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date: 13 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter systematically surveys conceptual frameworks (models) that have been suggested to identify similarities between World Englishes and to classify them accordingly. The earliest suggestions along these lines were static models, which either worked out historically based relationships between national varieties, having branched off in a family-tree-like manner, or classified countries based on whether English is used as a native, second or foreign language in them. Other early categorizations emphasized the global, national or regional outreach of varieties (in “hub-and-spoke” models) or variety types based on sociolinguistic settings in communities and their resulting linguistic properties. In contrast, recent models emphasize the evolutionary or even cyclic character of varieties; these include Trudgill’s deterministic theory and, very widely accepted nowadays, Schneider’s Dynamic Model, which is broadly outlined, including a brief discussion of some applications of and reactions to it.

Keywords: determinism, Dynamic Model, evolution of English, ENL, ESL, family tree, national varieties, Three Circles model, World Englishes

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