- Oxford Library Of Psychology
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- Introduction: Why Study Poverty?
- How Poverty Gets Under the Skin: A Life Course Perspective
- Economic Hardship and Its Consequences Across Generations
- Poverty Status and the Effects of Family Structure on Child Well-Being
- Long-Term Consequences of Child Neglect in Low-Income Families
- Children and Families in Poverty: Federal Perspectives on Applied Research and Evaluation
- The Early Development of Vagal Tone: Effects of Poverty and Elevated Contextual Risk
- Maternal Mental Health and Child Health and Nutrition
- Fatherhood and Fathering Among Low-Income and Minority Men
- Adolescent Parenting: Risk and Protective Factors in the Context of Poverty
- Cognitive Development and Family Resources Among Children of Immigrant Families
- The Dynamic of Poverty and Affluence in Child Adoption
- Poverty, Stress, and Autonomic Reactivity
- Employment in Low-Income Families
- Nonstandard Work Schedules and Child Development
- How Welfare and Employment Policies Influence Children's Development
- Work-Family Policies and Child Well-Being in Low-Income Families
- SES, Childhood Experience, and the Neural Bases of Cognition
- Family Factors, Childcare Quality, and Cognitive Outcomes
- Child Health and Early Education
- Child Care and Early Education for Low-Income Families: Choices and Consequences
- Evidence-Based School Interventions to Reduce Achievement Inequality
- Poverty and HPA Functioning in Young Children
- Extrafamilial Contexts and Children's Conduct Problems
- Neighborhood Effects on Children's Achievement: A Review of Recent Research
- Children Living in Rural Poverty: The Role of Chaos in Early Development
- Homelessness and Child Outcomes
- Poverty and Possibility in the Lives of American Indian and Alaska Native Children
- Poverty, the Development of Effortful Control, and Children's Academic, Social, and Emotional Adjustment
- Preventive Interventions: Parenting and the Home Environment
- Interventions for Low-Income Families: Sesame Workshop's Educational Outreach and the Healthy Habits for Life Initiative
- Translating Longitudinal, Developmental Research With Rural African American Families Into Prevention Programs for Rural African American Youth
- Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: Effects on Growth, Health, and Development in Young Children
- Children in Global Adversity: Physical, Mental, Behavioral, and Symbolic Dimensions of Health
- Addressing the Consequences of Concentrated Adversity on Child and Adolescent Mental Health
- Everyday Distress: Psychosocial and Economic Impact of Forced Migration on Children and Families
- Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Parenting Perspectives
- Humanitarian Crises in Low-Resource Settings: Evidence-Based Mental Health and Psychosocial Interventions for Children
- Future Directions in Research on Children and Poverty
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter provides a detailed summary of the effects of poverty and poverty-related stressors on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in young children. The HPA axis is a primary component of the human stress responses system and has been implicated in multiple domains of normative functioning, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes, as well as the development of psychopathology in children and adults. The primary focus of this chapter is on the environmental correlates of cortisol in young children, including the diurnal patterns of baseline levels as well as cortisol reactivity and regulation levels of cortisol in response to emotional challenge or stress. We examine associations between poverty contexts and HPA functioning, as well as potential experiential mediators of these associations, including family processes, child care, and broader environmental variables. The short- and long-term implications of these associations are discussed, as well as potential future directions for this research.
W. Roger Mills-Koonce, Center for Developmental Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Nissa Towe-Goodman, Center of Developmental Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
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