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date: 22 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

As children transition to school, their environment rapidly expands and they spend increasing amounts of time in contexts outside of the family and home. This chapter reviews extant research on key factors that may facilitate or mitigate risk for child conduct problems in three extrafamilial contexts: school, after-school, and neighborhood. Evidence, albeit preliminary in some cases, consistently suggests that structural/organizational features, monitoring and supervision processes, and children's relationships with adults and peers in these settings are related to children's risk of conduct problems within and across these settings, with robust associations emerging for low-income children who experience multiple contextual risks. Future directions for research are raised, including the need for longitudinal and developmentally focused investigation of direct and interactive associations among contextual characteristics, parent involvement in these contexts, and individual and family factors in the prediction of children's conduct problems.

Keywords: conduct problems, behavior problems, school, after-school programs, out-of-school time, neighborhood risk

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