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date: 13 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

It is now generally acknowledged that the creation of all New Englishes (both ‘creoles’ and ‘indigenized varieties’) shares a great deal in common with regard to both the socio-historical circumstances and the processes of linguistic restructuring and change that were involved. It is generally agreed that these creations are all outcomes of language shift (i.e., group second language acquisition). The processes of restructuring by which they emerged involved the interplay of three primary factors: input from English varieties, influence from learners’ L1s, and internal developments. This chapter discusses the similarities and differences in the macro-level social contexts and community settings in which both creoles and indigenized varieties emerged and shows how such factors help us to understand the similarities in the processes of linguistic restructuring and adaptation that led to their creation.

Keywords: World Englishes, English-lexicon creoles, indigenized varieties, social contexts, restructuring, natural second language acquisition, substrate influence, simplification

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