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date: 20 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Acquired dysgraphia refers to disorders of spelling or writing due to neurological damage in individuals with normal premorbid literacy skills. Dysgraphia can result from the disruption of central cognitive processes that also support spoken language and reading, so that spelling impairments frequently co-occur with aphasia and acquired alexia. The ability to produce written words can also be affected by damage to peripheral processes necessary to plan and execute the appropriate hand movements for letter generation or typing. In this chapter, we review the cognitive processes that support spelling and writing, and the characteristic dysgraphia syndromes that reflect differential impairment to specific central and peripheral components. We also review assessment procedures for writing and spelling that are structured to clarify the status of component processes and to guide rehabilitation planning. Treatment procedures and sequences are described with a focus on lexical-semantic, phonological, and interactive treatments. The nature and treatment of dysgraphia are illustrated by case examples of global dysgraphia, phonological dysgraphia, and surface dysgraphia.

Keywords: agraphia, dysgraphia, writing, spelling, writing disorders, spelling disorders, phonological agraphia, surface agraphia

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