammatical interface, and the Dynamic Model, 50
lexicography. See dictionaries
lexifier filters, 626–7, 634
lexifier languages, 182, 195, 373, 622, 626–7, 634
lexis
academic terminology, 742, 743
American English dialects, 379, 380
Australian and New Zealand Englishes, 416–19
British versus American English, 376
compound words, 274
congruent lexicalization, 217–18
East African English, 479–83
lexical clusters (of conceptual metaphors), 159–65
lexical filters, 182
lexical gravity, 52, 482
lexicalization, 636n8
lexical verbs, 667
lingua franca varieties of English, 552–4, 744–6
neologisms/ coinages, 374, 416, 436, 498, 516, 742, 743
pragmatic variation, 274
reduplication, 435
simplification, 725, 746
South African English, 516–18
South Asian Englishes, 432–4
stickiness, 52
in traditional dialectology, 256–7
West African English, 497–8
words acquiring new meanings, 274
See also collocations
liberation linguistics, 292, 297
Liberia, 26, 70, 71–2, 371, 491–504, 664
life cycle models, 46
(p. 797) Lindisfarne, 350
lingua francas
in Africa, 324
amongst schoolchildren, 204
code-switching (CS)/ code-mixing, 552, 556–7, 558, 561–2
cooperativeness, 746–9
East Africa, 472, 473, 474
embedded inversion, 682
in Expanding Circle, 549–62
goal of mutual understanding, 556 (See also accommodation)
inherently multilingual communities, 738
inter-ethnic communication, 203
lexis, 552–4
morphology, 552–4
native speakers’ use of, 551
not learners but users, 740
pidgins, 495, 744
pragmatics, 555–8
promotion of local languages over English as, 303
similects, 738–9
Singapore, 254, 453, 622
in Southeast Asia, 455, 456, 464, 467
standard varieties in colonies, 199
terminology of, 317
“third spaces,” 556–7, 559
in universities, 466
West Africa, 494, 495
linguicide, 313, 324
linguicism, 312, 314, 325, 326
Linguistic Atlas of England, 258–9
linguistic capital, 316, 325, 380
linguistic human rights (LHRs), 318
linguistic markets, 246, 293, 303–4, 313, 316
listeners, and phonological theory, 69
literary representations, 50, 284–5, 305, 515
Llandybie corpus, 682, 683, 684–5
loan translations (calques), 216, 220, 221, 442, 636n8
loanword adaptations
anglicization of, 380–1
and code-switching, 216, 481
connotational problems, 487
and constraints, 70, 72
East African English, 479–80, 481, 482
isolated varieties, 544
South Asian Englishes, 432–4
West African English, 497
locatives, 459
LOCNESS (Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays), 683, 687–90
longitudinal studies, 179, 188, 641, 652, 653
‘look-ahead’ mechanism, 678
lot vowel, 399, 413, 498, 519
low back vowel merger, 377
Lumbee Indians, North Carolina, 20