Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 12 December 2019

(p. 703) Index

(p. 703) Index

A
Abecedarian Project, 480.230, 324, 325, 364, 514
Aber, J. L., 426, 444
absolute vs. relative poverty, cultural variations, 660
Accelerated Schools (CSR program), 379
Ackerman, S. H., 62
Adam, E., 463
Adaptive Calibration Model, of stress responsivity, 234
Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory (ASBI) Express, 272
Adi-Japha, E., 330
Administration for Children and Families (ACF), 89, 93
Administration for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ), 95
Administration for Native Americans Language Preservation and Maintenance Program, 483
adolescent parenting, 3, 159
antisocial parents, influence of, 150
birth rate trends, 56, 160–161
children of adolescent parents
behavioral outcomes, 175–176
characteristics, 174
cognitive, language outcomes, 5, 162, 174–175
socioemotional outcomes, 162, 175
fathers, influence of involvement, 60, 153
future research directions, 176–177
Latino mothers/children, 163
mothers parenting behaviors, 162–164
Belsky/factors for at-risk mothers, 163
1991–2009 birth rates, 160–161
outcomes of neglect, 71–72
parent-child relationship, context of embedding
grandmother's involvement, 169–172
other socialization agents, 173–174
role of partner's involvement, 172–173
social support resources, 169
socioeconomic background, 168
stressors influencing young parents, 169
parents, related factors
cognitive characteristics, 165
cultural beliefs, ethnic background, 165–168
developmental stage, 164
psychological adjustment, 164–165
adolescents. See also adolescent parenting; African American youth; economic hardship, generational consequences; European American youth; Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health; National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being
birth rates (U.S.), 159
blood pressure/life course pattern of SES, 14
depression/childhood neighborhood poverty, 80
first generation hardships/personality traits, 2
food insecurity issues, 133
foster care programs research, 91
obesity prevalence study, 128
physical abuse and school outcomes, 75
13–19 year olds, economic circumstances
mRNA for TLR4 analysis, 21
RNA comparisons, 20
vs. early childhood vs. adults, for SES vulnerability, 27
adopted children, 3. See also foster care; National Survey of Adoptive Parents
abandonment/trafficking of children, 201
“best interests of the child” (defined), 200
fathering and, 152
inclusion in governmental poverty measures, 57
international adoptions, 201
current policy, 211–213
economic outcomes, 213
health outcomes, 213–214
historical background, 210–211
post-adoption relationship with biological parents, 214–215
U.S. rates and policies, 211
mechanics of adoption, U.S. data, 200–201
mothers giving children up, 201
policy/research needs, future directions
business of adoption vs. best interests of child, 216
improved connections between policy and evidence-based best practices, 217
prevention primacy vs. remediation, 216–217
“private adoptions” (described), 200
private agencies and intermediary adoptions (U.S.)
current policies, 208
historical background, 207–208
outcomes/responses of children, 208–210
post-adoption relationship with biological parents, 210
public child welfare system
current policies, 204–205
historical background, 203
kinship care arrangements, 206–207
outcomes/responses of children, 205–206
placement of children, 203–204
post-adoption contact, adoptive and birth families, 202, 206
race and poverty issues, 201–202, 215–216
related federal laws, 202, 203
(p. 704) Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA, 1997), 204, 205, 206
Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (AACWA, 1980), 204
adult biological mechanisms and childhood SES, 20–23
allostatic load, 22–23
HPA axis, 20–21
inflammation, immune responses, 21–22
metabolic processes, 22
sympathetic nervous system, 20
adult literacy rates, cultural variations, 660
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, 234
adversity (concentrated adversity), psychosocial/developmental consequences, 8
African Charter on the Rights of the Child protections, 630
Bronfenbrenner's “ecological model of human development” (contributions to understanding), 626–628
consequences of/advocacy for victims, 635–636
disease/mental health, global burden of, 628–630
examples
HIV/AIDS-affect children and families in Rwanda, 633–635
war affected youth in Sierra Leone study, 631–633
future research directions, 636–637
low resource settings
armed conflict affected regions, 624–625
HIV/AIDS affected regions, 624, 627
structural violence form of, 606, 610, 641
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child policy frameworks, 630–631
UN Social Determinants of Health report information, 635
adversity and humanitarian crises. See humanitarian crises in low resource settings
AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), 74–75, 75, 472
Affordable Care Act (2010), 96
Afghanistan distress examples
displacement/forced “brideprice” marriage, 642
stepping on landmines, losing limbs, 643
African American adolescent mothers
in multigenerational households, 163
parenting behaviors/influence of depression, 165
African American families. See also Strong African American Families (SAAF) program
adoption data, U.S., 201
effects of child care on cognitive outcomes, 331
homelessness data, 471
impoverished conditions, conduct issues, 416
rural poverty data, 451, 452–453
African American fathers
fathering/relationship of income and accessibility, 150
hypermasculine image, 149
positive impact on children, 173
African American mothers
adolescent mothers and depression, 165
anxiety indicators, 132
chaos assessment, 458
depression indicators, 131
grandmothers, negative impact of, 169
non-standard work schedules, 264
psychiatric disorders/low-income, single mothers, 131
African American youth. See also rural African American youth interventions
Baltimore study/concentrated disadvantage, residential instability, crime, 436
CHAOS scale measurements, 461
childhood SES/parental occupation, 16
child-neglect study, 77
conduct issues/after-school monitoring and supervision, 411–412
Denver/family reassignment study, 437
disproportionate poverty rates, 58
family structure data, 56–57
foster care data, 94
Head Start program participation, 90
income/test score relationship, 441
influence of parent education, 288
NAEP scores, 377
neighborhood effects on academic achievement study, 436
Perry Preschool program study, 363–364
physical health indicators, lower ranking, 341
SES-cholesterol level association, 16
TV viewing data, 134
vagal tone study, 106
African Charter on the Rights of the Child, 630
Aftercare and School Observation System (ASOS), 418
Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) social welfare program, 204, 280
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, 204, 281
Aikens, N. L., 428–435
Ainsworth, M.D.S., 2, 435
alcohol
abuse issues, 89
exposure in utero, 109
use prevention needs, by African American youth, 554–555
Alexander, K. L., 344
Alkon, A., 4, 695
Allen, R. E., 75
allostatic load (AL)
adult biological mechanisms, 19
and childhood SES, 22–23
childhood biological mechanisms, 16–17
defined, 110, 231–232
mediating role of, 235
physiological focus of, 14
American Community Survey, 445, 481
American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Research Center, 98
American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) children, 481–487
AI-SUPERPFP data, 484
American Community Survey data, 481
early childhood interventions
need for cultural appropriateness, 485–486
research agenda for, 486–487
ECLS-K study data, 483
economic inequalities, 482
education experiences, 482–483
impact of history on, 485, 487
ITSEA data, 484
mental health, substance abuse issues, 483–484
Mullen Scales of Early Learning data, 483
obesity, chronic disease, self-care issues, 484–485
population description, 481
American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Research Center, 486
American Indian Service Utilization Risk and Protective Factor, Psychiatric Survey (AI-SUPERPFP), 484
American Obesity Association (AOA), 272
Ammaniti, M., 134
Anderson-Fye, E., 617
Andreias, L., 435
Andrews, David, 549
Annals (2009 issue) (Academy of Political Science), 58
Annual Homelessness Assessment Report (2009), 468, 470, 471
Armecin, G., 531
assessment measures and tools
Bayley Mental Development Index, 249
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, 189
Beck Anxiety Inventory, 130
Beck Depression Inventory II, 130
chaos assessment, African American mothers, 458
(p. 705) childhood family poverty, 77–78
childhood neighborhood poverty, 78
child neglect, long-term consequences, 77
Classroom Assessment Scoring System, 349, 363
cognitive development of children, 189, 248
crime assessment tools, 77
depression, 130
Extra Steps Study, home assessment, 417
Gaza strip, assessment methodology, 648
for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 130
health/early education connections, 347–350
immigrant children, cognitive development and math skills, 189
Infant and Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, 484
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 436
maternal anxiety, 130
NAEP scores, 374, 377, 482
Nepal, male allostatic load, 16
non-standard work schedules and child well-being, 263–264
parents in cultural, national context, 671–672
Peabody reading and vocabulary tests, 248, 273
Quick Test (for IQ measurement), 77
reading assessments, 77
social competence assessment, 42
asthma, childhood SES correlation, 15
Atención a Crisis conditional cash transfer program (Nicaragua). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Atlas on Child and Mental Health Resources (WHO), 680
attachment security meta-analysis, adopted vs. foster care children, 209–210
autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, 223–238. See also biological mechanisms; brain function measures, low/middle SES children
ANS stability
challenge measures, 230
defined, 229
reactivity measures, 230
resting measures, 229–230
associated theory, 232–233
Adaptive Calibration Model, 234
biological embedding model, 23–24, 25–26, 232–233
Biological Sensitivity to Context model, 233–234, 236
childhood adversity/physiologic stress responses, 231–232
allostatic load contributions, 231–232
ANS dysregulation, 231, 234–235
HPA response, 231, 232
“positive stress” experience, 231
“tolerable stress” experience, 231
“toxic stress” experience, 231
future research directions, 237
health issues
ANS dysregulation, 231, 234–235
mediation by the ANS, 235
moderation by the ANS, 235–237
poverty-related stressors, 234
historical background (studies), 227–228
influence of poverty/stressors, 224–225
overview of ANS
parasympathetic nervous system, 225–226
PNS-SNS coordination, 226
regulation of target organs, 226
sympathetic nervous system (SNS), 226
and poverty/effortful control, 501
resting, challenge and, 228–229
Avison, W. R., 310
avoidant personality disorder, 72
B
“Baby's First Wish” parenting newsletter (PCI approach), 524
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., 209
Barbarin, O., 428–435
Barker Hypothesis (of biological/physiological mechanisms of poverty effects), 343, 344
Barnett, M. A., 106, 171
Barth, R. P., 216
Bassok, D.
Bassuk, E. L., 472
Bauer, A., 234
Baughcum, A., 135
Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI), 249
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID-II), 189, 323
Beardslee, W. R., 8
Beavis, A., 15
Beck Anxiety Inventory, 130
Beck Depression Inventory II, 130
Becker, G. S., 38, 266
behavior problems/mental health referrals, adopted vs. nonadopted children, 210
Behavior Rating Scale of the Bayley, 484
Bellevue Project for Early Language, Literacy, and Educational Success (BELLE Project) interventions (PCI approach), 528–529
Belsky, J., 127, 163. See also adolescent parenting
Benson, J., 435, 443
Berends, M., 377
Berger, L., 248, 250
Berger, Lawrence, 298
Bernstein, V. J., 72
Berntson, G., 227
Best Evidence Encyclopedia, 375
Betancourt, L., 8, 630–631, 682, 685
Bianchi, S. M., 266
Biblarz, T. J., 60
bio-ecological model of development (Bronfenbrenner). See ecological model of family (Bronfenbrenner)
biological embedding models (of childhood SES)
accumulative life course model comparison, 25–26
defined/described, 232–233
and life course morbidity, 23–24
biological mechanisms, 2
during adulthood, 17–20
allostatic load, 19
HPA axis, 18
inflammation, immune responses, 19
metabolic processes, 19
sympathetic nervous system, 17–18
during childhood, 14–17
allostatic load, 16–17
HPA axis, 15
inflammation, immune responses, 15
metabolic processes, 15–16
sympathetic nervous system, 14–15
Biological Sensitivity to Context (BSC) theory, 233–234, 236
“biology of adversity” research, 231
Black Belt region (Georgia). See rural African American youth interventions
Blandon, A., 235
Blau, D., 38
blood pressure
ANS reactivity measures, 227
SES correlates
adulthood reemergence, 14
childhood/pre-puberty, 15, 17
Body Mass Index (BMI) of children
childhood SES correlation, 15
FFCWS study data, 272
maternal depression/children's health, 134
maternal nonstandard work possible association, 267–268, 271
Bolsa Alimentação conditional cash transfer program (Brazil). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Bolsa Familia (BF) conditional cash transfer program (Brazil). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
(p. 706) Bonazzo, Claude, 5
Booker, T. K., 379
borderline personality disorder, 72
Borkowski, J. G., 163
Borman, G. D., 379, 443
Bowen, N. K., 435–436
Bowen, W. B., 435–436
Bowlby, J., 2
Bowles, S., 46
Bowman, S., 435
Boyce, L., 605
Boyce, W. T., 233, 234, 237, 398
Brace, Charles Loring, 203
Bracken School Readiness Scale, 249
Bracy, M. P., 250
Bradley, R. H., 327, 662
Bradshaw, J., 614
brain function measures, low/middle SES children, 313–315
attentional differences study, 314
brain-behavior modulation, 6–9 year olds, 314
Mexican preschool children study, 313
phonological processing of language, 5 year olds, 314
3–8 year olds/maternal education influence, 314
Brandtstadter, J., 18
Brazil, cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
breastfeeding
cognitive development/positive association, 255
influence on child's health, 129
maternal depression and, 133, 136
maternal employment leave-taking and, 298
WHO study, 135
Brennan, R. B., 134
Brief Symptom Index, 130
Bright, C. L., 74–75
Britton, A., 131
Brody, G., 7, 694
Bronte-Tinkew, J., 132
Brookline Early Educational Project (BEEP), 327, 328
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, 4, 5, 62, 248, 253, 298, 327, 426, 435, 438, 439, 452, 697
Brown, E. D., 456–458
Brown, J., 57, 72
Brown, Susan, 2
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 377
Bryant, D. M., 329, 332
Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), 214
Building Blocks intervention (PCI approach), 529
Building Strong Families project (2010), 92
Buiteraar, J. K., 393
bullying behaviors, 409, 411, 614, 619
Burchinal, M. R., 324, 327, 329, 331–332
Bureau of Indian Education schools (U.S. Department of Education), 483
Byrd, C. M., 436
C
Cacioppo, John, 227
California First Five Association, 545
Calkins, S. D., 113
Campbell Collaboration, 95, 375
Canada
blood pressure-SES studies, 17
child care-mothers employment status-language development study, 330
child development-child leave expansions study, 298–299
children with shift-worker parents study, 271
health vulnerability-neighborhood SES characteristics study, 605
Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect, 71
public assistance-school achievement study, 282
Canadian Self-Sufficiency Project, 286
Capaldi, D. M., 154
cardiovascular system dynamics. See also vagal tone development
adults from childhood SES background, 20
Finnish men mortality study, 26
low SES correlation, 18, 19, 25
stressor exposure influence, 15, 19
Care and Protection of Children in Crisis-Affected Countries (CPC) Learning Network, 688
CARE early educational intervention project, 328
Care for Development, primary care-based PCI approach, 529–530
CARES (Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social skill promotion) study, 97
Carlson, K., 60
Casey, D. M., 132
Casey, P. H., 327
cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Caughy, M. O., 328, 436
causative theory (Chen), 554
Center for Epidemiological Study Depression Scale (CES-D), 130
Center for Family Research (University of Georgia), 555
Chafee Foster Care Independence Act (1999), 91
chaos and rural poverty, in early development, 450–463. See also Family Life Project (FLP); rural African American youth interventions
availability, accessibility of services
child care data, 454–455
transportation issues, 454
child development outcomes
early language development, 459–461
social and behavioral adjustment, 461–462
disorganization component, 452, 460, 461, 462
future research directions, 463
instability component, 452, 460
measuring chaos
in the Family Life Project, 459
in previous literature, 456–459
neighborhood conditions, 452–453
parental work challenges, 453–454
poverty and child outcomes, 452
rural, defined, 451
rural poverty, described, 451–452
social support networks, 455–456
unpredictability component, 452, 460, 461
CHAOS (Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale) scale, 456, 459, 461
Chaotic Home Systems measurement, 458
Chaotic Living Conditions (caregiver-rated cumulative index of residential noise), 456–458
Charnov, Eric L., 148
Chase-Lansdale, P. L., 171, 328
Chavous, T. M., 436
Chen, E., 15, 20, 21
Chen, H. T., 554
Chicago School Readiness project (2009), 94
Chicago Youth Development Study (CYDS), 148, 149, 151
chid care and early education, choices and consequences, 5, 356–370
ECE programs
defining/measuring quality, 361–363
definition, 357–358
model programs, 363–364
trends in program participation, 358–359
ECE programs, publicly funded options, 359–361
child care subsidies, 360–361, 367–368
Head Start, 359–360, 364–366
(p. 707) public pre-kindergarten, 360, 366–367
future research directions, 368–370
low-income and early childhood development, 357
Chien, N. C., 167
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), 70
Child Behavior Checklist/Teacher Report Form system, 418
child care. See also child care and early education, choices and consequences; child care quality and family factors, influence on cognitive development
parental employment issues, 254
rural poverty issues, 454–455
work-family policies and child well-being
child care, 302–304
employer assistance, 303
Head Start random assignment studies, 302
Hispanic/immigrant children vs. White and African American children, 303
Norwegian research data, 302
OECD country model, 303
U.S. reliance on private market care, 302–303
U.S./Canada child care subsidy studies, 302
Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), 361
child care quality and family factors, influence on cognitive development, 5, 288–289
African American families, 331
child care
Canadian program attendance/vocabulary development study, 329
Cost, Quality and Outcomes Study (2001), 329, 332
naturalistic studies of quality, 323–324
racial factors, 331–332
2005 U.S. data (children under five), 321, 323
types of, 323
child care experience moderates the effects of family factors (hypothesis)
evidence against, 330–331
child care-family factors, contrasts/comparisons
center care vs. family day care homes or relative care, 324
effect size variability, 325
family income level, 324
NICHD SECC data, 325
Child Development Block Grant program (CDBG), 288
Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (2002), 438, 441, 443
ChildFund organization, 663
Child Health and Mental Health Initiative (CHNRI), 687–688
childhood SES
and adult biological mechanisms, 20–23
allostatic load, 22–23
HPA axis, 20–21
inflammation, immune responses, 21–22
metabolic processes, 22
sympathetic nervous system, 20
life course durability and morbidity, 23–26
accumulation/epidemiological approach, 24–25
biological embedding models, 23–24
comparison of models, 25–26
child neglect, long-term consequences, 2, 69–83
definition, 70
importance of early prevention, 69–70
incidence of (national, state statistics), 70–71
outcomes of neglect
for neglected children and adolescents, 71–72
for neglected children as adults, 72–73
overlap with poverty, 71
research directions and challenges, 81–83
studies of poverty, academic performance, neglect
auditory comprehension, verbal ability, 75
demographic control variables, 75
math, reading, language ability, 75
North Carolina study, 75
school absenteeism, 75
welfare receipt control variables, 75
studies of poverty, child maltreatment, neglect
boys and girls with AFDC/TANF, 74–75
delinquency outcomes/pre-age 12 up to 24 years, 75
maltreatment/neighborhood conditions, 75
15 year olds/maltreatment and delinquency, 74
studies of poverty, mental health outcomes, neglect
internalizing/externalizing scale differences, 76
social advantage link with aggressive/antisocial behavior mediated by neglectful parenting, 76
study of childhood neglect, childhood family poverty, neighborhood poverty, 76–81
academic achievement composite assessment, 77
academic achievement predictability determination, 80
childhood family poverty assessment, 77–78
childhood neighborhood poverty assessment, 78
crime assessment tools, 77
crime predictability determination, 80
design, background data, 76–77
interpretation of findings, 80–81
MDD predictability determination, 80
outcome assessment tools, 77
PTSD predictability determination, 79–80
Child Protective Services (CPS), 70, 81
children of adolescent parents
behavioral outcomes, 175–176
characteristics, 174
cognitive/language outcomes, 174–175
socioemotional outcomes, 175
Children of the NLSY (longitudinal study, 1986), 89
Children's Aid Society, 203
China Health and Nutrition Survey, 615
cholesterol levels. See also metabolic syndrome
SES association, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25
Christopher, M., 611
Chryssanthopoulou, C. C., 397
Clampet-Lundquist, S., 442
Clark, R., 3
Clark, Rebecca, 699
Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) data, 349, 363
class size reduction strategy, for reducing educational inequality, 378–379
Clifford, R., 332
Clinical Psychology Task Force, 375
cocaine use, and prenatal vagal tone development, 109
Cochrane Collaboration, 95
cognition, neural basis of, 4, 309–318
brain function measures, low/middle SES children, 313–315
attentional differences study, 314
brain-behavior modulation, 6–9 year olds, 314
Mexican preschool children study, 313
phonological processing of language, 5 year olds, 314
3–8 year olds/maternal education influence, 314
cognitive neuroscience insights, 310–312
brain development, 311
(p. 708) neurocognitive modularity, 311
neurocognitive systems, 312–313
anterior cingulate/cognitive control, 313
lateral prefrontal/working memory, 312, 313
left perisylvian/language, 312, 313
medial temporal/memory, 312, 313
occipitotemporal/visual, 312
parietal/spatial cognition, 312
prefrontal/executive, 312
ventromedial prefrontal/reward processing, 313
SES-caused cognitive disparities
imaging/neuroendocrine studies, 316–317
neuroscience insights, 315
single system studies, converging results, 313
stress and parenting influences analytic tools
Environmental Stimulation composite, 316
HOME Inventory, 315
Parental Nurturance composite, 315
Trier Social Stress Test, 317
WAIS-R, 316
cognitive development of children. See also child care quality and family factors, influence on cognitive development; ecological model of family (Bronfenbrenner); family factors and childcare quality, influence on cognitive development; health, early education and poverty
academic disadvantages for poor children, 341
assessment measures, 189, 248
breast feeding, positive association, 255
child care factors, 288–289
children of immigrant families, 185–196
early parental employment factors, 4
economic connection, 37
home learning environment influence, 59
immigrant children, early math skills
analytic plan, 190
descriptive results of plan, 190–192
independent variables, 189–190
measures of cognitive development, 189
multivariate analyses of results, 192–194
low-birth weight influence, 71
low SES association
home-based cognitive stimulation limitations, 310
IQ-academic achievement variance, 309–310
parental stress influence, 310
social causation/social selection issues, 310
maternal mental health factor, 132
NLSY data/early parental employment, 248–250
paternal behavior's influence, 155
paternal employment factors, 249, 249–250
Cohen, David, 700
Cohen, P., 72
Cohen, S., 7, 22
Coleman, J. S., 266
Coley, R. L., 415
Colombia, conditional cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Commission for the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) (WHO), 605, 628
Community Education Services. See Sesame Workshop Educational Outreach
community participatory research (American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Research Center), 98
Composite Diagnostic Interview (CDI), 130
Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI—SF), 273
Comprehensive Child Development Program, 514
comprehensive school reform, for reducing educational inequality, 379–380
Comprehensive School Reform Quality Center, 375
conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs, 7–8, 286–287
criticism of, 571
described, 570
design of program
health services supply, 573
size/structure of cash transfer, 572–573
targeting, 573–574
theoretical framework, assumptions, 571–572
direct effects on children
birth weight, 574
cognitive, language, behavior outcomes, 587–588
perinatal, neonatal, infant mortality, 574–586
direct effects on children; anthropometric measures
height, height-for-age, 586
weight, 586–587
direct effects on children: measures of health
hemoglobin, 587
illness or morbidity, 587
indirect effects on children
food consumption, 597
growth monitoring for children, 588–596
micronutrient supplementation, treatment for parasites, 596
prenatal care, 588
presence of skilled attendant at birth, 588
vaccinations, 596
search strategy, 574
unconditional cash transfer programs vs., 573
welfare programs compared with, 571
conduct problems, extra-familial contexts, 5, 406–422. See also ecological model of family (Bronfenbrenner); Extra Steps Study
after-school contexts
informal adult care, 410–411
parent-care, 411
self-care, 411
structured settings, 410
after-school quality contexts
monitoring and supervision, 411–412
relationships with adults, peers, 412
bullying behaviors, 409, 411, 614, 619
future research directions
need for developmental analyses, 421
risk/protective factors identification, 421
understanding parental involvement role, 421
interactive models
gender and ethnicity, 416
multiple context studies, 415
parental involvement, 415–416
neighborhood quality contexts, 412–414
community-level monitoring, 413–414
social relationships, 414
structural features, 413
school/school quality contexts
monitoring and supervision, 409
school-based relationships, 409
structural/organization features, 408–409
successful home-school transitions influences, 407
transitional risk factors for “early starters,” 407
vulnerability factors, 407
The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 662
(p. 709) Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS), 456
Conger, K. J., 40
Conger, R. D., 2, 40, 127, 138
Consolidated Appropriations Act (2010), 96
Context of Stress model (McLoyd), 498, 504
Contreras, J. M., 163
conventional peers measures (Family Transitions Project), 41
Cook, T. D., 436–437
Cooney, Joan Ganz, 540
Corbie-Smith, G., 555
Core Knowledge (CSR program), 379
Corwyn, R. F., 662
Cost, Quality and Outcomes Study (2001), 329, 332
Croll, E., 617
Crosby, D. A., 282
Crosnoe, Robert, 5, 329, 694, 695
Cryer, D., 331–332
Cudaback, D. J., 526
Culp, A. M., 329
Culp, R. E., 71, 329
Current Population Survey (CPS)
early and education programs data, 359
nonstandard employment data, 262, 263
Currie, J., 72, 366
D
Daelmans, B., 671
D'Anguilli, A., 314
Daniel, S. S., 253
Davey-Smith, G., 22
Deater-Deckard, K., 456
De Bellis, M. D., 71
De Coster, S., 74
de Mello, M. C., 671
Deming, D., 366
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse (WHO), 687
depression. See also maternal mental health issues; maternal psychological distress
adolescents/neighborhood poverty, 80
adolescents vs. adult mothers, 164
assessment tools, 130
indicators for African American mothers, 131
indicators for Hispanic mothers, 131
male vs. female rates, 130
maternal, and BMI, 134
of parents and negative child outcomes, 252–253
role strain theory, 253
symptoms of Head Start mothers, 130
white vs. African American mothers, 131
Derzon, J., 150
Desai, S., 328
developmental psychological perspective, on nonstandard work and child development, 265–266
development quotient (DQxii), PCI approaches and, 518, 519–520, 521
de Weerth, C., 393
Diagnostic Interview Schedule-Revised (DIS-III-R) (NIMH), 77
Dietz, R., 426
DiPietro, J. A., 328
Direct Instruction model, for improvement in school test scores, 379
distress (everyday distress), in humanitarian settings, 8, 641–653. See also humanitarian crises in low resource settings
Afghanistan examples
displacement, forced “brideprice” marriage, 642
stepping on landmines, losing limbs, 643
ecological model of family understanding of, 643
every day distress
community levels, 645–646
coping and resilience, 647
family levels, 8, 231, 407, 611, 644–645
individual levels, 642–643
rape and sexual violence, 642, 645
relational nature of, 642–643
societal levels, 646–647
future research directions, 652–653
Gaza strip example: effects of military operations, blockade, 647–652
assessment methodology, 648
background information, 647–648
economic distress, 649–651
educational resilience, 652
employment concerns, 650–651
hopelessness, 651–652
psychosocial distress, 648–649
Sierra Leone example: “rebel wife,” “rebel child” status, 642
Uganda example: child abductions, internally displaced people, 641–642
divorce/marital discord
as child well-being benefit, 58
and family structure/child well-being, 60
negative child outcomes from, 252
US data, 57
DLM Express (preschool curriculum), 94
Dockery, A., 271
Dominica, stress responses and family environments, 611–612
Driscoll, J. R., 165
Dubowitz, H., 70
Duncan, C. M., 452
Duncan, G., 38, 62, 342, 426
Dunifon, R., 4, 264, 271, 439, 697
Dupere, V., 437
Durbrow, E. H., 661
Durlauf, S. N., 426
Dysthymic Disorder, 130
E
Eamon, M. K., 437
Earle, A., 270
early care and education (ECE) programs
Current Population Survey (CPS) data, 359
defining/measuring quality
process quality, 362–363
structural quality, 361–362
definition, 357–358
funding channel options, 358
future research directions, 368–370
model programs
Abecedarian program, 323, 324, 325, 364
Perry Preschool Program, 327, 351, 363–364
National Household Education Survey data, 358
publicly-funded options
child care subsidies, 360–361, 367–368
Head Start, 359–360, 364–366
public pre-kindergarten, 360, 366–367
Survey of Income and Participation, 359
trends in participation, 358–359
Early Child Care and Human Development study (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), 437
Early Childhood Care and Development Program (Philippines), 531
Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale—Revised (ECERS—R), 362
Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies (National Center on Educational Statistics), 93
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), 5, 132, 133, 189, 190, 263, 298–299, 344–345, 347, 349, 350, 358, 367
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) (National Center on Educational Statistics), 129, 329, 344, 367, 428–435, 443, 483
Early Childhood Skills Inventory (ECI), 366
Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (2002), 91
(p. 710) early parental employment, child outcomes
cognitive outcomes, 248–250
health outcomes, 250
low income samples findings, 246–247
nationally representative samples findings, 247
socioemotional outcomes, 247–248
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), benefit for low income working families, 244, 280, 281
East, P. L., 167
Easterbrooks, M. A., 165
Ebrahim, S., 22
Eckenrode, J., 75
ecological model of family (Bronfenbrenner), 2, 127, 250, 265, 406–422, 475, 626–628, 643
economic hardship, generational consequences, 37–50. See also Family Transitions Project
continuity of economic hardship, 38–40
generational parallel processes, 49–50
intergenerational transmission, 2, 46–49
educational attainment, 48–49
extracurricular activities, 47–48
parental investment in education, 48
peers, 47
personality, 47
land of opportunity vs. hardships, 38
limitations/future research directions, 49
economic stress theory (Conger), 127
Ecuador, unconditional cash transfer programs, 8
Edin, K., 162
education. See also conduct problems, extra-familial; Head Start programs; health, early education and poverty; neighborhood poverty, effects on academic achievement; school reform for reducing inequality
adolescents/physical abuse and school outcomes, 75
American Indian/Alaska Native children experiences, 482–483
Bracken School Readiness Scale, 249
Chicago School Readiness project (2009), 94
child neglect and school absenteeism, 75
cross-cultural, cross-national considerations, 660
DLM Express (preschool curriculum), 94
father involvement benefits to child, 153
G2 attainment (FTP), 41
G1 investments in (FTP), 41
G3 school performance (FTP), 42
immigrant children and, 188
low-income preschoolers study, 62
Mexican preschool children study/brain function measures, 313
of parents, in rural areas, 453–454
Perry Preschool Project, 327, 351
rural poverty outcomes, 452
school transition model, 344
scientific research challenges, 375–376
summertime achievement gaps, 374–375
Education for Homeless Children and Youth (EHCY) program, 469, 470, 475, 476
effortful control development, and academic, social, emotional adjustment, 7
academic, social, emotional functioning
academic readiness, competence, 494
coping with stress, 495
externalizing, internalizing problems, 494–495
protective effects, 495–496
social competence, 494
adjustment of children to poverty, 492–493
brain imaging studies data, 493
conclusions and implications, 504–505
effortful control (defined), 493
future research directions, 505
physiological stress responses
cortisol reactivity, 503
HPA axis disruptions, 499, 502–504
respiratory sinus arrhythmia, 499, 501–502
poverty and effortful control
development trajectories, children in poverty, 498
development trajectories, typical, 497–498
EEG/event-related potential studies, 496–497
higher income vs. lower income families, 496
psychosocial factors
family stress, 500–501
maternal depression, 501
parenting, 499–500
Eggerman, M., 617
Eickmann, S. H., 521, 533
Elbedour, S., 626
Elliot, D., 74
Ellis, B. J., 237, 398
El-Sheikh, M., 234, 235, 236
Elwert, F., 441, 443
Ember, C. R., 668
Ember, M., 668
Emlen, Arthur, 273
Emory, R., 437–438
employment in low income families, 242–257. See also non-standard work schedules and child well-being; work-family policies and child well-being
child outcomes, early parental employment
cognitive outcomes, 248–250
health outcomes, 250
low income samples findings, 246–247
nationally representative samples findings, 247
socioemotional outcomes, 247–248
child outcomes, maternal employment, 283–285
analytical issues, 245–246
child age/maternal employment, 245
depression caused by loneliness, 245
developmental differences, 284–285
job stability/work characteristics, 285
reduction in breastfeeding, 136
FFCW study data, 248, 249
future research directions, 256–257
HOME Inventory data, 42, 252, 254
maternal employment, trends
first-time mothers, 243
full-time vs. part-time work, 248
IHDP child outcome study, 246
policy context, 243–244
single vs. married mothers, 243
maternal leave/duration of breast-feeding, 250
MDRC welfare reform program studies, 246, 256
NICHD Study of Early Child Care data, 247–248, 248, 252, 254
NLSY study data, 174, 247, 248, 249, 255
OECD countries, parental leave/child health outcomes data, 250
parental/nonparental care issues, 245
paternal employment factors, 249, 249–250
pathways of influence on child development and health
child care/type and quality, 254, 288–289
father-child relationship, 251
health behaviors, 255
home environment quality, 253–254, 287
mother-child relationship, 250–251, 252
mother-father relationship, 251–252
parental depression, 252–253
parental income, 254–255
parent education, 287–288
(p. 711) rural parental employment issues, 453–454
support for working families, 244–245
Endangerment Standard (National Incidence Study), 71
Entwisle, D. R., 344
EPIC-Norfolk Study, 615
Eshel, N., 671
Essex, M., 237
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 1, 93
European American parents
adoption data, U.S., 201
early parental employment influence, 291
fathers positive impact on children, 173
maternal depression
influence on parenting behaviors, 165
scores vs. African American mothers, 131
maternal parenting behaviors
grandmothers, negative impact of, 169
Latina mothers’ comparison, 166
European American youth
adoption issues, 202
alcohol/drug use prevention needs, 554
child-neglect study, 77
conduct issues/after-school monitoring and supervision, 411–412
effects of child care on cognitive outcomes, 331
family structure data, 57
influence of parent education, 288
single-parent family data, 61
TV viewing data, 134
vagal tone research, 106
Evans, G. W., 15, 111, 235, 397, 452, 460, 463, 695
Evans, Gary, 2, 17
Evidence-Based Program for the Integration of Curricula (EPIC) project, 94
Evidence for Policy and Practice Information Coordinating Center (Great Britain), 375
Extra Steps Study
contextual observational ratings-conduct problems, emerging association
after-school observation factors, conduct problems, 419
school observation factors, conduct problems, 419
methods and measures, 417–418
after-school context, 417–418
home assessment, 417
neighborhood context, 418
school, after-school observations, 418
school context, 417
F
Familias en Acción (FA) conditional cash transfer program (Colombia). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Families and Schools Together (FAST), parent-child after-school program, 382–383
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (U.S.), 244–245, 299
Family Day Care Rating Scale (FDCRS), 362
family/economic stress theory (Conger), 127, 138
Family Education approach, 514
family factors and child care quality , influence on cognitive development, 321–335
Abecedarian project/cognitive gains, 323, 324, 325, 364, 514
BEEP early intervention program, 327, 328
CARE early educational intervention project, 328
child care
Canadian program attendance/vocabulary development study, 329
Cost, Quality and Outcomes Study (2001), 329, 332
naturalistic studies of quality, 323–324
racial factors, 331–332
2005 U.S. data (children under five), 321, 323
types of, 323
child care experience moderation of effects of family factors (hypothesis)
evidence against, 330–331
child care-family factors, contrasts/comparisons
center care vs. family day care homes or relative care, 324
effect size variability, 325
family income level, 324
NICHD SECC data, 325
ECLS-K data analysis, 329
family factors, main effects, 322–323
future research directions, 334–335
Head Start program attendance study, 329
IHDP early intervention program, 327, 328
moderation of child care experience (hypothesis)
compensatory effects, 325–326
early educational intervention programs evidence, 327–328
leveraging effects, 326
naturalistic studies evidence, 328–330
neurobiological factors, 332–333
NLSY data analysis, 328
Perry Preschool early educational intervention programs, 327
Family Life Project (FLP), 6. See also rural poverty and chaos in early development
chaos measurements, 459
child care data, 454
early language development data, 460–461
home visit information, 453
HPA measurement data, 394
social/behavioral adjustments measures, 462
transportation accessibility issues, 454
family process model (McLoyd), 343
family stress models, 3
description, 127, 138
emphasis on parent's psychological well-being, 286
and low income/effortful control, 498, 504
material stress/psychological distress relation, 80
family structure, poverty status, and child-well being, 2, 54–66
future research directions, 64–66
mediating roles
economic resources, 59
neighborhood resources, 60
parenting resources, 59–60
poverty pathways, consequences, 58–59
prior research
disadvantaged children/family instability, 62
family transitions, 63–64
Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, 63
Head Start program, first graders, 62
low-income preschoolers (Black, Hispanic, white), 62
marriage vs. cohabitation, 63
parenting behaviors, 64
Time, Love, Couples Cash, and Caring study, 63
two biological married parents, 61–62
racial/ethic variations, 61
selection issues, 60–61
trends in child poverty
cohabitating vs. married families, 56–57
federal/state government efforts, 58
interrelationships, 57
race-ethnicity variables, 56, 57–58
Family Support Act (1988), 280, 281, 287
family systems theory, 252, 265
Family Transitions Project (FTP), 40–45. See also economic hardship, generational consequences
(p. 712) background information, 40
measures of constructs
conventional peers, 41
G3 child positive personality, 41
G2 education, 41
G1 educational investments, 41
G2 extracurricular activities, 41
G1/G2 economic hardship, 40–41
G2 investments in G3 child, 42
G2 Positive Personality Profile, 41
G3 school performance, 42
G3 social competence, 42
results
G1/G2 economic hardship, 43–44
structural equation models (SEMS), 42–43
results, third-generation
correlations, 44
G3 developmental outcomes, 44–45
G1/G2 economic hardship, 44–45
Farah, M. J., 4, 694
fathering by minority men, 3, 147–155. See also Chicago Youth Development Study; Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study
early fatherhood
effects on fathers, 154
prediction of, 153–154
engagement, accessibility, responsibility components, 148
father involvement variation factors
biological vs. nonbiological child, 152–153
characteristics of children, 151–152
characteristics of fathers, 150–151
inner city context, 152
mental health issues, 151
relationship with mother, 152
involvement/parenting influence on child development, 153
theory/conceptualization of
developmental-ecological approach, 149
father involvement, 148–149
involvement among low-income men, 149–150
Fauth, R. ., 438
Feagans, Vernon, 6
federal perspectives on applied research and evaluation, 87–99
innovations and enhancements
early childhood programs improvements, 93–94
long-term foster care reduction, 94
longitudinal studies, 88–91
program evaluations
Building Strong Families project, 92
housing/services interventions for homeless families, 92–93
multisite foster youth programs, 91–92
research to practice transition
requirements for evidence-based practices for federally funded programs, 96–97
reviews/catalogs of evidence-based practices, 95
scaling up/implementation
Head Start CARES study, 97
place-based services evaluation, 97–98
scale up, innovation, development projects, 97
Fergusson, D. M., 205
Fernald, L. C., 399, 587, 695, 700
Field, T., 108
First White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children (1909), 203
Food for Thought: Eating Well on a Budget program (Sesame Workshop), 549
food-related coping strategies (of low-income mothers), 136–137
food security, 128–129, 129. See also health and health outcomes
Food Security Scale Core Module (U.S.), 139
Food Stamp program, 244
Foster, E. M., 662
foster care. See also adopted children
historical background, 203
racial disparity data, 201
reasons for, 200
youth multisite program evaluations, 91–92
Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act (FC, 2008), 204, 205
Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4) (ACF, 2009), 89
Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS). See also under maternal nonstandard work and child well-being
description, 63, 263
Head Start comparison, 365
inclusion of TANF individuals, 283
maternal employment/child behavior issues data, 248
maternal employment/children's vocabulary deficiencies, 284
nonmarital fathers findings, 149
supplement findings, 362
Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights (Harvard School of Public Health), 634
Fuller, B., 253
Furstenberg, F. F., 151, 152
G
G1, G2, G3 generational cohorts. See Family Transitions Project (FTP)
GAD-7 assessment (for Generalized Anxiety Disorder), 130
Gambia, growth, food, and pathogen load study, 608–610
Gamoran, Adam, 5, 694, 696
Gannon-Rowley, T., 426
Gassman-Pines, A., 269
Gaudin, J. M., 75
Gautreaux Program (Chicago), neighborhood desegregation program, 438
Gaza strip distress example: effects of military operations, blockade, 647–652
assessment methodology, 648
background information, 647–648
economic distress, 649–651
educational resilience, 652
hopelessness, 651–652
psychosocial distress, 648–649
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), 130
Gennetian, L., 282
Geoffroy, M., 328
Gertler, P. J., 7–8, 695, 700
Getting to Outcomes (GTO) teen pregnancy prevention program model, 98
Gianaros, P. J., 28
Gillmore, M. R., 164
Gilmer, B., 532
Gintis, H., 46
Glick, Jennifer E., 3, 188, 699
global adversity: global health perspective, 604–620
areas for funding, 618–619
behavioral health, poverty, social inequality, 614–616
Bolivian child health, income inequality, 614–615
Chinese health behavior research, 615
EPIC-Norfolk study, 615
life course health behaviors, 615–616
lifestyle factors spending, 615
South Pacific: globalization, incongruity, stress, 616
Whitehall study of UK civil servants, 615
child development and global health, 604–606
childhood adversities and symbolic health
(p. 713) cultural parenting models, global policy, 616–617
hope and stigma in struggles with poverty, health, 617–618
hunger and valuing and values of children, 617
levels of health, family context, trade-offs, policy, 619–620
mental health, trauma, stress, developmental neuroendocrinology, 610–614
biomarkers in international settings, 613–614
Dominica: stress responses, family environments, 611–612
Nepal: stress and exceptional social adversity, 612–613
trauma and stress responses, 611
physical health, developmental trajectories, 606–610
Gambia and Nepal: growth, food absorption, pathogen load, 608–610
local health outcomes, global intervention, 607
Philippines: long-term outcomes, 608
United Nations Millennium Goals, 618
Global Challenges in Mental Health (2010), 689
Global Forum for Health Research, 687
Global Technical Group (GTG) of CPC Learning Network, 688
Goldhaber, D., 379
Goodnow, J. J., 658
Gordon-Larsen, P., 22
Gorman-Smith, Deborah, 3
Gormley, W. T., 332
Gottman, J. M., 116
Government Performance, Results, and Accountability Act (GPRA), 88
grandmothers of adolescent parents, 169–172
co-residence issues, 169–171, 171
negative effects of involvement, 171
supportive role, 169
Grange, Christina M., 7
Granovetter, M., 696
Grantham-McGregor, Sally, 518. See also Jamaica home visiting model
Grau, Josefina, 3, 696
Gray, S. W., 71
“Great Beginnings” parenting newsletter (PCI approach), 524
Griffen, A., 367
Gross, B., 379
Grotevant, Harold D., 3
group meetings (community level approaches to PCI), 521–523
conclusions about group visits, 523
MISC approach (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), 522–523
Monohardi subdistrict of Bangladesh, 522
Pernambuco, Brazil, 521
GTO model. See Getting to Outcomes (GTO) teen pregnancy prevention program model
Guerra, M. Q., 415
Gump, B. B., 15
Gunderson, B. B., 133
Gunnar, M. G., 399
Guo, G., 322
Gustafsson, P. E., 20
Gutiérrez, J. P., 587
Gutteling, B. M., 393
H
Hackman, D., 4, 694
Hagan, J., 74
Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-Operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (1993), 200, 211
Hall, B., 216
Hambleton, R. K., 672
Hamilton Anxiety Scale, 130
Hammarstrom, A., 20
Han, Wen-Jui, 248, 249, 270, 271, 298
Hansen, R. L., 216
Hao, L. X., 440
Harding, D., 444
Hardy, S. A., 20
Hare, C., 329
Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) project, 97
Harm and Endangerment standard (National Incidence Study), 71
Harris, K. M., 22, 151, 322
Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development (2008), 482
Hayes, L. J., 134
Hayslett-McCall, K. L., 436
Head Start Act (2007 reauthorization), 88
Head Start CARES study, 97
Head Start Family and Child Experiences Study (FACES), 90, 441
Head Start Impact Study (2010), 91, 364–365, 366
Head Start programs
child attendance/receptive vocabulary development study, 329
classroom quality/problem solving ability study, 329
defined, 323, 357
enrollment/eligibility data, 359–360
experimental evaluation of, 364–366
goal/purpose of, 325, 351, 359–360
household chaos association, 462
parent eligibility, 324
Head Start REDI project, 94
health, early education and poverty, 340–353. See also early care and education (ECE) programs; global adversity: global health perspective
CLASS data, 349
ELCS-B study, data analysis, 344–345, 347, 349, 350
ELCS-K study, data analysis, 344
explanations and consequences
biological/physiological mechanisms, 342–343, 345
critical periods, 344–346
interpersonal/family relationships, 343
neighborhood poverty, 343
parental job instability, 343
selection processes, biases, 342
future research directions, 351–353
health/early education connections
data assessment, 347–350
parent's viewpoints, 349–350
parent-teacher disconnects, 350
pre-K dilemma, 350–351
reciprocal child development relations, 346–347
teacher's viewpoints, 349
poor vs. non-poor children
academic performance, 341
parental education influence, 341–342
physical health, 341
poverty-related disparities, 344–345
Health, Hunger Free Kids Act (2010), 139
health and health outcomes, 5. See also autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity; Body Mass Index (BMI) of children; obesity epidemic
armed conflicts and child health, data on, 624–625
benefits of father involvement, 153
global burden of disease and mental health, 628–630
HIV/AIDS, data on regions affected by, 624
for international adoptions, 213–214
nutritional risks for children, 127–129
breastfeeding, influence on health, 129
food security, 128–129
and nutritional status, 129
future research directions, 140–141
growth, 127
iron deficiency anemia, 127–128, 129
legislative policy implications, 139–140
maternal psychological stress influences, 132–138
obesity, 128
overall physical health, 128
research limitations, 139
U.S. household data, 126
parental employment issues, 255
(p. 714) Health Care for the Homeless Program, 469
Healthy Habits for Life Caregiver Resource Guide
family child care provider evaluation
First 5 LA, 547–548
KidPoint, LLC, 546–547
mini-kits for WIC sites, 548
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 546
Sesame Workshop development, 545
Healthy Habits for Life (HHFL) initiative, 7, 540–550
description of studies, 543
origins/development of, 542–543
outreach “mini kits,” 546, 548
Sesame Workshop program implementation
licensing and partnerships, 545
television/publishing, 544
videos, museum, live shows, digital media, 544–545
study findings, 543
use of Sesame Street characters, 543–544
Healthy People 2010 report, 473
Heimer, K., 74
Heinrich, J., 672
Henry, C. S., 438
Herbst, C., 367
Hertzman, C., 605
Hetzner, Nina M., 4, 697
Heymann, J., 270
Hidrobo, M., 700
Hill, J., 248
Hill, Jennifer, 298
Hispanic children
controlled feeding strategy successes, 135
disproportionate poverty rates, 58
effects of child care on cognitive outcomes, 332
family structure data, 57
Head Start program participation, 90
physical health indicators, lower ranking, 341
TV viewing data, 134
Hispanic mothers
adolescent mother birth rates, 160–161
adoption data, U.S., 201
anxiety indicators, 132
depression indicators, 131
HIV/AIDS, 8
data on orphaned children, 624, 628–630
data on regions affected by, 8, 624, 627
Ethiopian adoptee issues, 214
influences on child development, 626
parenting programs and training, 671
Rwanda study of children and families, 634–635
UN Millennium goals, 618
Hofferth, S., 60, 455
Hoffman, S. D., 15
Hohmann-Marriott, B. E., 188
HOME (Home Observation and Measurement of Environment ) Inventory, 42, 252, 254, 270, 273, 520, 666, 669
Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing (HEARTH) Act (2009), 469
homelessness, 6, 468–478
adoption issues, 202
allostatic load of children, 17
child outcomes
educational outcomes, 475–476
out-of-home placement, 473–475
parent-child interactions, 475
physical and mental health, 472–473
definitions (of homelessness), 469–470
EHCY program, 469, 475, 476
extent of, among children, 470
families with children, characteristics, 471–472
foster youth issues, 91, 216
future research directions
assessing role of housing, services models in improving outcomes, 477
investigating protective factors for children, 476–477
needs identification for developing targeted interventions, 476
parsing out homeless-specific effects on outcomes, 476
Health Care for the Homeless Program, 469
housing and services interventions, evaluation of, 92–93
housing-related problems, 470
HUD programs, 469
hunger-related issues, 470
national survey (1996) data, 471
poverty program studies, 87–88
public school data (2007–2008, 2008–2009), 468
risks for former welfare recipients, 470–471
2009 Congressional report data, 468, 470, 471
vagal tone development response, 105
home visits (family level approaches to PCI)
conclusions about, 521
Jamaica home visiting model, 518–521
Parent Child Home Program, 515–518
Play and Learning Strategies, 518
Hooper, S. R., 71
Horwood, L. J., 205
Howing, P. T., 75
Hsueh, J., 269
Huang, C., 646
Hubbs-Tait, L., 329
Huberman, H. S., 7, 694, 700
Huey, E., 329
humanitarian crises in low resource settings, 8, 679–691. See also distress (everyday distress), in humanitarian settings
Asian tsunami (2004), lessons learned from, 682–683
challenges of protecting children during crises, 680–682
future directions
moving forward, 689
strategies for bridging practice and research, 689–691
global risk factors for children, 679–680
mental health-psychosocial community overlap in activities, 680–681, 683–686
research agendas supporting evidence-based programs
addressing ethical concerns, 688–689
building learning communities of practitioners, 688
development of research agendas, 687–688
Sphere Project Guidelines (for humanitarian disaster-relief agencies), 682
studies on resilience/coping skills, 685
UN IASC guidelines for improving coordination during crises, 683–685
UNICEF strategy for building child protective systems during emergencies, 685–686
Hurley, K., 134
Huston, A. C., 282, 699
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. See also hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, functioning in young children
adult biological mechanisms, 18
adult biological mechanisms, childhood SES, 20–21
childhood biological mechanisms, 15
influence of early life stressors, 23
mechanisms of actions, 24
non-human primate research, 503–504
responses to stress, 231, 232, 343
vagal tone development
alcohol use influence, 109
maternal stress influence, 108
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, functioning in young children, 5
child care contexts for stressors, 397
early functioning, implications for development, 397–398
(p. 715) effortful control and, 499
environmental stressors, 397
family processes contexts for stressors
child abuse and maltreatment, 395–396
parental psychopathology, 393–394
parenting/parent-child relationships, 394–395
partner violence in the home, 396
prenatal environment, 392–393
future research directions, policy implications, 398–399
HPA system and child development, 390–392
influences of poverty on, 392, 504
Nepal study, 613
timing of poverty/poverty-related stressors, 390
I
Iceland, J., 455
Illinois Family Study (IFS), 283
immigrant children
of adolescent parents, 167, 169
child development factors
early cognitive development, 188–189
parenting practices, home environments, 188
cognitive development and math skills
analytic plan, 190
assessment measures, 189
descriptive results of plan, 190–192
independent variables, 189–190
multivariate analyses of results, 192–194
future research directions, 196
U.S. growth patterns, 90
immigrant population variance in the U.S.
countries of origin, 186
family composition, 187
languages spoken, 187
poverty measures, 186–187
India, conditional cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Indian Health Services, 484
Infant and Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), 484
Infant Feeding Practices Study (US Food and Drug Administration), 250
Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), 246, 327, 328, 514
infant mortality rates, cultural considerations, 659–660
inflammation/immune responses
adult biological mechanisms, 15
adult biological mechanisms , childhood SES, 21–22
childhood biological mechanisms, 15
Ingoldsby, E., 5
In-Home Longitudinal Study of Pre-School Aged Children, 272
Innovative Approaches to Foster Care initiative, 94
Institute of Education Sciences (IES), 93, 95, 97, 375
Institute of Medicine (IOM), 70, 132, 553, 555, 558, 559, 565, 631, 635. See also rural African American youth interventions
integrated child development model (McLoyd and Wilson), 127
Integrated Early Child Development Project ( Proyecto Integral de Desarrollo Infantil), PCI approach, 530–531
Interagency School Readiness Consortium (ISRC), 93
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (UN IASC), 683–685
Interethnic Adoption Provisions (1996) (IEP), 202
intergenerational transmission of economic hardship, 2, 46–49
educational attainment, 48–49
extracurricular activities, 47–48
parental investment in education, 48
peers, 47
personality, 47
international adoptions, 201
current policy, 211–213
economic outcomes, 213
health outcomes, 213–214
historical background, 210–211
post-adoption relationship with biological parents, 214–215
International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC), 680
International Rescue Committee (IRC), study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone, 631–632
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 90, 92
Intervention: International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 681
Iowa Personality Questionnaire (IPQ), 41
IQ (Intelligence Quotient). See also cognition, neural basis of; cognitive development of children
breastfeeding and, 255
Cebu, Philippines study, 608
Jamaica home visiting model impact, 518
low SES/academic achievement variance, 309–310
maternal, influence on child's neurocognitive outcomes, 255
Parent Child Home Program model impact, 515
performance comparisons, adopted vs. nonadopted children, 209
stunted growth/Jamaica study, 607
twin study of genetic effects of IQ and SES, 310
IQ measurement (Quick Test), 77
iron deficiency anemia (IDA), 127–128, 129
J
Jaccard, J., 324
Jackson, M. I., 438, 438–439
Jacob, B., 438
Jacobs, E., 329
Jamaica, conditional cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Jamaica home visiting model (PCI approach model) (Grantham-McGregor and Powell), 7, 518–521
goals of weekly visits, 518
home goal visitation challenges, 520
impact on development quotient (DQxii), 518, 519–520
“real-life” trial implementation, 518–519
results/home visit study differences, 520
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program (India). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Janlert, U., 20
Jencks, C., 426
Jessop, D., 397
Johnsen, M. C., 74, 75
Johnson, J., 5
Johnson, K. M., 72
Johnson, Lyndon, 89
Jones, D., 662
Jonson-Reid, M., 74–75
Joshi, H. E., 444
Joyce, P. R., 72
Juffer, F., 209, 210
Juntos conditional cash transfer program (Peru). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
“Just in Time Parenting” program, 524
K
Kalil, A., 271
Karnes, M. B., 532
Katz, L. F., 116
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 436
Keeping Children and Families Safe Act (2003), 70
Kefalas, M., 162
Kendall, G., 271
Kendall-Tackett, K. A., 75
Khan, K. T., 685
(p. 716) KidsHealth.org, 545
Kidwell, S. L., 106
Kim, M., 15, 111
KIPP Foundation, 97
Klein, P. S., 330
Knutson, J. F., 76
Kogan, M. D., 7
Kostelny, Kathleen, 8, 700
Kouros, C., 234
Kowaleski-Jones, L. R., 439
Kroll, J., 216
Kurtz, P. D., , 75
Kutlesic, Vesna, 8, 698
L
LA First 5, evaluation of Healthy Habits for Life Resource Guide, 547–548
Lamb, M. E., 148
Lance, C. E., 672
Lancet Mental Health Group, 687
Lareau, A., 343
Latina adolescent mothers (and families)
acculturation, influence of, 167
autonomy/interdependence expectations, 168
depression, influence of, 165
description of study model, 163
grandmothers, negative impact of, 169
immigration, influences of, 188
psychological adjustment factors, 167
White mothers’ comparison, 166
Latino children
academic achievement predictions, study, 437
Denver/family reassignment study, 437
influence of parent education, 288
Lau, A. S., 329
Laub, J. H., 74
Lawlor, D. A., 22
Lawrence, H., 71
Lee, J., 22
Lee, M., 324, 439–440
Legacy for Children project (Centers for Disease Control), 94
Lehman, B. J., 20
Leiter, J., 74, 75
Lengua, Liliana, 7, 694, 695
Leroy, J. L., 587
Let's Move Initiative, 139
Letts, D., 71
Levenstein, P., 521, 532. See also Parent Child Home Program
Leventhal, T., 426, 438, 439
LeVine, R. A., 485
Levine, S., 148
Lewis, J. B., 164
Li, J., 271
Liaw, F., 327
lifecourse perspective and socioeconomic status (SES)
adult biological mechanisms, 17–20
childhood SES and, 20–23
childhood biological mechanisms, 14–17
childhood SES, durability/morbidity of, 23–26
accumulation/epidemiological approach, 24–25
biological embedding models, 23–24
comparison of models, 25–26
future research/intervention directions, 26–29
global lifecourse health behaviors, 615–616
health and early education issues, 340–353
life expectancy, cultural considerations, 659–660
Lim, S. S., 586
Lipsey, M., 150
living arrangements influences, 56–57
Loeb, S., 332
Lohr, M. J., 164
Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), 89
Lonky, E., 15
Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, 438, 440, 440–441
Lowe, E. D., 456–458
low family income. See employment in low income families
Lucas, A., 397
Ludwig, J., 344, 442
Lunn, P., 608
Lynskey, M., 205
M
Madyun, N., 439–440
Magnuson, K. A., 329
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), 72, 80, 83, 130
with comorbid anxiety, 129
definition (DSM IV-TR), 129–130
Malawi, unconditional cash transfer programs, 8
Manlove, J., 161
Manning, W. D., 57
Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), 246, 256
Marcynyszyn, L. A., 463
Mare, R. D., 438–439
marriage movement, proponents vs. skeptics, 58
Marsiglio, W., 149
Martines, J., 671
Martorell, R., 607
Massachusetts Adoption of Children Act (1851) (MACA), 203
Massey, D. S., 442
Masten, A., 661
Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting program (2010), 96
maternal employment, effects on children, 283–285. See also maternal nonstandard work and child well-being
childhood family poverty issues, 77–78
developmental differences, 284–285
FFCWS data, 248, 284
IHDP study, 246
job stability/work characteristics, 285
reduction in breastfeeding, 136
maternal mental health issues. See also maternal psychological distress
anxiety
assessment methods, 130
and child's vagal tone development, 107–109
comorbid, with MDD, 129
maternal anxiety disorders, 131–132
depression
assessment methods, 130
and BMI, 134
and breastfeeding reluctance, 133
and effortful control, 501
employed vs. nonemployed women, 253
male vs. female rates, 130
post-partum depression, 130
maternal nonstandard work and child well-being, 4
African American mothers, 264
children's time use consequences, 268
developmental psychological perspective, 265–266
economic perspective, 266
family systems theory perspective, 265
FFCWS data, 271–274
behavior outcome, 272–273
independent variables, 272
maternal work schedules, 272
results, 274
test scores outcome, 273
weight-for-height outcome, 272
FFCWS data: mediating mechanisms
aggravation in parenting, 273
depression, 273
discipline and neglect, 274
parenting, 273–274
parenting stress, 273
work stress, 273
future research directions, 274–277
harsh parenting consequences, 267
influences on family life, 263
labor force participation data (U.S.), 262
role strain theory perspective, 266
socialization theory perspective, 266
trends
first-time mothers, 243
full-time vs. part-time work, 248
IHDP child outcome study, 246
policy context, 243–244
(p. 717) single vs. married mothers, 243
maternal psychological distress, 132–138
and children's health outcomes, 132–133
contributing mechanisms
bidirectional relationships, 137
biological-genetic factors, 137
moderating/mediating factors, 137–138
health outcomes, 132–133
and parenting issues
feeding practices, 134–136
food-related coping strategies, 136–137
health-related behavior, 133–134
Mathematica, rural areas needs report, 451
Matheny, A., 460
Matsumura, S., 214
Matthews, K., 15
Maxwell, L. E., 460
Mayer, S. E., 426
McCartney, K., 329
McCord, J., 74
McCulloch, A., 444
McCurdy, K., 3, 695, 697
McDade, T. W., 616
McEwen, B. S., 28
McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, 469, 475
McLoyd, V. C., 127, 498
McRoy, R. G., 216
McWayne, C. M., 439
Meaney, M. J., 24
Melby, J. N., 40
Mendelsohn, Alan L., 7, 694, 700
mental health. See also adversity (concentrated adversity), psychosocial/developmental consequences; distress (everyday distress), in humanitarian settings
adopted vs. nonadopted children issues, 210
American Indian, Alaska Native issues, 483–484
anxiety of mothers
assessment methods, 130
and child's vagal tone development, 107–109
comorbid, with MDD, 129
maternal anxiety disorders, 131–132
depression of mothers
assessment methods, 130
and BMI, 134
and breastfeeding reluctance, 133
and effortful control, 501
employed vs.nonemployed women, 253
male vs. female rates, 130
post-partum depression, 130
homelessness and child outcomes, 472–473
and non-standard work schedules, 267
paternal issues, 151
trauma, stress, developmental neuroendocrinology, 610–614
biomarkers in international settings, 613–614
Dominica: stress responses, family environments, 611–612
Nepal: stress and exceptional social adversity, 612–613
trauma and stress responses, 611
Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network, 688
Merck Foundation, sponsorship of Food for Thought: Eating Well on a Budget program, 549
Mersky, J., 75
Messer, L. C., 617
metabolic processes
adult biological mechanisms, 15–16
adult biological mechanisms, childhood SES, 22
childhood biological mechanisms, 15–16
ethnicity correlation, 15
metabolic syndrome, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25
Mexico, conditional cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Michael, R. T., 328
Miles, C. L., 134
Miller, S. M., 20, 21, 271
Mills-Koonce, W., 5, 694
Milwaukee TANF Applicant Study (MTAS), 283
Mistrey, R. S., 323
Mitchell, S., 134
Monohardi subdistrict of Bangladesh, PCI approaches, 522
Moore, D. R., 174
Moore, G. A., 113, 116
Morales, J. R., 415
More Intelligent and Sensitive Child (MISC) program (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), 522–523
Morenoff, J. D., 426
Morisette, Lloyd, 540
Morris, P., 282
Morrison, D. M., 164
Morrissey, T. W., 271
mothers. See also adolescent parenting; maternal employment, effects on children; maternal mental health issues; maternal nonstandard work and child well-being; maternal psychological distress
anxiety disorders, 131–132
and child's vagal tone development
marital conflict influences, 115–117
maternal depression influences, 114–115
maternal stress influences, 107–109
mental health assessments, 130
Moving to Opportunity (MTO) program study, 413, 438, 439, 440, 442
The Moynihan Report (1965), 58
Mullen Scales of Early Learning, 483
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), 41
Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) (1994), 202
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (UNICEF), 667
Myers, K. A., 74
N
National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 70
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores, 374, 377, 482
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), 362
National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA), 546
National Association of Family Child Care (NAFCC), 546
National Center for Health Statistics, 128
National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), 70, 483
National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), 130
National Comorbidity Survey, 129
National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (Cornell University), 90
National Early Head Start Research Evaluation Project (2008), 164
National Educational Longitudinal Survey (2002), 435
National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Study (NEWWS), 287–288, 292
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2) (1999–2002), 133
National Household Education Survey (NHES), 358
(p. 718) National Immunization Survey, 135
National Incidence Study (2010), 70–71
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 437
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care (SECC), 247–248, 248, 252, 254, 255, 263, 298, 329, 330, 350, 452
National Institute of Drug Abuse, 416–417
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 77
National Longitudinal Studies (Department of Labor), 89
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), 74, 440
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 174, 247, 248, 263, 328, 366, 437
National Reading Panel, 375
National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP), 95
National Research Council (NRC), 375
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 231
National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, 483
National Survey of Adoptive Parents (2007), 201, 205, 209
National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), 57, 263
National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) (2009), 90
National Survey of Children's Health, 128
National Survey of Family Growth (2002), 161
National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC), 470, 471
National WIC Association, 545–546, 547
neighborhood poverty
academic achievement and, 6
adolescent/childhood depression, 80
biological mechanisms and, 15, 17, 20
causes, 47
characteristics, 59
childhood family poverty assessment, 77–78
childhood neighborhood poverty assessment, 78
child maltreatment and, 75
child neglect study, 76–81
consequences, 38, 39, 49
crime assessment tools, 77
crime predictability determination, 80
design, background data, 76–77
interpretation of findings, 80–81
MDD predictability determination, 80
outcome assessment tools, 77
PTSD predictability determination, 79–80
neighborhood poverty, effects on academic achievement, 6, 425–446
academic achievement measures, 445
changes in neighborhoods over time, 444–445
conceptual issues in studies
child and family institutions, 427
labor and marriage markets , spatial features of, 428
neighborhood social interactions, 427–428
neighborhood violence, 428
normative environment, 428
developmental stages, age-related variations in the effects, 444
emergence of themes (discussion), 441–442
methodological challenges and approaches, 442–443
neighborhood effects, nature of, 445
pathways for neighborhood's effects, 443–444
quality contexts, of conduct problems
community-level monitoring, 413–414
social relationships, 414
structural features, 413
recent studies
academic achievement by season, 435
African American eighth-graders, 436
Child Development Supplement/reading and math scores, 439
children of immigrants, 440
closures to high-rise public housing structures, 438
concentrated disadvantage, residential instability and crime, 436
concentrated disadvantage, verbal ability, 440
Denver/family reassignment, 437
ECLS-K, 428–435, 435
environments of children, parents, grandparents, 441
extremely low birthweight, 435
family, neighborhood, school characteristics, 435–436
family structure/vocabulary, reading, math test scores (3–4 year olds), 441
female-headed households, reading test scores, 439–440
kindergarten early academic outcomes, 439
Latino youth/academic achievement predictions, 437
Los Angeles/one foreign-born parent, 438
Los Angeles/reading and test scores, 440
median family income, test scores, 441
Midwestern city/reading and math test scores, 441
mothers reports of neighborhood problems, 438
Moving to Opportunity Program follow-up, 439
National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 435
neighborhood desegregation programs, 438
neighborhood violence, reading and math scores, 441
reading and math test scores, 437–438, 440–441
receipt of housing vouchers, 440
residential mobility, neighborhood change, 438–439
seventh-graders, enrollment, one-year later characteristics, 436–437
social capital and social climate, 436
study populations, 445–446
school effects vs. neighborhood effects, 443
Woodcock-Johnson tests of achievements, 426
Nemours Health and Prevention Services, 545
Nepal. See also conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
growth, food, pathogen load study, 608–610
male allostatic load assessment, 16
stress and exceptional social adversity, 612–613
Neufeld, L. M., 587
neurocognitive systems, 312–313
anterior cingulate/cognitive control, 313
lateral prefrontal/working memory, 312, 313
left perisylvian/language, 312, 313
medial temporal/memory, 312, 313
occipitotemporal/visual, 312
parietal/spatial cognition, 312
prefrontal/executive, 312
ventromedial prefrontal/reward processing, 313
Neurons to Neighborhoods report (Institute of Medicine), 635
New Hope Project (Milwaukee, WI), 283, 286
Next Generation Project, 282, 284–285, 289
Nicaragua, conditional cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Nikulina, V., 83
Nix, R. F., 662
No Child Left Behind Act (2002), 374, 375, 381, 437, 469
non-standard work schedules and child well-being, 262–277
assessment measures, 263–264
children's time use mechanism, 268
Current Population Survey data, 262, 263
empirical evidence
care settings, 270
cognitive development, 270
family functioning, 270
health, 271
socio-emotional/behavioral development, 270–271
family income mechanism, 266–267
family processes mechanism
family routines, 267–268
parenting stress, mental health, parenting behaviors, 267
future research directions, 274–277
low-income, less-advantaged vs. higher-income, more educated, 264
maternal nonstandard work
African American mothers, 264
developmental psychological perspective, 265–266
economic perspective, 266
family systems theory perspective, 265
FFCWS data, 271–274
influences on family life, 263
role strain theory perspective, 266
socialization theory perspective, 266
socialization theory perspective, 266
Nurse-Family Partnership interventions, 486
O
Obama, Michelle, 139
obesity epidemic. See also Body Mass Index (BMI) of children; metabolic syndrome
prevalence in the U.S., 128
SES level association, 17, 89
Obradovic, J., 236, 399
Observation Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE), 362
O'Callaghan, M. F., 71
O'Campo, P., 436
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), 89
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Program Accountability Rating Tool, 88
Office of National Drug Control Policy (White House), 98
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), 94
Oliver, J. M., 75
Ong, A. D., 15
Opportunidades cash transfer program (Mexico). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Orfalea Foundation (California), 545
orphan trains, 203. See also adopted children
P
PALS (Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies) tutoring program, 380
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (Office of Economic Opportunity), 89, 438, 441, 443
Panic Disorder, 130
Panter-Brick, C., 8, 16, 617, 695
Panzarine, S., 165
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), 3, 19, 110, 225–226. See also autonomic nervous system reactivity; vagal tone
parental/partner violence in the home, influence on young children's HPA system, 396
Parent Child Home Program (PCI approach), 515–518, 532
parent-child interaction (PCI)-focused approaches, 7, 513–535
defined, 513
discussion and conclusions
Bronfenbrenner's conclusions, 513
cautions regarding interactions, 532–533
effectiveness of relationship-based interventions, 533
effectiveness of strong PCI-focus, 532
focus on participatory and interactive programs, 533
importance of linkages with other programs, 533–534
importance of timing and context, 533
risk level of target population considerations, 513
toys as tools for ECD, 533
group meetings (community level approaches)
conclusions about, 523
MISC approach (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), 522–523
Monohardi subdistrict of Bangladesh, 522
Pernambuco, Brazil, 521
home visiting (family level approaches)
conclusions about, 521
Jamaica home visiting model, 518–521
Parent Child Home Program, 515–518
Play and Learning Strategies, 518
importance in early child development, 513
integrated programs
conclusions about, 531
Early Childhood Care and Development Program, 531
Proyecto Integral de Desarrollo Infantil (Integrated Early Child Development Project), 530–531
1980s-90s, declining support for, 514
positive benefits of, 514
primary care-based approaches
BELLE Project interventions, 528–529
Care for Development approach, 529–530
conclusions about, 530
Healthy Steps for Young Children program, 527
Reach Out and Read program, 527–528
public health-level (parenting newsletters)
conclusions about, 527
impact of parenting newsletters, 524–527
“Just in Time Parenting” program, 524
Primeros Pasos (Building Blocks), 529
Spanish language versions, 525
Wisconsin parent newsletters, 524
“Parent Express” parenting newsletter (PCI approach), 524
parenting, single-mother families
Blacks/whites data (2007), 61
1970 vs. 2009 data, 56
poverty/well-being influence, 58
parenting, single-parent families
Blacks vs. whites, 61
growth of, 4
parenting styles, 59
poverty income level (defined), 56
parenting competence determinants (Belsky), 163
parenting influences. See also adolescent parenting; employment in low income families; fathering by minority men; parent-child interaction (PCI)-focused approaches
being married benefit for fathers, 64
(p. 720) Black/white families, 61
children in immigrant families, 188
cognitive development, 315–316
cultural beliefs
parental psychological adjustment, 167
relationship, role expectations, 167–168
socialization goals, parenting strategies, 166–167
economic deprivation, 7, 59
educational level, 287–288
effortful control, 499–500
gender variations, 59–60
homelessness-related issues, 471–472
home violence influence on young children's HPA system, 396
maternal psychological distress, 3
feeding practices, 134–136
food-related coping strategies, 136–137
health-related behavior, 133–134
natural growth style (of poor parents), 343
psychological well-being of parents, 289
same-/different-sex parent families, 60
two-parent families, 60
vagal tone development, 112–113
marital conflict, 115–117
maternal depression, 114–115
parenting newsletters (PCI approach), 524–527
parenting perspectives, cross-cultural and cross-national, 8, 657–673
children's rights across cultures, countries
participation, 664–665
protection, 663–664
survival and development, 663
survival and protection, 663
comparisons of acceptance, stimulation, behavior management, 659–661
confounding of culture or country and SES, 661–662
cultural/national contexts of poverty, 659–661
effects of parenting, cross-cultural similarities and differences, 669–670
functions of parenting
acceptance and responsiveness, 665–666
behaviors, form vs. function, 665
managing children's behavior, 667–669
stimulation and teaching, 666–667
future research directions, 672–673
importance of culture, 658–659
interventions to improve parenting in cultural, national context, 670–671
parental assessment cultural, national context, 671–672
poverty's influence in cultural, national contexts, 661
parenting process model (Belsky), 127
“Parenting the First Year” parenting newsletter (PCI approach), 524
Parents as Teachers Program, 514
Park, Jung Min, 6
Parke, R., 153
PATHS (Providing Alternative THinking Strategies) program model, 97
Paxson, C., 71
Peabody Individual Achievement Test of Mathematics (PIAT-M), 248
Peabody Individual Achievement Test of Reading Recognition (PIAT-R), 248
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 248, 273
Pebley, A. R., 426, 440, 440–441
Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, 128
Peisner-Feinberg, E., 329, 332
Peña, L. F., 661
Peñaloza, R. V., 377
Pernambuco, Brazil, group meetings (PCI approach), 521
Perry Preschool Project (early educational intervention program), 327, 351
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996)
description, 280
emphasis on kinship care benefits, 206
employment promoted by, 243
parental responsibility goal, 281
teen birth provisions, 161
Peru, conditional cash transfer programs. See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care, 201
Philippines, early child development programs, 7, 608
Phillips, D. A., 332
Pickett, K., 614
“Pierre the Pelican” parenting newsletter (PCI approach), 524
Pinderhughes, E. E., 662
Plan International parenting education program (Bangladesh), 522
Play and Learning Strategies (PCI approach), 518
Pleck, Joseph H., 148
Poelhuis, C.W.K., 209
polyvagal theory, 106, 227, 501
Pong, S. L., 440
Porges, S. W., 106, 227
Posner, J., 410
Posner's Attention Network Task, 313
Powell, Christine, 518. See also Jamaica home visiting model
Powell-Jackson, T., 586
pre-ejection period (PEP), of the heart
BSC theory and, 233
defined, 227, 228
pregnancy. See also adolescent parenting; teen pregnancy
cash transfer influences, 574
father involvement during, influence on child, 96, 154
iron deficiency anemia prevention, 127–128
low birth weight-cardiovascular disease relation, 608
maternal malnutrition influences, 619
mother-child HIV transmission, 624
parental stress influence, 393
and vagal tone development
maternal stress influence, 107–109
prenatal influences on child, 107–110
substance use influence, 109–110
Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research Program (Institute for Education Science), 93
Prevention Prepared Communities, 98
primary care-based approaches, to PCI, 7
BELLE Project interventions, 528–529
Care for Development approach, 529–530
conclusions about, 530
Healthy Steps for Young Children program, 527
Reach Out and Read program, 527–528
problem behavior theory, problem behavior theory
Program Accountability Rating Tool (OMB), 88
Programa Communitario de Salud y Nutrición (PROCOSAN-Community-based Health and Nutrition Program), in Nicaragua, 531
Programa de Asignación Familiar (PRAF), conditional cash transfer program (Honduras). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Progressive Era (early 1900s) view of impoverished and immigrant families, 207
Project Care study, 514
Project LAUNCH (Linking Actions for Unmet Need in Children's Health), 98
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, 440
Promise Neighborhoods competition (Dept. of Education), 98
(p. 721) Promoting Innovative Partnerships to Improve the Mental Health and Psychosocial Welfare of Children in Crisis (NIH), 689
Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendment (PSSA, 2001), 204
Propper, Cathi, 3, 237, 695
protection of children. See also distress (everyday distress), in humanitarian settings; humanitarian crises in low resource settings
by adoptive parents, 206, 211
African Charter on the Rights of the Child protections, 630
Child Protective Services, 70, 81
Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-Operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, 200, 211
health benefits of breastfeeding, 255
as a right across cultures and countries, 663–664
threats from interparental aggression, 396
UN CRC as organizing framework for, 662
Proyecto Integral de Desarrollo Infantil (Integrated Early Child Development Project), PCI-approach, 530–531
psychological distress. See maternal psychological distress
public health-level (parenting newsletters), PCI approach
conclusions about, 527
impact of parenting newsletters, 524–527
“Just in Time Parenting” program, 524
Wisconsin parent newsletters, 524
Pungello, Elizabeth Puhn, 5, 328, 331
Q
Quas, J., 233, 234
Quick Test (for IQ measurement), 77
Quigley, K., 227
R
Ramey, C. T., 324, 514
Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., 397
Raudenbush, S. W., 440, 443
Reading Recovery Model (Ohio State University), 97
RE-AIM (Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance) framework, 98
Ream, G., 439
Red Crescent Society, 680
Red de Protección Social (RPS) conditional cash transfer program (Nicaragua). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Reid, M. K., 324
Reihman, J., 15
Repetti, R., 453
research on children and poverty, future directions
adolescent parenting, 176–177
adversity (concentrated adversity), psychosocial/developmental consequences, 636–637
autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, 237
chaos and rural poverty, in early development, 463
chid care and early education: choices and consequences, 368–370
early care and education (ECE) programs, 368–370
economic hardship, generational consequences, 49
effortful control development, and academic, social, emotional adjustment, 505, 694
employment in low income families, 256–257
everyday distress in humanitarian settings, 652–653
family factors and child care quality , influence on cognitive development, 334–335
family structure, poverty status, child-well being, 64–66
health, early education and poverty, 351–353
health and health outcomes/nutritional risks for children, 140–141
homelessness
assessing role of housing, services models in improving outcomes, 477
investigating protective factors for children, 476–477
needs identification for developing targeted interventions, 476
parsing out homeless-specific effects on outcomes, 476
HPA axis, functioning in young children, 398–399
immigrant children, 196
integration of biological, behavioral, social processes across multiple levels of analysis, across time, 695–696
interactions of geography, poverty, race/ethnicity, educational, occupational structures, 698–699
lifecourse perspective and socioeconomic status, 26–29
locating and measuring risk, 698
maternal nonstandard work and child well-being, 274–277
new perspectives on interventions, 699–700
non-standard work schedules and child well-being, 274–277
parenting perspectives, cross-cultural and cross-national, 672–673
rural poverty and chaos in early development, 463
social networks, 696
value of routines, 697–698
welfare and employment policies, 291
Research Program on Children and Global Adversity (Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights), 634
resilience theory, 557
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)
defined, 227, 501
effortful control and, 499, 501–502
internalizing/externalizing behavior and, 236
as measure of vagal tone, 105–106, 116, 227
Reynolds, A. J., 75
Reyome, N. D., 76
Richardson, D., 614
Richter, L., 604
Riley, E. P., 526
Roby, J., 214
role strain theory, 253, 266
Rosa Dias, P., 615
Roving Caregivers Programme (Jamaica), 518–521
Ruhm, C., 250, 329
rural African American youth interventions, 7, 552–566. See also chaos and rural poverty, in early development; Strong African American Families (SAAF) program
alcohol/drug use prevention needs, 554–555
Center for Family Research investigations, 555, 556
demographic data, 552–553
IOM prevention development model, 553, 555, 558, 559, 565
longitudinal developmental research
community partnership processes, 555–556
focus groups, 556
protective caregiving and resilience focus
buffering properties of protective caregiving, 558–559
mediation evidence, 559
“no nonsense parenting” childrearing style, 557
(p. 722) protective caregiving practices, 557–558
regulated-communicative parenting style, 559
self-regulation as a protective process, 558
racial socialization issues, 557
type II translational research, as next research step, 565
type I translational research, prevention development, 553–554
rural poverty and chaos in early development, 450–463. See also Family Life Project (FLP)
availability, accessibility of services
child care data, 454–455
transportation issues, 454
child development outcomes
early language development, 459–461
social and behavioral adjustment, 461–462
disorganization component, 452, 460, 461, 462
future research directions, 463
instability component, 452, 460
measuring chaos
in the Family Life Project, 459
in previous literature, 456–459
neighborhood conditions, 452–453
parental work challenges, 453–454
poverty and child outcomes, 452
rural, defined, 451
rural poverty, described, 451–452
social support networks, 455–456
unpredictability component, 452, 460, 461
Rwanda: HIV/AIDS-affected children and families study, 633–635
background information, 633–634
mixed methods study (2007-present)
findings, 634–635
methods, 634
Ryff, C. D., 22
S
Safe Delivery Incentive Program (SDIP), conditional cash transfer program (Nepal). See conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs
Sameroff, A., 459
same-sex couples, 57
same-sex marriage, 58
Sampson, R. J., 74, 426, 440, 443
Sanbonmatsu, L., 440
Sarche, Michelle, 697
Sastry, N., 6, 426, 440, 440–441, 699
Save the Children organization, 663
Sawhill, I., 344
Schamberg, M. A., 17, 235
Scher, L. S., 161
Schliecker, E., 329
School Development Program model, for improvement in school test scores, 379
School Psychology Task Force, 375
school reform for reducing inequality, 5, 374–384
interventions, large-scale
class size reduction, 378–379
comprehensive school reform, 379–380
desegregation, 377–378
interventions, localized
parental involvement promotion, 381
social-psychological interventions, 381–382
tutoring interventions, 380–381
interventions, mixed, 382–383
NAEP scores, 374
NRC committee concerns, 375
scientific research challenges, 375–376
task forces associated with reforms, 375
school transition model (Alexander and Entwisle), 344
Schuck, A. M., 75
Science and Ecology of Early Development initiative (NIH), 1, 700
Seckler, D., 607
SEED (Science and Ecology of Early Development) Initiative, 148, 416–417, 699, 700
self-care, by elementary school-aged children, 411
Self-Sufficiency Project (Canada), 286
Selman, P., 210
Sesame Workshop Educational Outreach, 7, 540–550. See also Food for Thought: Eating Well on a Budget program; Healthy Habits for Life initiative
celebrity cameos, 542
“Feeling Good Health Festival” component, 542
“The Get Health Now Show” (Muppets), 545
goals of program, 541–542, 542
health and nutrition focus, 542
partnership development, 545–546
reasons for success of content and initiatives, 541
Sesma, A., 661
Shannis, D., 15
Sharkey, P., 440, 441, 443
Shaw, D., 5
Shinn, M., 472
Sierra Leone, war affected youth study
background information, 631
longitudinal mixed methods study
findings, 632–633
methods, 631–632
Simons, R. L., 40
Singer, B., 8, 22
Singer, Dan, 698
single-mother families
Blacks/whites data (2007), 61
1970 vs. 2009 data, 56
poverty/well-being influence, 58
single-parent families
Blacks vs. whites, 61
growth of, 4
parenting styles, 59
poverty income level (defined), 56
Smailes, E., 72
SMART (Start Making a Reader Today) volunteer tutoring program, 381
Snyder, N. O., 174
Sobel, M. E., 442
social capital theory, 266
Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation short form (SCBE-30), 42
social competence assessment (G3, Family Transitions Project), 42
social experiences, epigenetic programming mechanisms, 24
social learning theory, 252, 557
Social Phobia, 130
social-psychological interventions, for reducing educational inequality, 381–382
Social Security Act (1935), 203
South Africa, unconditional cash transfer programs, 8
South Pacific, globalization, incongruity, and stress, 616
Sparling, J. J., 329
Sphere Project Guidelines (for humanitarian disaster-relief agencies), 682
Spicer, Paul, 697
Spieker, S. J., 164
Spratt, E. G., 71
Stacey, J., 60
STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ration) experiments (Tennessee), 378
Starost, H., 329
State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 280, 345
State of the World's Children (UNICEF report), 607
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 130
stay-at-home mothers (parents), 265, 296, 301
stepfamilies (married stepfamilies)
child-well being data, 58
positive influences on adolescents, 153
(p. 723) Stevens, C., 314
Stevenson, A. J., 557
Stewart, F., 646
Stewart, P., 15
Still Face Paradigm (SFP), 113, 116
Strange Situation Paradigm (SSP), 113
Strathearn, L., 71
stress
effects of, in diverse cultural, national contexts, 661
effortful control/physiological responses
cortisol reactivity, 503
HPA axis disruptions, 499, 502–504
respiratory sinus arrhythmia, 501–502
maternal, prenatal stress and vagal tone, 107–109
physiologic responses/childhood adversity, 231–232
Strobino, D. M., 328
Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, 7
efficacy evaluation
efficacy analyses, 564–565
intervention implementation, fidelity, evaluation, 564
SAAF randomized trial overview, 562
validity testing of theoretical underpinnings, 564
translating longitudinal developmental findings
causative theory, 559–561
family skills training program, 561–562
structural equation models (SEMS), Family Transitions Project usage, 42–43
structural violence, 606, 610, 641, 646, 652
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), 95, 98
Success for All Foundation, 97
Success for All program model, for improvement in school test scores, 379
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 140
sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system
maternal stress/vagal tone development, 108
stress experience involvement, 231
sympathetic nervous system
adult biological mechanisms, 17–18
childhood SES, 20
childhood biological mechanisms, 14–15
Szyf, M., 24
T
Tanaka, S., 250
Taylor, M., 20
Teach for America program, 97
teen pregnancy. See also adolescent parenting; pregnancy
declining birth rates, reasons for, 161
emotionality of mother relation to infant vagal tone, 237
government prevention efforts, 96, 98, 161
influence of poverty, 89
race/ethnicity variability factors, 160–161
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program (2010), 96
Tekin, E., 367
Tellegen, A., 41
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, 74–75, 204, 206, 243, 244, 283, 352, 361, 472
Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) programs, 303
Tennessee STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ration) experiments, 378
Tesher, H. B., 15
“Texas Tots” parenting newsletter (PCI approach), 524
Theorell, T., 20
Third National Incidence Study (1996), 71
Thomas, D., 366
Thornberry, T. P., 72
Three-City Study (3-City), 283, 285, 288, 458
Time, Love, Couples Cash, and Caring (TLC3)study, 63
Ting, A. H., 15
TIPS (Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork) program, 381
Title IV (of the Social Security Act, 1935), 204
Tomarken, A. J., 313
Tomes, N., 38
Toy Demonstrators, in Parent Child Home Program, 515
“traditional” married two-parent families
advantages/benefits, 60–62
1970 vs. present day data, 56
parenting styles, 59
Treadwell, M., 236
Truglio, Rosemarie, 7
Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS), 614
Turley, Ruth Lopez, 5, 441, 694, 696
Turner, R. J., 310
Turner-Cobb, J. M., 397
tutoring interventions, for reducing educational inequality, 380–381
U
Uganda distress example: child abductions, internally displaced people, 641–642
UNAIDS, estimates on orphaned sub-Saharan African children, 624
unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs, 8, 573
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 211, 630–631, 657, 662, 673
“Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect” (NAS report), 70
UN Human Development Index, 659
UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund)
armed conflict/child health data, 624–625, 680
mission of, 663
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 667
“psychosocial well-being” promotion, 681
State of the World's Children report, 607
strategy for building child protective systems during emergencies, 685–686
Uniform Adoption Act (1994), 217
UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), 683–685
United Healthcare, sponsorship of Food for Thought: Eating Well on a Budget program, 549
United Nations, international adoption regulation efforts, 211
United Nations Millennium Goals, 618
United Nations Relief Work Agency (UNRWA), 648, 649
UN Peacebuilding Fund (UN PBF), 627
UN Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict, 630
UN Social Determinants of Health Report, 628, 635
Urban Change longitudinal study (1995–2001), 283
Urban Change project (Miami, Los Angeles, Cleveland, Philadelphia) (2002), 283
U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 94, 98, 128
U.S. Conference of Mayors, 468
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 469
U.S. Department of Education (DOE), 98, 375, 470, 483
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 94, 96
(p. 724) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 92, 469
U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), 93
U.S. Food Security Scale Core Module, 139
U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 375
V
Vaden-Kiernan, M., 441
vagal tone development, 104–118. See also polyvagal theory
African American children study, 106
consequences of withdrawal, 106
description/research background, 105–107
functions of, 104, 105
postnatal/beyond, influences on child, 110–111
effects of conflict avoidance/dyadic adjustment, 116
exposure to physical stressors, 111
exposure to psychosocial stressors, 111–112
marital conflict, 115–117
maternal depression, 114–115
parent-child relationship, 112–113
prenatal influences on child, 107–110
maternal anxiety, negativity, depression, 107–109
substance use during pregnancy, 109–110
respiratory sinus arrhythmia measure, 105–106, 116
Valenzuela, M., 112
Vandell, D. L., 410
Vandenberg, R. J., 672
van den Dries, L., 209
van IJzendoorn, M. H., 209, 210
Vernon-Feagins, Lynne, 697
Video Interaction Project (BELLE Project intervention), 528–529
“Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs” (IOM report), 70
W
Wachs, T., 136
Wachs, T. D., 452
WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), 316
Wakschlag, L. S., 171
Waldfogel, Jane, 4, 71, 248, 271, 298, 329, 697. See also work-family policies and child well-being
Walker, S. P., 607
Walter, H. J., 15
Wang, M., 646
Wang, S., 453
Ware, W. B., 435–436
War on Poverty programs (Johnson administration), 89
Washington Children's Home Society (adoption case histories), 207
Watkins, R. V., 71
Webb, Mary Bruce, 2
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), 316
Welfare, Children, and Families: Three-City Study (3-City), 283, 285, 288
welfare and employment policies, 280–292. See also Child Development Block Grant program; National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Study; individual legislation
Canadian Self-Sufficiency Project data, 286
conceptual models, relevant evidence, 285–289
child care, 288–289
income, 286–287
parent education, 287–288
parent psychological well-being, parenting, 289
Family Support Act data, 280, 281, 287
future research directions
economic/historical contexts, 291
infants and toddlers, 291–292
new minorities, 292
implications of policies, 290–291
maternal employment, effects on children, 283–285
developmental differences, 284–285
job stability/work characteristics, 285
welfare-to-work programs, positive effects, 284
New Hope Project data, 283, 286
Next Generation Project data, 282, 284–285, 289
policy lessons, 292
research
longitudinal studies, 283
policy experiments, 281–283
qualitative ethnographic studies, 283
subgroup differences in responses to policies, 290
Three-City Study data, 283, 285, 288
work-based incentive programs, 280–281
Wells, N. M., 15
Wessells, Michael G., 8, 700
What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), 95, 375, 380
White, D. R., 329
White children. See European American children
Whitehall study of UK civil servants, 615
White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, 98
White parents. See European American parents
Whitman, T. L., 164
Wide Range Achievement Test, 1984, Revised edition (WRAT-R), 77
Widom, C. S., 2, 72, 75, 698
Wilkinson, R., 614
Williams, D. R., 20, 630–631, 682
Williamson, I., 661
Wilson, D. K., 20, 127
Winegarden, C. R., 250
Wisconsin parent newsletters (PCI approach), 524
Wittrock, S. M., 74
Wodarski, J. S., 75
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program, 244
Women's Employment Study, 263
Women's Employment Study (WES), 283
Wood, D. O., 71
Woodcock-Johnson tests of achievements, 426
Woolley, D. P., 71, 441
work-family policies and child well-being, 296–304. See also employment in low income families; maternal employment, effects on children; maternal nonstandard work and child well-being
child care, 302–304
employer assistance, 303
Head Start random assignment studies, 302
Hispanic/immigrant children vs. White and African American children, 303
Norwegian research data, 302
OECD country model, 303
U.S. reliance on private market care, 302–303
U.S./Canada child care subsidy studies, 302
flexible work arrangements, 301
paid leave (other types), 300–301
parental leave, 297–300
Canadian, German, Danish, Swedish studies, 298–299
cross-country/within-country policies, 298
(p. 725) ECLS-B study data, 298
FMLA legislation (U.S.), 244–245, 299
leave policies description, 297
NICHD ECC study data, 298
NLSY study data, 298
non-Hispanic white vs. African American children, 298
Norwegian study, 299
OECD country policies, 300
state TDI programs, 299–300
post-birth benefits of leave, 299
stay-at-home mothers (parents), 265, 296, 301
World Health Organization
Atlas on Child and Mental Health Resources, 680
breastfeeding, overweight, obesity study, 135
Commission for the Social Determinants of Health, 605, 628
Composite Diagnostic Interview (CDI), 130
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, 687
post-Asian tsunami guidance, 682
“psychosocial treatments,” 681
Worthman, C. M., 16
Wu, L. L., 5
Wu, Nina, 695
X
Xie, Q., 154
Xue, Y., 414
Y
Yellow Horse Brave Heart, Maria, 485
Yeung, W. J., 398
Yonkers Project, neighborhood desegregation program, 438
Yoshikawa, H., 269
Young, M. E., 557
YouthBuild program (Department of Labor), 93
Z
Zaslowe, M., 287
Zenisky, A. L., 672
Zielinski, D. S., 72
Zingraff, M. T., 74
Ziol-Guest, K. M., 4
Zung Self-Rated Anxiety Scale, 130