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date: 08 December 2019

(p. 755) Language Index

(p. 755) Language Index

Aboriginal English, 162, 421
Aboriginal languages, 199, 409, 421
Afghan Persian (Dari), 430
African American English (AAE)
areal profile, 375, 381–2, 501, 503
diaspora varieties, 663–4
history of, 25
influence in Liberia, 26
similarity to Scottish English, 662
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
feature bundles, 133
history of, 28, 381
negative inversion, 93
rhoticity, 397
syntax, 89
African English
cultural keywords, 160–1
definition of, 166n13
ecolinguistic diversity, 324
idiomatic expressions, 158–9
kinship/ community/ family domain, 162–4
African languages
in the Caribbean, 22, 394
and Multicultural London English, 360
in North America, 373, 375
in South Africa, 509, 514–15, 517
in West Africa, 494
Afrikaans, 510–11, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 520, 524, 657
Afrikaans English, 520, 664
Akan, 494
Aku, 494, 496
Algonquin languages, 372
American English
American distinctiveness, 374–6
Americanisms, 373, 486
areal profile, 371–84
basis for other Englishes, 371, 376
be like, 359
Chinese American English, 383
colonization processes, 199
compared to British English, 375–6
conservatism, 540–1
contact influences, 196
“Country” variety, 375
and dialectology, 256, 265
diphthong flattening, 662
embedded inversion, 682, 684, 689
feature bundles, 133
FROWN corpus, 161
General American English (GenAm), 375
High Rising Terminal pattern, 353, 412
history of, 20, 21, 23–4, 26–7, 660–1
influenced by Irish English, 260–1, 659, 660
influence in Australia and New Zealand, 416
influence in Caribbean, 392, 398
influence in East Africa, 486
influence in Philippines, 371, 451, 456, 466, 670
influence in South Asia, 431, 442
influence in West Africa, 499, 504
internal dialect patterning, 666
isolated varieties, 663
in language ideologies, 295, 297
LOCNESS (Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays), 683, 687–90
modal auxiliaries, 641
nasalization, 662
as “New” or “postcolonial” English, 137
progressive, 651
pronunciation, 374–5, 377, 662
regional dialects, 378–80
request strategies, 280–1
as second dialect, 243
Southern varieties, 23, 28, 379, 380, 382–3, 398, 665
spelling, 374
sports metaphors, 156–9
in static models of World Englishes, 37
stylistic variation, 241
tag questions, 698
/t/ - allophonic variation, 150, 151–2
and the Web, 107
ancestral English, 43–4, 196
Angami, 601–16
Anglo-Indian English, 438
Anglo-Norman, 18
Anglo-Saxon dialects, 348, 350
Anguilla (Creole English), 395, 396
Anguillan English, 401
Antiguan Creole English, 395
Appalachian English, 663, 665, 667
Arab Choa, 494
Arabic, 319, 466, 494
Arawakan languages, 29
Asian American English, 383
Australian Aboriginal English, 162
Australian English
areal profile, 409–22
Australian Corpus of English (ACE), 104
based on non-standard English dialects, 409–10
Chinese Australian English, 162
colonization processes, 199
conservatism, 540
contact influences, 196
dialect formation, 671
ICE-Australia, 119n2, 641, 645
influenced by Cockney, 409–10, 541
influenced by Irish English, 410, 412, 658, 659
influenced by Scottish English, 419–20, 669, 670
kinship/ community/ family domain, 162
modal verbs, 641, 644–5
morphosyntax, 641, 644–5, 670
non-standard British English source of, 658
in Paraguay, 537–8
pronunciation, 410–13, 665
regional dialects, 419–21
sports metaphors, 156
Austronesian languages, 449, 454, 455
Aymara, 321
Baba Malay/ Bazaar Malay, 204, 453, 455, 622
Babu/ Baboo English, 439–40
Bahamian English, 394–403
Bahasa Malaysia, 452
Bajan, 201, 205, 398, 399–400, 402
Bangladeshi English, 433
Bantu languages, 180, 183, 190, 472, 476, 508, 513, 518, 520, 524
Barbadian Creole, 373
Barbadian English, 391, 396
Bazaar Malay/ Baba Malay, 204, 453, 455, 622
Belfast English, 261–2
Belizean Creole, 74, 76
Belizean English, 396
Bengali, 319, 428, 438, 441
Bequia English, 403
Bermudian English, 398, 401, 402, 403, 531
Bhojpuri, 511
Bislama, 133, 208n2
Black East African English, 476
Black South African English (BSAE)
areal profile, 512–13, 515, 521, 522, 523
code-switching/ mixing, 189–90
embedded inversion, 680
innovation, 657
and language contact, 183, 187
negation, 180
phonological regularity, 188
pro-drop, 185–6
Bodo, 321
Bonin/ Ogasawara English, 27, 531, 532, 666–7
Boxwallah English, 439
British Black English, 108
British English
areal profile, 335–62
combination of modal and will/shall, 641, 650–1, 653
compared to American English, 375–6
contact influences, 195, 196
dialectal varieties of, 266, 297, 353
dialectology focus on, 253, 255–6, 259, 265 (p. 757)
embedded inversion, 684–5, 689
FLOB corpus, 161
history of, 19–29, 294, 348–9
ICE-GB, 105, 106, 641, 642, 645, 646, 683, 684, 697–8, 701, 702–12
influence in Canada, 377
influence in Caribbean, 392, 393
influence on Australian and New Zealand English, 409–10, 416
intonation, 570–4
in language ideologies, 295, 297
modal verbs, 643–6
as “old” English, 639
in Paraguay, 537
progressive, 646–50
regional dialects, 266, 297, 353
sports metaphors, 156–9
in static models of World Englishes, 37, 38
stress-timed systems, 400
tag questions, 697, 702–11
and tone, 569, 593–5
British Sign Language, 337, 361
Brittonic (Celtic variety), 15, 16, 17–18, 30
Brunei English, 128
Brythonic (Celtic variety), 15, 349
Buckie English, 85, 90
Bukusa, 478
Burgher English, 438
Butler English, 43, 439
Cameroonian English, 46, 160–1, 238, 274, 491, 497–8
Cameroon Pidgin, 110, 495
Canadian English
areal profile, 359, 376–80
Canadian Rising pronunciation, 377, 378, 520, 661
Canadian Vowel Shift, 377
French influence, 373
history of, 20, 23–4, 26, 660
influence of American English, 660, 661
pronunciation, 662
regional dialects, 666
under threat in Quebec, 27
Cantonese
bare nominals, 95–6
construction grammar, 722
particles, 461
phonology, 74, 77
in Singapore, 623
in Southeast Asia, 454, 456, 457–8, 464
syntax, 89
See also Chinese
Cantonese English, 283–4, 569, 574–5, 584–95
Cape Flats English, 191
Caribbean creoles, 195, 204, 206, 659
Caribbean English
areal profile, 389–404
based on British English, 392
basilectal Caribbean English creole as ‘abrupt’ creole, 195
Caribbean Standard English, 391–2
features of, 394–403
influence of American English, 392, 398, 661
Carib languages, 29
Carriacouan English, 405nn11–12
Celtic
in British Isles’ history, 15–16, 17, 31, 254, 349, 352–5
contact with Germanic, 15
embedded inversion, 682
Goidelic Celtic, 349
(See also Gaelic)
multiple negation, 356
progressive, 650
stative verbs, 679
Channel Islands English, 264
Chaucerian English, 665
Cherokee Sound English, 397
Chicano English, 220, 224, 382–3
Chinese
calques, 220, 221
Chinese-medium education, 451, 452
convergence, 220
cultural keywords, 160
discourse markers, 216
morphosyntax, 94–5
in Singapore, 182, 204, 206, 621–2, 624–5, 627, 630–3, 634, 717, 722
in Southeast Asia, 451, 452, 453
in United States, 380
Chinese American English, 383
(p. 758) Chinese Australian English, 162
Chinese English, 283–4
Cockney, 108, 150, 151, 154, 409–10, 541, 542
Colloquial Singapore English (CSE), 200, 203–4, 206, 220–1, 457, 717, 720–1, 725, 730
Confederado English, 535, 538
Convent accent (Trinidad), 397
Corby English (UK), 353, 535, 544
Cornish (variety of Brittonic Celtic), 17, 30, 362n5
Cumbric (variety of Brittonic Celtic), 17
Cypriot Greek English, 226–7
Dari (Afghan Persian), 430
Dhivehi, 429
Dominican Kokoy, 531
Dravidian languages, 430, 432, 449, 454, 517
Dublin English, 358, 663, 665
Dutch, 254, 372, 404n2, 510, 517, 607, 664
Dzongkha, 429
Early Modern English, 263
East African English
areal profile, 472–88
definite articles, 136
East African English (EAE) corpus, 160–1
family/ community/ kinship domain, 160–1
ICE-East Africa, 473, 482, 485, 643, 647, 683, 686
lexis, 479–83
modal verbs, 650–1, 652
morphosyntax, 136, 483–4, 644–6, 648, 650–1, 652, 653
phonology, 475–9
progressive, 648, 650–1, 653
will/shall, 644–6
East Anglian dialect, 87, 133, 355, 356, 539
East Coast Pidgin English, 373
East Germanic/ Gothic, 15
Elizabethan/ Shakespearean English, 665
Engsh, 213
Estuary English, 151
Euro-Carriacouan English, 397
Euro-Caymanian English, 402
Euro-Grenadian, 402
Euro-Petite Martiniquan English, 396
Falkland Island English, 26, 532, 533, 543, 666
Fanagalo, 511
Fiji English, 46
Filipino/ Pilipino, 46, 453–4, 455
Finnish, 683, 688, 690
First Nations languages, 372
French
in British Isles, 18
in Cameroon, 110
in Canada, 23, 27, 376
ecolinguistic diversity, 313
in European Union, 325–6
French-based creoles, 391
and language ideologies, 294, 296
Norman French, 18, 19, 30, 349, 350
in North America, 372
syllable-timed rhythms, 479
in United States, 376
in the US, 26
in West Africa, 491, 497
Fulfulde, 494
Gaelic (Irish). See Irish Gaelic
Gaelic (Isle of Man). See Manx
Gaelic (Scots). See Scottish Gaelic
Gambia English, 491
Gbe, 73, 74, 201, 206
General American English (GenAm), 375
German, 254, 319, 372, 473, 536, 544, 683, 686–7
Germanic, 14–15, 30, 31, 96, 254, 294, 348
Ghanaian English
areal profile, 491, 497–8
ICE-Ghana, 491
sociolinguistic contexts, 239
Twinglish, 217
Ghanaian Pidgin English, 495
Glaswegian English, 245
Goidelic (Gaelic). See Gaelic
Goidelic Manx, 19, 31
Guaraní, 28–9, 537–8
Gujarati, 475, 511, 601–16
Gullah, 255, 373
Guyanese Creole, 224
Guyanese English, 396, 398, 399–400
Haitian Creole, 74
Hakka, 454
Hausa, 494, 497
Hawaiian, 29
Hawai’i Creole English, 204, 205, 373, 381
Hebridean English, 19, 30, 650
Hindi
code-switching/ mixing, 212, 214, 223
discourse pragmatics, 277
ecolinguistic diversity, 319
language ideologies, 304, 306
role in emergence of the unmarked, 601–16
sociolinguistic contexts, 246
in South Africa, 511
in South Asia, 427, 434, 441, 653
Hinglish, 212, 214, 223, 441
Hip Hop Nation Language, 381
Hokkien
code-switching/ mixing, 462
creoles, 206
in Southeast Asia, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457–8, 460, 464, 623, 722
syntactic theory, 89
Honduras/ Bay Islands English, 531
Hong Kong English
constraint-based phonology, 63, 74, 77
cultural metaphors, 158
in the Dynamic Model, 51, 700
education policies, 244
feature bundles, 133
ICE-HK, 697, 699, 702–12
kinship/ community/ family domain, 162
linguistic ecology, 456
particles, 461
progressive, 650
tag questions, 698, 699–712
tag-switching, 216
tone, 464–5
Hungarian, 544
Igbo, 115, 494, 498
Inari Saami, 327
Indian English
areal profile, 430–43
administrative link language, 315
Anglo-Indian English, 438
in British Asian speech, 245
code-switching/ mixing, 224–5
collostructural nativisations, 482
continuum of English varieties, 200, 203
definite articles, 136, 282
and the Dynamic Model, 51, 700
economy of production principle, 187
embedded inversion, 682–3, 686, 689
emergence of standard-like form, 199
emergence of unmarked, 599–616
feature bundles, 133
General Indian English, 601, 603
ICE-India, 282, 434, 482, 643, 647, 649, 682, 683, 686, 697–8, 699, 702–12
and identity, 244
as ‘indigenized’ variety, 194, 195
Kolhapur corpus of Indian English, 104, 434
language ideologies, 246, 297
lexical borrowing, 433
measuring complexity, 135
modal verbs, 650–1
movement towards English as dominant language, 324
multilingual context of, 304–6
particles, 461
phonology, 65, 431–2
politeness, 280–1, 282–3
pragmatics, 277, 280–3
progressive, 266, 647, 648, 649, 650–1, 653, 724
/r/ - allophonic variation of, 239
regional dialects, 432, 434, 437–40
request strategies, 279
as a second language, 253
in South Africa, 511–12
sports metaphors, 156
standard form, 255, 601, 603
stylistic variation, 240–1
subject-auxiliary inversion, 98n7
substrate influence, 89
syntax (generally), 434–7 (p. 760)
tag questions, 698, 699–712
that complement, 177
will/shall, 644–6
word stress, 274
Indian South African English. See South African Indian English (SAIE)
Indo-Aryan languages, 430, 432, 601, 604–5
Indo-European, 14
Irish English
after perfect, 353
based on Southwest English dialects, 205
Belfast English, 261–2
body of research, 336
in Caribbean, 393
colonization processes, 200, 202–5
combination of modal and will/shall, 650–1
double modals, 357–8
Dublin English, 358, 663, 665
embedded inversion, 682–3, 684–5, 689–90
epenthetic vowel insertion, 363n19
feature bundles, 133
fronting devices, 354
HERE + BE + pronoun, 360
ICE-IRL, 643, 646, 682, 683, 684
as indigenized variety, 195, 202
influenced by older forms of English, 665
influence in Canada, 378, 660
influence in West Africa, 493, 501
influence on American English, 260–1, 659
influence on Australian and New Zealand English, 410, 412, 658, 659, 669, 670
modal verbs, 652
morphosyntax, 667–8
multiple negation, 356
nasalization, 662
as “New” or “postcolonial” English, 137
progressive, 646–8, 649
rhoticity, 355
second language acquisition, 140
as shift variety, 32n4, 190, 639, 658, 678, 691
subject-auxiliary inversions, 90
substrate influence, 184
TH-/DH Fronting, 359
vowel epenthesis, 664
will/shall, 644–6
Irish Gaelic
embedded inversion, 690
in the history of British Isles Englishes, 16, 18, 27, 31, 202, 350–3
as indigenous ethnolinguistic minority, 343–4
statistics on speakers, 344, 347, 348
typology, 140
Irish Sign Language, 361
Iroquoian languages, 372
Italian, 94, 380, 421
Jamaican Creole
areal profile, 402
code-switching/ mixing, 222, 223, 224–6
corpus linguistics, 110, 114–15, 117
creole linguistics, 208n2
history of English, 25
innovation, 659
in North America, 373
pronunciation, 395, 396
sociolinguistic contexts, 239
stress-timed system, 400
syllable structures, 74
Jamaican English
based on American English, 671
corpus linguistics, 114
ethnography of diasporic web forums, 109, 111–12
feature bundles, 133
ICE-Jamaica, 115, 117, 396, 402, 643
modal verbs, 650–1
morphosyntax, 401, 402–3
progressive, 648, 650–1
pronunciation, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399–400
sociolinguistic contexts, 239
Standard Jamaican English, 392, 393–4
will/shall, 644–6
Japanese, 27, 214, 280, 319, 532, 575
Jérriais, 362n5
Jopará, 538
Kamtok. See Cameroon Pidgin
Kenyan English, 136, 476, 480, 685–6, 689
Khoi languages, 508
Kikongo, 73
KiMvita, 474
(p. 761) Kiswahili, 472, 473, 474, 479, 481, 485, 486, 487
Kittitian Creole English, 396
KiUnguja, 474
Krio, 25, 494, 495
Krio English in Sierra Leone, 497–8
Kru family, 72
Kru Pidgin English, 494
Labrador/ Newfoundland English, 27, 131, 262, 377, 378, 382, 663
Lancashire English, 355, 356
Latin, 15, 294, 349, 350, 741
Lhotsame (Nepali), 429
Liberian English, 70, 71–2, 371, 491, 664
Liberian Settler English, 71, 497–8
Liberian Vernacular English, 496
Liverpool English (UK), 353, 361
Loma (Mande), 70, 71, 73
London English
h-dropping, 355
innovations, 359
and isolated varieties, 535, 541, 542
language ideologies, 294
Multicultural London English, 222, 355, 360
as superstrate of Australian English, 409–10
See also Cockney
London Jamaican English, 108, 222, 223
Luganda, 474
Luo English, 478
Maasai English, 478
Malagasy, 97
Malay
lingua franca role, 303
in Singapore, 182, 204, 206, 220, 624, 723, 725
in Southeast Asia, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 457–8, 460
syntactic theory, 87, 89
Malayalam, 240, 441
Malaysian English
areal profile, 449, 452, 455–6
definite articles, 87
ICE-MAL, 449
as ‘indigenized’ variety, 194
lectal continua, 456
morphosyntax, 458–60
particles, 460–1, 467, 713n6
phonology, 457–8
typology, 186
in universities, 466
Maltese English, 51
Mandarin Chinese
aspect, 97
bare nominals, 95–6
code-switching/ mixing, 220, 462
cultural keywords, 160
ecolinguistic diversity, 319
emergence of the unmarked, 600, 610
final devoicing, 76
monosyllabic stems, 68
in Singapore, 623–4, 636n6, 722, 723
in Southeast Asia, 454, 455, 457–8, 464
syntactic theory, 86, 91
Mande (Loma), 70, 71, 73
Mandinka, 494, 501
Manx, 19, 31
Manx English, 531
Maori, 29, 321, 413, 415, 416, 417, 421
Maori English, 421
Middle English, 257, 542, 727
Milton Keynes English, 358, 359
Mizo, 601–16
Montserrat English, 21, 23, 396, 398
Multicultural London English, 222, 355, 360
Munda, 430
Nandi, 478
Native American Englishes, 678
Native American languages, 26, 28–9, 372
Navaho, 29
Ndjuka, 22
Nepali, 442
Nepali English, 433
Newcastle English (UK), 260, 353, 358, 359, 361
Newfoundland/ Labrador English, 27, 131, 262, 377, 378, 382, 663
New York City English, 280, 372, 378, 380, 383, 384
New Zealand English
/t/ - allophonic variation of, 152
areal profile, 409–22
based on non-standard English dialects, 410
be like, 359 (p. 762)
colonization processes, 199
conservatism, 540
in Deterministic model, 45
dialect formation, 671
feature bundles, 133
influenced by Maori, 413, 415, 416, 417
influenced by Scottish English, 419–20, 669, 670
modal verbs, 644
and the New Dialect Formation model, 668–9
New Zealand “Wellington” Corpus of English, 104
non-standard British English source of, 658
ONZE (Origins of New Zealand English) project, 105, 668, 670
pronunciation, 410–13, 665, 668
regional dialects, 419–21
rhoticity, 663
tag questions, 699
Wellington Corpus of Written New Zealand English, 417
Wellington Spoken Corpus of New Zealand English (WSC), 104
New Zealand Maori, 29
Nigerian English
areal profile, 491
coda consonants, 73
codification of, 504
corpus linguistics, 115–16
dental /t/, 150, 151
emergence of standard-like form, 199
ethnography of diasporic web forums, 109–16
ICE-Nigeria, 491
and language ideologies, 297
lexis, 497–8
morphosyntax, 497–8, 504
phonology, 65, 493, 497–8
prosody/ tone, 465
standard form, 255
word stress, 274
Nigerian Pidgin, 105, 110, 115–16
Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), 217–18, 495
Nilotic languages, 472, 478
Norfolk dialect of English, 16
Norfolk Pidgin, 133
Norfuk and Pitcairnese, 531
Norman French, 18, 19, 30, 349, 350
North Carolina English, 20, 21, 663, 667
Northeastern British English dialects, 355, 356
Northern British English dialects, 355, 356, 358, 374, 509, 663, 668, 682
North Germanic, 30, 35, 254, 349
North Saami, 327
Northumbrian dialects, 355, 357
Old English, 16–17, 724, 727, 728
Old Irish, 350
Old Norse, 17, 254, 349, 350, 356
Orkney/ Shetland dialects, 19, 30, 133, 354, 356–7, 358
Otago-Southland dialect, 413, 419–20, 663, 670
Pakeha, 421
Pakistan English, 431–2, 433, 436
Papiamentu, 465
Pashto, 430
Pasifika Englishes, 421
Peranakan Chinese, 622–3
Peranakans English, 531
Persian, 305
Philippine English
areal profile, 449
based on American English, 371, 451, 456, 466, 670
code-switching/ mixing, 462
feature bundles, 133
ICE-PHI, 449, 461, 643, 647
lectal continua, 456
modal verbs, 650–1, 652
in models of English, 46
morphosyntax, 483
particles, 461, 467
phonology, 457–8
progressive, 648, 650–1, 653
substrate influence, 455
will/shall, 644–6
Pilipino/ Filipino, 46, 453–4, 455
Pitcairn Islands English, 255, 531
Polish, 342
Portuguese, 28, 313, 319, 426, 491, 544
(p. 763) Portuguese Brazilian English, 279
Proto-Germanic, 14, 16
Punjabi, 217, 431, 432, 475
Quechua, 321
Received Pronunciation (RP)
/t/ - allophonic variation of, 151
association with Standard British English, 392
and broadcast media, 118
as point of comparison in phonological theory, 65, 78
and rhoticity, 375
trap vowels, 413
Rhondda Valleys English, 353–4
Russian, 130, 319, 381, 716
Saami, 321, 327
Saint Helenian English, 491
Salish languages, 97
Sandy Point English, 397
San languages, 508
Sanskrit, 284, 305
Saramaccan/ Saramakkan, 22, 195, 465
Scandinavian Norn, 19, 30
Scottish English
body of research, 336–7
in Caribbean, 393
double modals, 357
embedded inversion, 682
epenthetic vowel insertion, 363n19
fronting devices, 354
history of, 17, 352
as indigenized variety, 195
influence in Corby, 535, 544
influence in West Africa, 493
influence on Australian and New Zealand English, 419–20, 669, 670
influence on Irish, 202
isolated varieties, 535
multiple negation, 357
pronunciation, 411
rhoticity, 355
similarity to African American English, 662
TH-/DH Fronting, 359
in Tristan da Cunha, 543
Scottish Gaelic, 17, 30, 343–4, 346
Semitidic, 31n1
Shona, 77
Sierra Leone English, 491, 497–8, 664
Singapore English
already (perfective), 86, 89, 91–3, 139, 187, 205, 625, 720
areal profile, 449, 452–3, 455–6, 466
aspect, 85–6, 91–2, 97, 139, 187
Chinese influence, 182, 204, 206, 621–2, 624–5, 627, 630–3, 634, 717, 722
code-switching/ mixing, 462
Colloquial Singapore English (CSE), 200, 203–4, 206, 220–1, 457, 717, 720–1, 725, 730
colonization processes, 199
competence, 658
construction grammar research, 715–31
continuum of English varieties, 200, 203
count nouns, 87
as a ‘creoloid,’ 205, 622
definite articles, 136
in the Dynamic Model, 700
dynamic social positioning, 246
economy of production principle, 187
embedded inversion, 682–3, 686, 689
English as mother tongue and lingua franca, 254
English medium of instruction, 324
feature competition, 88
Flowerpod Corpus, 726
Grammar of Spoken Singapore English Corpus (GSSEC), 462
ICE-SIN, 106, 449, 460, 647, 682, 683, 686, 697–8, 699, 702–12
as ‘indigenized’ variety, 194
kinship/ community/ family domain, 162
lectal continua, 456–7
morphophonology, 63–4
morphosyntax, 458–60
moving towards L1 variety, 255
optional number marking, 89
particles, 460–1, 467, 708–10
phonological theory, 65
phonology, 457–8
progressive, 724
as shift variety, 190 (p. 764)
Sinitic substrate, 205
standard form, 255
substrate influence, 89, 95–6, 184, 621–35
tag questions, 698, 699–712
tone, 464–5, 569
and transfer, 182–3
typology, 186
word stress, 555
Singlish, 212, 623
Sinhala, 212, 219, 428
Sinitic languages, 205, 449, 454, 455, 464
Siouan languages, 372
Slavic languages, 96–7
Somerset English, 127, 131
South African English
areal profile, 508–25
diphthong flattening, 662
ICE-SA, 523
lexis, 516–18
morphosyntax, 522–5
non-standard British English source of, 658, 660
phonology, 411, 518–22, 662, 665, 668
settler versus non-settler types, 657
South African English, 522
sports metaphors, 156
vowel epenthesis, 664
South African Indian English (SAIE)
areal profile, 511–12, 517, 522, 523, 525
contact linguistics, 184, 185–6, 191
innovation, 657, 665
as shift variety, 190
South Asian Englishes, 425–43
South Atlantic English, 244
Southeast Asian Englishes, 448–67
Southeast British English dialects, 133, 151, 266, 355, 357, 375, 410, 509, 658, 669, 670
Southern Standard British English (SSBE), 375–6, 377
Southwest English dialects, 17, 18, 202, 205, 262, 355, 356, 357, 378, 658
Spanglish, 738, 739
Spanish
Caribbean, 404n2
code-switching/ mixing, 213–14
in Costa Rica (more prestigious than English), 27
ecolinguistic diversity, 313, 319
language shift towards, 28
in North America, 372, 373, 376, 381, 382–3
in Paraguay, 538
in Philippines, 451
syllable-timed rhythms, 400
urban hierarchy diffusion model, 539
in the US, 26
Sranan, 22, 70, 73–4, 206
Sri Lankan English, 432, 482
Standard English, comparative bias, 79
Standard South-East British English, 133, 151
Swahili, 213, 303, 480
See also Kiswahili
Swedish, 372, 688, 690
Tagalog, 453–4, 455, 461, 462
Taglish, 462
Tamil English, 43
Tanzanian English, 476, 478, 480, 486, 487
Tasmanian English, 131, 262
Telegu, 511
Teochew, 454
Thai English, 53
Tibeto-Burman languages, 430, 601, 604–5
Tobagonian English, 396
Tok Pisin, 30, 208n2
Toronto English, 129
Traditional English English, 642, 647
Traditional Irish English, 643
Trinidad and Tobagian English, 394, 396
Trinidadian English, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399–400, 402
Trinidadian English Creole, 395, 400–1
Tristan da Cunha English, 542, 543, 666
Turks Island English, 395, 397, 398, 400–1, 402
Twi, 73, 217
Twinglish, 217
Tyneside English, 356, 358, 361, 644
(p. 765) Ugandan English, 480, 481, 487
Urdu, 277, 427, 428, 431, 432, 436, 511
Vernacular English of Saint Lucia, 395, 402
Vernacular Liberian English, 70, 71–2
Vietnamese, 612
Virgin Islands (Saint Thomas) Creole English, 402
Welsh, 17, 18, 30, 31, 343–5, 352–4
Welsh English
body of research, 337
embedded inversion, 682–3, 684–5, 689
feature bundles, 133
fronting devices, 354
history of, 349
as indigenized variety, 195
intonation, 353–4
Llandybie corpus, 682, 683, 684–5
multiple negation, 357
progressive, 649
rhoticity, 355
TH-/DH Fronting, 359
West African Coastal Englishes, 582
West African English, 63, 187, 491–504, 645
West Germanic, 15–16, 349
White South African English, 518, 520–1, 523–4, 525
World Standard English, 41–2
Xhosa, 183, 185, 188, 189, 190, 522
Xwela-Gbe, 206
Yawelmani Yokuts, 67
Yiddish, 380, 510
Yiddish English, 220
Yoruba, 217–18, 494, 497, 498
Zambian English, 488
Zimbabwean English, 77