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date: 18 February 2020

(p. 327) Index

(p. 327) Index

Page references followed by an “f ” indicate figure; “t” indicate table.

A
Aachen Aphasia Test Battery (AAT), 298
Acoustic evaluation, of aprosodia, 283–84
Acquired dysgraphia, 3, 241
central syndromes, with phonological impairment, 243–47, 244t
peripheral, 247–48
surface, 246–47, 255–56, 257f
treatment of, 253–57
WAB-R on, 254–56
Activities of daily living (ADLs), 165
Adaptive neuroplasticity, 308–9
Adjuvant, to behavioral training, 317
Advocacy, 166
Age, in rehabilitation, 314–15
Agnosia, 3, 21, 131
Agrammatism, 145–47
Agraphia. See Acquired dysgraphia
Akinetic mutism, 172, 178
Alcmaeon, 11
Alexia
aphasia and, 221
assessment of, 222–23
attentional, 218
cognitive neuropsychology of, 217–21
future directions of, 237
neglect, 217–18
phonological, 219, 227–28, 233 [link] –36t
pure, 217, 246
visual, 218
Allographic dysgraphia, 247–48
Allport, D. A., 99–100, 99f
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 109, 122
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), 39, 41
Amodal, 100
Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), 298
Anatomy, of TPJ, 108f
Anomia
acute, chronic stages of, 122–25
assessment of, 130–31
BA in, 122–23, 123f
category-specific, 127
classical, 129
cognitive neuropsychology of, 125–30
lesion in, 123
neuroanatomical correlates, 122–25
phonological, 129–30
semantic, 121, 125, 127–29
strokes in, 122
as syndrome, 121–22
treatment of, 131–39
WAB-R for, 130
Anomic aphasia, 5, 20–21, 121
Anosognosia, 51–52, 68–69
Anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 173
Aphasia assessment
BDAE- 3, WAB-R for, 28–29
clinical description era of, 25–26
cognitive neuropsychology for, 30–31
comprehensive tests for, 28–29, 29t
of conduction aphasia, 88–89
for connected, spontaneous speech, 38–39
contemporary, 36–39
emerging trends in, 39–41
evidence-based practice in, 39–40
factors influencing, 37
measures of functional communication for, 33–34
model-based, 30–31
postmodern era of, 28
practice parameters, setting for, 37
predicting outcomes in, 40
psychosocial models of, 40–41
purpose of, 36–37
screening tests for, 29–30, 30t
standardized test era of, 26–28
in TCMA, 179–80, 179t
telehealth in, 41
tests of specific linguistic function for, 31, 32 [link] –33t
for Wernicke’s aphasia, 61–65, 62t
Aphasia-Framework for Outcome Assessment (A-FROM), 38, 40–41
Aphasia Rapid Test (ART), 30
Aphasia recovery
from acute, chronic stages, 296–97
biological markers of, 294–97
fMRI on, 294–95, 314
functional, 295–97, 303
neural mechanisms associated with, 295–96
predicting, 294–95
Aphasia treatment, 309t
behavioral, 308
communication in, 318t
functional approaches to, 318–19
group therapy for, 319
history of, 308
LPAA in, 317–19
neuroplasticity in, 308–9
rehabilitation in, 310–15
(p. 328)
Der Aphasiche Symptomcomplex: Eine Psychologische Studie auf Anatomischer Basis (Wernicke), 105
Aphasiology, 264
Der Aphasische Symptomencomplex (Wernicke), 15
Apraxic dysgraphia, 248
Aprosodia
assessment of, 282–84
behavioral considerations for, 287
clinical evaluation of, 282–83
communication and, 277
expressive, 284–85
lesions in, 279–80
LHD in, 279
signs, symptoms of, 278–79
treatment of, 284–87, 286f
Aprosodia Battery, 283
Arcuate fasciculus, 54, 76, 81–83, 301
Army General Classification Test (AGCT), 111–12
Arterial spin labeling (ASL), 300
Assessment. See also Aphasia assessment
of alexia, 222–23
of anomia, 130–31
of aprosodia, 282–84
functional, 34, 165–66
of grammatical processing, 152–53
of language-related functional activities, 34
model-based, 30–31
of written language, 248–50, 249t
Associative agnosia, 131
Associative naming errors, 109–12
Attention, impaired, 51–52
Attentional alexia, 218
Attention Process Training (APT), 67
Atypical aphasias, 6–7
Auburtin, Earnest, 12–13
Auditory
agnosia, 56, 58
comprehension, 4, 58–60, 62t, 65–67
comprehension abilities, in TCMA, 172
perception, 64
word recognition, 63–64, 68
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), 68, 132
Automatic completion, 201
B
Basal ganglia, 280
Behavioral
aphasia treatment, 308
considerations, in aprosodia, 287
training, 317
Betz, Vladimir Alekseyevich, 176
Binding problem, 100
Biological approaches, to treatment, 167–68
Biological markers, of aphasia recovery, 294–97
Boston Assessment of Severe Aphasia (BASA), 164
Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, third edition (BDAE- 3), 28–29, 38, 76, 88, 152
Boston Naming Test (BNT), 22, 29, 130, 253–56
Bouillaud, Jean Baptiste, 12–13
Breasted, James, 11
Broca, Paul, 12–13, 15–16, 105, 145
Broca’s aphasia, 5, 17, 82. See also Grammatical processing, in Broca’s aphasia
background of, 12
incidence, prevalence of, 146
lesion in, 12–14, 163, 174
neuroanatomical correlates of, 150–52
pathophysiology of, 12–14
as syndrome, 14
Broca’s area, 16–20
BA and, 175f
in language, 151–52
lesion in, 81–83, 145
lexical access in, 22
in reading, 222
in TCMA, 174–75, 175f, 178
white matter fibers in, 85f
Brodmann Area (BA)
after stroke, 125
in anomia, 122–23, 123f
Broca’s area and, 175f
in TCMA, 174–77
Burden of Stroke Scale (BOSS), 34
C
Calculation, 79
Case reports, of MTA, 207–11
Category-specific anomia, 127
Central assessment, of alexia, 223
Central dysgraphia syndromes, 243–47, 244t. See also Acquired dysgraphia
Chronic aphasia, 297–301
Classical anomia, 129
Clinical
aphasiologist, 4
assessment, of global aphasia, 164–66
criteria, 107
description, in aphasia assessment, 25–26
evaluation, of aprosodia, 282–83
implications, of TCSA, 113
Cognition, social, 264–65, 271–74
Cognitive deficits, 51–53
Cognitive Linguistic Task Book (CLTB), 67
Cognitive-linguistic treatment, of aprosodia, 285–86, 286f
Cognitive model, of receptive and expressive language, 57–58, 58f
Cognitive neuropsychology
of alexia, 217–21
of anomia, 125–30
of conduction aphasia, 84–88, 91
model-based assessment in, 30–31
of MTA, 197–201
of TCMA, 176–78
of Wernicke’s aphasia, 56–61
of written language, 242–43, 242f
Cohort Theory, 56
Combined treatment, of aprosodia, 286–87
Common aphasia test batteries, 5
Communication
aprosodia and, 277
enhancing, in aphasia treatment, 318t
functional, 33–34, 64–65
pragmatics in, 263–64
right hemisphere in, 7–8
social, 64–65
Communication, functional and social, 64–65
Communication Activities of Daily Living (CADL), 33
Communication-associated distress scale (CAD), 34
Communication difficulty scale (CD), 34 (p. 329)
Communication Inventory for Individuals with Complex Communication Needs and Their Partners, 34
Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI), 36, 41
Complexity account of treatment efficacy (CATE), 154
Comprehension
auditory, in Wernicke’s aphasia, 56, 58–60
cognitive model of, 57–58, 58f
grammatical, 4, 13–14
in RHD, 269–71
of spoken language, 79–80
in TCMA, 172
in word recognition, 63–64
Comprehensive tests, for aphasia assessment, 28–29, 29t
Compulsory verbal behavior, 200–201
Computed tomography (CT), 82, 222
Computerized tomographic (CT) imaging, 12
Conceptualization, 149, 153
Conduction aphasia, 5
assessment of, 88–89
background of, 16
calculation, number processing and, 79
cognitive neuropsychology of, 84–88, 91
fluency in, 76, 88
lesion in, 82–83, 83f, 84f
Lichtheim on, 75–76
multiple-word, sentence repetition in, 79–81
neuroanatomical correlates of, 81–84, 83f, 84f
pathophysiology of, 17
phonemic paraphasias in, 77
phonological planning in, 78–80, 84–85
picture naming in, 77, 78t
reading, writing and, 80
repetition, reproduction, 81
speech production deficit in, 84–87
spoken language comprehension in, 79–80
spoken language production in, 77–79
as syndrome, 16–17, 76–81, 92
theoretical accounts, of features of, 87–88
treatment of, 89–91
variable features of, 80–81
WAB-R on, 76, 88
Wernicke on, 75–76
Wernicke’s aphasia and, 76–77, 88–89
Connected speech, 38–39
Connectionist models, of reading, 216–17, 228f
Constraint-induced language therapy (CILT), 155, 298–99, 303, 311–13
Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT), 31
Convergence zone framework, 100
Copy and Recall Treatment (CART), 250
Correct Information Unit (CIU), 38, 68
Cortical-transcortical distinction, 106
Critical Appraisal of Diagnostic Evidence (CADE), 39
Crossed aphasia, 6
Cross-modality matching tasks, 62–63
D
Damasio, Antonio, 97, 100
Deep alexia, 219–20, 233 [link] –36t
Deep aphasia, 19–20
Deep dysgraphia, 245
Defects, of lexical access, 14
Dell, G. S., 102, 103f
Dementia, semantic, 22–23, 61, 100–101, 109–12, 127–28
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), 54, 151–52, 156, 301
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), 53, 122
Disconnection, 76
Disconnection syndrome, 106
Discourse
conversational, 265–66
narrative, 265–69
RHD in, 265–69
Distributed semantic memory model, 99–100, 99f
Dose, 137–38, 313
Dual-route models, of reading, 215–16, 219, 227f
Dyslexia, 3, 246–47
E
Echolalia, 199–200, 203
Eden alternative, for global aphasia, 168–69
Electroencephalography (EEG), 294
Emotional expression, 280–84, 287
Empty speech, 51
Errorless, errorful learning, 135–36
Error production, in training, 316
Errors, in grammatical processing, 149–50
Evidence-based practice, in aphasia assessment, 39–40
Executive functioning (EF), 102–5
Experience-dependent plasticity, 311t
Expression. See also Verbal expression
across tasks, 64
emotional, 280–84, 287
prosodic, 281–82
Expressive aprosodia, 284–85. See also Aprosodia
Extrasylvian neural network, 243
F
Feedback, 136–37, 316–17
Fiber pathways, 175f
Florida Affect Battery (FAB), 162, 283
Fluency, 4
in aphasias, 15–19
in conduction aphasia, 76, 88
in TCMA, 182
Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (FAST), 29–30
Freud, Sigmund, 20–21
Functional
activities, in language, 34
approaches, to aphasia treatment, 318–19
assessment, of communication skills, 34
assessments, of global aphasia, 165–66
communication, 33–34, 64–65
network reorganization, 300–301
processing, grammatical, 149–50, 153–54
recovery, from aphasia, 295–97, 303
Functional Communication Profile (FCP), 33
Functional Independence Measure (FIM), 165
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 54, 125, 152
on aphasia recovery, 294–95, 314
on IFG, 125
TCMA and, 177
of Wernicke’s area, 55–56
on white matter fibers, 83
G
Gall, Franz Joseph, 11–14
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT), 223
Generalization, 138–39, 315
Global aphasia, 5–6
advocacy and, 166
characteristics of, 162–63
clinical assessment of, 164–66
Eden alternative for, 168–69
neuroanatomical correlates of, 163–64
as syndrome, 17
theoretical implications of, 168
total aphasia as, 161
treatment of, 166–68
Global dysgraphia, 245–46, 253–54, 255f
Grammatical comprehension, 4, 13–14
Grammatically complex utterances, 4
Grammatical processing, in Broca’s aphasia
agrammatism in, 145–46
assessment of, 152–53
functional, 149–50, 153–54
positional, 150, 154–55
testing, 152–53
treatment of, 153–56
types of errors in, 149–50
WAB-R for, 152
Grammatical production, model of, 147–48, 147f
Grapheme-phoneme conversion, 217, 219
Gray Oral Reading Test, 222–23
Gross, Charles, 11
Group therapy, 319
H
Head, Henry, 26, 107
Hub & Spoke Model, of semantic memory, 101, 109
Hybrid model, of semantic memory, 104–5
Hypoperfusion, 53–54
I
Imaging treatment, of chronic aphasia, 297–301
Imitative treatment, of aprosodia, 285
Impaired. See also Modality-specific impairment; Orthographic impairment
attention, 51–52
auditory comprehension, 58–60, 65–67
self-monitoring, 52–53
sentence processing, 61
verbal expression, 67–68, 180–82
written language, 250–53, 251t, 252t, 254t
Implementation science, 40
Incidence, of Broca’s aphasia, 146
Inferences, 269–70
Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), 125, 150–52, 297, 300
Inferior parietal lobe (IPL), 300
Information, loss of, 128
Information-processing network, 15–16, 15f
Initiation, 178
Input modalities, 126f
Input processing, phonological, 87–88
Intensity, repetition in, 312–13
Intensive language-action therapy (ILAT), 155, 311
Intention, 177, 264
Interactive activation model of word processing, 102, 103f
Interactive treatment, for written language impairment, 253, 254t
Interference, 315
International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF), 164, 167, 317–19
International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH), 33
Interpretation, 267–68
Intervention, in rehabilitation, 313–14
J
James, William, 177
Jargon, 51
K
Knowledge of performance (KP), 286–87
Knowledge of results (KR), 286–87
Knowledge representation, 99
Kussmaul, Adolph, 21. See also Wernicke-Kussmaul-Lichtheim schema
L
Language, 263. See also Cognitive model, of receptive and expressive language; Communication; Spoken language comprehension; Spoken language production; Written language
Broca’s area and, 151–52
functional activities in, 34
processing, 123–25
therapy, 299
Wernicke’s area and, 53–56
Language disorder. See specific topics
Language Modalities Test for Aphasia (LMTA), 26–28
Language Screening Test (LAST), 30
LaTrobe Communication Questionnaire, 36
Leborgne, 12–14, 150
Left hemisphere. See also Broca’s area; Wernicke’s area
language processing, in aphasia, 123–25
perisylvian cortical network of, 243
Left hemisphere damage (LHD), 7
in aphasia, 264
in aprosodia, 279
RHD and, 267–69
in subcortical aphasia, 6
Lesion, 15f. See also Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis
analysis studies, 54–55
in anomia, 123
in aprosodia, 279–80
in Broca’s aphasia, 12–14, 163, 174
in Broca’s area, 81–83, 145
in conduction aphasia, 82–83, 83f, 84f
to EF, 104
in global dysgraphia, 255f
in phonological dysgraphia, 256f
in reading, 221–22
in TCMA, 173–76
in TCSA, 100, 106–9
in Wernicke’s aphasia, 14–17
in Wernicke’s area, 49–50, 83
Letter analysis, 215, 218
Lexical access, 14, 20, 22
Lexical entry, 125, 126f
Lexical explanation, for speech production deficit, 84–86
Lexicality effect, 245
Lexical retrieval, 139n1
Lexical-semantic treatment, for written language impairment, 250–51, 251t
Lexicon, phonological, 20–21
Lichtheim’s schema, 17–18, 18f, 21
Life participation approach to aphasia (LPAA), 40, 317–20
Linguistic access, in TCSA, 97–98
Logopenic primary progressive aphasia (LPPA), 22
Logorrhea, 15–16
Loss, of information, 128
M
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 82, 295
Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging (MRPI), 53
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 294, 298–99
Mapping therapy, 154
Marcus Aurelius, 109
Martin, Randi, 101
McBride, Katharine Elizabeth, 26–27
Measures
of functional communication, 33–34
of pragmatic abilities, functional communication, 34, 35t
of QOL, 34–36
Medial frontal cortex, 174–75, 175f
Melodic intonation therapy (MIT), 155–56
Memory. See Semantic memory
Metalinguistic abilities, 163
Meynert, Theodor Hermann, 14–15
Middle cerebral artery (MCA), 108, 128, 173, 196, 293 (p. 331)
Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), 54–55, 300
Minnesota Test for Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia (MTDDA), 26–28
Mixed transcortical aphasia (MTA)
assessment of, 189 [link] –92t, 201–2
automatic completion, continuation phenomena in, 201
case reports of, 207–11
cognitive neuropsychology of, 197–201
compulsory verbal behavior in, 200–201
echolalia in, 199–200
frequency, of occurrence of, 188, 193
neuroanatomical correlates of, 195–97
pathophysiology of, 19
spared repetition in, 198–99
as syndrome, 19, 187–88, 193–95
treatment of, 202–4
verbal perseveration in, 199
Modality-specific impairment, 128–29
Montreal d’Evaluation de la Communication (MEC), 272
Motivation, in rehabilitation, 314
Multiple convergence zones with sparse representation, 104–5
Multiple Oral Rereading (MOR), 228
Multiple-word and sentence repetition, 79–81
Music perception, 56
N
Naming, 5, 78t. See also Associative naming errors; Boston Naming Test; Modality-specific impairment; Picture naming; Supported naming practice
generalization and, 138–39
in TCSA, 21, 109
Wernicke’s aphasia and, 54–55
Narrative discourse, 265–69
National Center for Evidence-Based Practice (N-CEP), 39–40
Neglect alexia, 217–18
Neologisms, 15, 51
Network reorganization, functional, 300–301
Neural mechanisms, of aphasia recovery, 295–96
Neuroanatomical correlates
of anomia, 122–25
of Broca’s aphasia, 150–52
of conduction aphasia, 81–84, 83f, 84f
of global aphasia, 163–64
of language therapy outcomes, 299
of MTA, 195–97
of prosodic processing, 279–80
of reading, 221–22
of TCMA, 173–76
of Wernicke’s aphasia, 53–56
Neurolinguistic characteristics, during speech production, 212–14
Neurological diseases, 293
Neuroplasticity, 301, 308–9, 311t, 314
Neurosensory Centre Comprehensive Examination for Aphasia (NCCEA), 26–28
Node structure theory, 52
Nondominant hand, writing with, 248
Nonfluent verbal expression, 4. See also Fluency
Nonoptic aphasia, 22
Nonprogressive manifestations of aphasia. See Transcortical sensory aphasia
Nonsense words, 79
Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS), 130–31, 152
Number processing, 79
O
Optic aphasia, 6, 21
Orthographic assessment, of written language, 248–50
Orthographic impairment, 246–47
Orthographic input lexicon, 215–16, 218–19
Orthography, 242f, 257
Outcomes, predicting, 40
Output lexicon, phonological, 217–19
P
Paraphasias, 15, 50, 127. See also Phonemic paraphasia
Parkinson’s disease (PD), 281–82
PARSYN model, 56
Pathophysiology
of anomic aphasia, 20–21
of Broca’s aphasia, 12–14
of conduction aphasia, 17
of deep aphasia, 20
of global aphasia, 17
of MTA, 19
of nonoptic aphasia, 22
of optic aphasia, 21
of PPA, 22–23
of pure word deafness, 16
of TCMA, 18–19
of TCSA, 17–18, 21
of Wernicke’s aphasia, 15–16
Perception, 56–57
Perceptual loop theory, 52–53
Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), 122, 295
Peripheral
assessment, of alexia, 223
dysgraphias, 247–48
writing impairments, 253
Perisylvian cortical network, 243
Pharmacological intervention, in TCMA, 182–83
Phonemic disintegration, 14
Phonemic paraphasia, 15, 60, 77, 78t, 81
Phonological
assembly, 217–18
assessment, of written language, 250
impairment, with central dysgraphia syndromes, 243–46
input processing, 87–88
lexicon, 20–21
neighborhood density, 85
output lexicon, 217–19
planning, 78–80, 84–85
treatment, of written language impairment, 251–52, 252t
treatments, for anomia, 133–34
Phonological alexia, 219, 227–28, 233 [link] –36t
Phonological anomia, 129–30
Phonological dysgraphia, 245, 254–55, 256f
Phonological skills, in surface dysgraphia, 246–47
Phonology, 242f, 257
Phrenology, 11–12
Pick, Arnold, 13, 22
Picture naming, 77, 78t, 180
Planning, phonological, 78–80, 84–85
Plasticity. See Neuroplasticity
Porch Index of Communicative Ability (PICA), 26–28, 167
Positional processing, grammatical, 150, 154–55
Positron emission tomography (PET), 55, 152, 221, 294
Postlexical explanation, for speech production deficit, 84, 86
Postmodern era, of aphasia assessment, 28
Potter, M. C., 102, 103f
Practice parameters, for aphasia assessment, 37
Pragmatics, 263–64, 274
Prefrontal cortex (PFC), 109
Prevalence, of Broca’s aphasia, 146
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), 6–7, 22–23, 128 (p. 332)
Primary progressive nonfluent aphasia (PPNA), 22
Process
in semantic memory, 101–4
in TCSA, 101–2
Production-based monitoring, 52
Promoting Aphasics’ Communicative Effectiveness (PACE), 68
Prosodic expression, 281–82
Prosodic processing, 279–80
Prosody, 277–80. See also Aprosodia
Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA), 31, 62, 130, 152, 222, 250
Psychosocial models, of aphasia assessment, 40–41
Pure alexia, 217, 246
Pure anomia. See Anomia
Pure word deafness, 16, 58–59
Pyramids and Palm Trees Test (PPTT), 250
Q
Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS), 39
Quality of Communication Life Scale (QCL), 34
Quality of life (QOL), 34–36
Quantitative Production Analysis (QPA), 180, 250
R
Reading, 172. See also Alexia; Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test; Gray Oral Reading Test; Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery
Broca’s, Wernicke’s area in, 222
in conduction aphasia, 80
connectionist models of, 216–17, 228f
dual-route models of, 215–16, 219, 227f
lesion in, 221–22
neuroanatomical correlates of, 221–22
Reading Comprehension Battery for Aphasia,2nd Edition (RCBA), 222
Recognition, 56–57, 63–64, 68
Recovery. See Aphasia recovery
Reflex arc, 193, 196
Regions-of-interest (ROI), 298, 301
Regularity effect, 246
Rehabilitation. See also Treatment
age in, 314–15
in aphasia treatment, 310–15
CILT in, 311–13
feedback in, 316–17
generalization, transference in, 315
interference in, 315
motivation, salience in, 314
repetition in, 312–13
of sentence level processing, 299–300
sufficient abilities in, 316
timing, of intervention in, 313–14
training in, 312, 316–17
Relative clause, 13–14
Relearning, optimizing, 309–15
Reperfusion, 53–54
Repetition
abilities, 4, 18–20, 50, 76, 79–81
intensity in, 312–13
multiple-word, sentence, 79–81
priming effect, 89
in rehabilitation, 312–13
spared, 198–99
in SRT, 156
Repetitive TMS (rTMS), 168, 301–3, 317
Representation
of knowledge, 99
semantic, 128
in sentence, 147
Reproduction, 81
Response times (RTs), 270
Restitutive approaches
to auditory comprehension, 65–67
to verbal expression, 67–68
Revised Token Test, 31
Right hemisphere
communication, 7–8
language processing, in aphasia, 123–25
Right hemisphere damage (RHD), 6–7, 264, 274
in aprosodia, 278–79, 282–83
in comprehension, 269–71
conceptual frameworks for, 273
in conversational discourse, 265–66
in discourse, 265–69
LHD and, 267–69
in narrative discourse, 266–69
in social cognition, 271–73
rTMS. See Repetitive TMS
S
Salience, in rehabilitation, 314
Scholes, Heilman, 13
Screening tests, for aphasia assessment, 29–30, 30t
Self-monitoring, impaired, 52–53
Semantic. See also Distributed semantic memory model; Lexical-semantic treatment, for written language impairment
access, from spoken words, 64
anomia, 121, 125, 127–29
assessment, of written language, 250
control, 102
paraphasias, 15, 127
representations, 128
system, 217–19
treatment, of anomia, 132–33
Semantic-conceptual networks, 18–19
Semantic feature analysis (SFA), 67–68, 133
Semantic impairment
in surface dysgraphia, 247
in TCSA, 109–14, 111t
Semantic memory, 98
distributed model of, 99–100, 99f
Hub & Spoke Model of, 101, 109
hybrid model of, 104–5
process in, 101–4
in Wernicke’s aphasia, 61–63
Semantics, 242f, 257
Semantic short-term memory (STM), 101–2, 102f, 104–5, 113
Sentence, 147
deficit, 148–49
processing, impaired, 61
repetition, 79–81
Sentence level processing, rehabilitation of, 299–300
Sentence Production Program for Aphasia, 155
Serial Tests, 26
Social cognition, 264–65, 271–74
Social communication, 64–65
Social support, for aphasia, 319
Spared repetition, 198–99
Specificity, in training, 312
Speech monitoring theories, 52–53
Speech production, neurolinguistic characteristics during, 212–14
Speech production deficit, in conduction aphasia, 84–87
Speech repetition therapy (SRT), 156
Spelling, 249t
Spoken language comprehension, 79–80
Spoken language production, 77–79
Spoken words, semantic access from, 64
Spontaneous speech, 21, 38–39
Standardized tests, 26–28, 152
Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD), 39
Strokes, 30, 34
in anomia, 122
in aphasia, 293–96, 307–8
BA after, 125
STC and, 55
Wernicke’s aphasia and, 49–50, 53
Stroop color-word test, 52, 59
Subcortical aphasia, 6
Substitutive approaches
to auditory comprehension, 67
to verbal expression, 68
(p. 333)
Superior temporal cortex (STC), 55
Superior temporal lobe (STL), 297
Supplementary motor area (SMA), 171–77, 175f
Supported naming practice, 89
Supramodal, 100
Surface alexia, 218–19, 229 [link] –32t
Surface dysgraphia, 246–47, 255–56, 257f
Syndrome
acquired dysgraphia as, 243–47
anomia as, 121–22
anomic aphasia as, 20
Broca’s aphasia as, 14
conduction aphasia as, 16–17, 76–81, 92
deep aphasia as, 19–20
disconnection, 106
global aphasia as, 17
LPPA as, 22
MTA as, 19, 187–88, 193–95
optic aphasia as, 21
PPNA as, 22
pure word deafness as, 16
semantic dementia as, 22
TCMA, 18, 171–73
TCSA as, 17–18, 21
WAB-R for, 28–29, 38
Wernicke’s aphasia as, 15, 49–53
Syntax, 13–14
T
Telegraphic speech, 13
Telehealth, 41
Temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 100, 108, 108f, 112
Tests, for grammatical targets, 152–53
Theory of Mind (ToM), 264–65, 272
Therapy. See also Group therapy
for anomia, 134–35
functional network reorganization and, 300–301
Time-to-peak (TTP), 300
Timing, of intervention, 313–14
Token Test, 29, 66–67
Total aphasia, 161. See also Global aphasia
Trace deletion theory, of sentence deficit, 148–49
Trace model, 56
Tractography, 54
Traditional Aphasia Classification Scheme, 5t
Training, 312, 316–17
Transcortical aphasias, 4
Transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA)
assessment of, 179–80, 179t
auditory comprehension abilities in, 172
BA in, 174–77
Broca’s area in, 174–75, 175f, 178
cognitive neuropsychology of, 176–78
fluency in, 182
fMRI and, 177
lesions in, 173–76
neuroanatomical correlates of, 173–76
pathophysiology of, 18–19
as syndrome, 18, 171–73
treatment of, 180–83
writing in, 172
Transcortical sensory aphasia (TCSA), 5
clinical criteria for, 107
history of, 105–6
lesion in, 100, 106–9
linguistic access in, 97–98
naming and, 21, 109
process in, 101–2
semantic impairment in, 109–14, 111t
as syndrome, 17–18, 21
Wernicke’s aphasia and, 107
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 167–68, 301–2, 317
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 167–68, 317
Transference, 315
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), 285
Treatment. See also Aphasia recovery; Aphasia treatment; Verb network strengthening treatments
of acquired dysgraphia, 253–57
adjunct approaches to, 301–3
of anomia, 131–39
of aprosodia, 284–87, 286f
biological approaches to, 167–68
for chronic aphasia, 297–301
of conduction aphasia, 89–91
of global aphasia, 166–68
of grammatical processing, 153–56
of impaired auditory comprehension, 65–67
of impaired verbal expression, 67–68
of MTA, 202–4
neuroplasticity and, 301
of TCMA, 180–83
of verbal expression, 180–82
of Wernicke’s aphasia, 62t, 65–68
of written language impairment, 250–53, 251t, 252t, 254t
Treatment of underlying forms (TUF), 154
TTP. See Time-to-peak
Tulving, Endel, 98
U
Unilateral upper motor neuron (UUMN) dysarthrias, 282
V
Verbal
akinesia, 14
perseveration, 199
short-term memory, 87
working memory, 60–61
Verbal expression, 4
deficits, 60, 67–68
impaired, treating, 67–68, 180–82
Verb and Sentence Test (VAST), 152
Verb network strengthening treatments (VNeST), 154
VisiPitch IV, 286–87
Visual
alexia, 218
feature analysis, 215
processing, 62
Visual Action Therapy (VAT), 166
Visual word form area (VWFA), 221, 243
Voit, Johann, 128–29
Voluntary speech, 166
Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis (VLSM), 54
W
Warrington, Elizabeth, 100–101
Weisenberg, Theodore, 26–27
Wernicke, Carl, 16–17, 49, 99, 193
Der Aphasiche Symptomcomplex: Eine Psychologische Studie auf Anatomischer Basis by, 105
Der Aphasische Symptomencomplex by, 15
on conduction aphasia, 75–76
Wernicke-Kussmaul-Lichtheim schema, 18–21, 19f
Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model, 106f
Wernicke’s aphasia, 69, 85
anosognosia and, 51
assessment of, 61–65, 62t
auditory perception in, 64
auditory word recognition in, 63–64
background of, 14
(p. 334)
cognitive deficits and, 51–53
cognitive model for, 57–58, 58f
cognitive neuropsychology of, 56–61
comprehension in, 56, 58–60
conduction aphasia and, 76–77, 88–89
expression, across tasks in, 64
fMRI on, 55–56
frequency of, 146
functional, social communication in, 64–65
impaired attention and, 51–52
impaired auditory comprehension in, 58–60
impaired sentence processing in, 61
lesion in, 14–17
neuroanatomical correlates of, 53–56
pathophysiology of, 18–19
perception, recognition and, 56–57
semantic access, from spoken words in, 64
semantic memory in, 61–63
strokes and, 49–50, 53
as syndrome, 15, 49–53
TCSA and, 107
treatment of, 62t, 65–68
verbal expression deficits in, 60, 67–68
verbal working memory in, 60–61
Wernicke’s arc, 20, 22
Wernicke’s area, 16–21
arcuate fasciculus and, 54, 76, 81–82
fMRI of, 55
hypoperfusion of, 53–54
language and, 53–56
lesion in, 49–50, 83
naming and, 54–55
in reading, 222
white matter fibers in, 85f
Wernicke’s schema, 15f, 17
Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R), 193, 250
for anomia, 130
on conduction aphasia, 76, 88
for dysgraphia, 254–56
for grammatical processing, 152
for syndrome classification, 28–29, 38
White matter fibers, 83, 85f
Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery (WJ-III DRB), 223
Word deafness, 21, 140n2
Word processing, Interactive activation model of, 102, 103f
Word recognition, auditory, 63–64, 68
Word retrieval abilities, 4–5
Working memory theory, 149
Writing
in conduction aphasia, 80
with nondominant hand, 248
peripheral impairments of, 253
in TCMA, 172
Written language, 68
assessment of, 248–50, 249t
cognitive processes of, 242–43, 242f
impairment, treating, 250–53, 251t, 252t, 254t