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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 507) Index

(p. 507) Index

Abadinsky, Howard 327
Abbott, Edith 49, 50
abolition 127, 439
Abstand 469, [link]
academic writings on ethnicity 197
Acadia 34
Acadian Museum 480
acculturation 11, 44–45, 270–76, 434. See also assimilation
acrolect 475
“Across Oceans, Across Time” exhibit 483
Adamic, Louis 492
Adams, John 378
Adams, John Quincy 494
Adams, Little Willie 330
Adams, Luther 95
Addams, Jane 49, 50, 111, 381
Adolph, Gustav 481
affirmative action 190, 214, 309, 343–46, 352n 39
affirmative definition of citizenship 125
Affirmative Discrimination (Glazer) 343
AFL-CIO 274–75
African Americans
and “acting white” thesis 346–49, 353n 41
and assimilation 191
and black Hispanics 9
and the Cold War 386–87
and ethnic employment networks 270
and ethnic museums 478–80, 485
and ethnic neighborhoods 294
and film depictions of race and ethnicity 453–55, 459, 461
historical migration patterns 86–101
and housing discrimination 295–96
and immigration in American South 362, 365, 368
and interethnic popular culture 273
and intermarriage 238
and machine politics 303, 308–14, 316
and the melting-pot myth 3
and migration trends 99–100
and myths of ethnic success 344
and neighborhood gentrification 297–98
and organized crime 319, 328–29, 331–32
and panethnicity 214, 225
and policy discrimination 73
and political mobility 10
and racial citizenship 166, 197–98
and racial classifications 215
and religious composition of the U.S. 438, 441
and slave music 199
and transnationalism 409
and working class 262
See also blacks
Africans
and Diversity Visa 23
and ethnic employment networks 270
and gender relations 115
and immigrant women’s lives 108
and immigration in American South 355–56
and immigration reforms 7, 19
and immigration scholarship 28
and intermarriage 235
and naturalization laws 17
and panethnicity 223
and religious composition of the U.S. 437–38
and removal of quotas 97–98
and women in mass migrations 117
Afro-Caribbeans 99–100, 311–13, 358
age of immigrants 42–43
The Age of Reform (Hofstadter) 307
Age of Revolution 38 (p. 508)
agricultural workers 15, 17, 41–42, 86, 93, 114
AHR Conversation on Transnational History 405
Ah Yup 174
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) 310
Akresh, Ilana Redstone 436
Alabama 7, 138, 359, 362
Alba, Richard 2, 157, 189, 408–9, 410, 445
Alex, Gus 326
Alianza Federal de Mercedes Libres 76
Alien and Sedition Acts 6, 378
Alien Land Laws 175
Alinsky, Saul 294
Allen, Garland 257
Allen, Theodore 201
Allende, Salvador 79
“allowable differences,” 431–33
Almaguer, Tomás 177
Alta Mexico 237
Amalgamated Clothing Workers’ of America 268
Amalgamated Copper Company 265
Ambrosio, Thomas 377
A. M. Byers 92
Amerasian Homecoming Act (1980) 60
America, America 197–98
“America letters,” 420–21
American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee 387
American Association for the Recognition of the Irish Republic (AARIR) 381
American Association for the Study of the Feeble Minded 252, 253
American Baptist Churches in the USA, et al. v. Edwin Meese III and Alan Nelson 81
American Committee for the Independence of Armenia 382
American Creed 145, 152
An American Dilemma (Myrdal) 152
American Dream 473
American G.I. Forum 388
American Indians (Native Americans)
and early settlement on Native lands 34–36
and ethnic museums 477–80, 483, 487
and film depictions of race and ethnicity 461
and historical legacy of migration 65
and immigrant women’s lives 108
and immigration in American South 358
and intermarriage 233–36, 241–42
and the melting-pot myth 3
and new approaches to ethnic scholarship 495
and panethnicity 215–16, 220
and racial citizenship 166–70, 174
and racial classifications 215–16
and religious nationalism 148
and restrictions on citizenship 125
and urban ethnic neighborhoods 290
westward displacement of 38
and white racial identity 199, 205
American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) 385
Americanization 39, 222, 270–76, 475. See also acculturation; assimilation
American Jewish Committee 382
American Jewish Congress 382
American Jewish Historical Quarterly 340
American Judaism (Glazer) 341
American Mosaic Project 444
American Protective Association 6
American Protestant 184
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 436
American Revolution 86–87, 145, 168, 320
American Sociological Association 49
American Sociological Review 347
American Swedish Historical Museum 481, 484
American Women Pickets for the Enforcement of America’s War Aims 381
“America’s Model Minority” (Winnick) 345
Amish 466
amnesty programs 7, 21–23, 25, 275, 388
Anaconda Corporation 265
anarchists 264, 267
Anderson, Annelise 325
Angel Island 4, 15, 256, 478
Anglicans 37
Anglos
Anglo Canadians 44
Anglo-conformity 45–46
Anglophobia 379 (p. 509)
Anglo-Protestant Europe 214
Anglo Saxons 148, 150, 214, 314
and early European colonies 35–36
and eighteenth-century immigration 37
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42
and fears of divided loyalties 377–78
and intermarriage 234–35
and language legislation 466
and “selective forgetting,” 499
and settlement on Native lands 35
and U.S. foreign policy 379
Annandale, Virginia 366
antebellum years 89–90, 95, 100, 203
anthropology 402
anticolonialism 386, 491
anti-immigrant sentiment
anti-Mexican sentiment 256
and border enforcement 128
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 43, 44
and fears of divided loyalties 376
and immigration in American South 361
and language legislation 466
and nonwhite immigrants 5–6
recent trends 7
and religious composition of the U.S. 443
See also anti-Semitism
anti-miscegenation laws 155, 239
Antin, Mary 247–48
anti-Nazi films 456–57
anti-Semitism 43, 205, 384, 456, 458–61
anti-Vietnam sentiment 58
Anzuldúa, Gloria 200
Appalachia 363
Arab American Institute 387
Arab American National Museum 481
Arab-Israeli War 385
Arab oil embargo 133
Arabs 6, 201, 217, 460
architecture 289–90
Argentines 79–80
Arizona 7, 138
Arkansas 359
Armenians 380, 382
Armour Packing Company 92
Armstead, Robert 94
Arnason, Johann 407
Arnesen, Eric 202
Arredondo, Gabriela E. 202
artists 59
Aryan racial order 152
Asbury, Herbert 321, 323
Ashkenazi Jews 40
Asian Business Association 219
Asian Indians
and American multiculturalism 59
and Atlantic Migration System 39
and exclusionary immigration measures 15–17
and historical legacy of migration 61–64
and Immigration Act of 1990, 24
and immigration in American South 357–58, 363, 369–70
and immigration reforms 19
and international students 27–28
and Latino immigrants 68
and the myth of ethnic success 349
and panethnicity 218
and racial citizenship 174–75
and religious composition of the U.S. 432–35, 437–38, 441
and U.S. foreign policy 388
and U.S. immigration legislation 54, 56
Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance 215
Asians
and Americanization 271
and American nationalism 156
and assimilation 193
complexity of population 53
and economy-motivated migration 41
and ethnic employment networks 270
and ethnic neighborhoods 297
and exclusionary immigration measures 17–18
and H-1B programs 23
historical legacies of 59–65
and immigrant unions 274
and immigration in American South 355–56, 364, 370
and immigration reforms 7
and immigration scholarship 1–2, 28
and intermarriage 232–33, 235, 237–42
legal framework for 53–57
and the melting-pot myth 3 (p. 510)
and model minorities concept 495
and multiculturalism 57–59
and myths of ethnic success 344–46, 352n 37, 352n 39
and organized crime 331
and panethnicity 216, 217, 218–20, 224–25
and racial classifications 215
and racialization 45
and religious composition of the U.S. 437, 438, 441
and removal of quotas 97
and U.S. foreign policy 388
and women in mass migrations 114, 117
See also Asian Indians; specific countries and ethnicities
Asiatic Barred Zone 175
Ask the Dust (Fante) 198
Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN) 383–84
assimilation
and the American future 193–94
and communications technology 11
defining and theorizing 189–90
“downward,” 191
empirical evidence on 192–93
as historical phenomenon 187–89
and immigration scholarship 1, 4
and intermarriage 233, 241
and Latino immigration 83
and New Ethnicity 494
paradigmatic experience 183–87
progressive 494
and racial citizenship 172
and scholarship on migrants 49–51
segmented 191–92
and transnationalism 403, 409
and white racism 15
Associated Negro Press 92
Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) 294
Astor, John Jacob 327
asylum 20, 30n 3, 81
atheists 441
Atlanta, Georgia 8, 94, 364, 365, 366, 369
Atlanta Exposition 344
Atlantic Migration System 2, 36, 38–39, 41, 43–45, 47–48
at-large elections 314–15
Attaway, William 198
Aubert, Guillaume 233
Ausbau 469, [link]
Auschwitz 457
Austin, Stephen F. 169
Austro-Hungarian Empire 379, 467
autonomies 474
BABS-Gotha German letter project 422–23, 425
baby boom 136, 193–94
Back of the Yards neighborhood 287, 293–94
Bacon’s Rebellion 168
Bailey, Samuel 2
Bakhtin, Mikhail 454
Balch, Emily Greene 49–50
Baldwin, James 197, 200–201, 203, 205
Balfour Declaration 382
Ball, Charles 87
balseros (rafters) crisis 79
Baltimore, George Calvert, Lord 35
Baltimore, Maryland 95
Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture 480
Banfield, Edward C. 307
Bangladeshis 23, 28
banks 327
Bankston, Carl L. 241, 362
Baptists 439
Barkan, Elliott 408
Baron, Lawrence 457–58
Baron, Salo 482
Barred Zone Act 54
Barrett, James R. 202
Barth, Frederick 187
Basch, Linda 400, 401
Bashford, Alison 257
Basques 34
Bavarians 434
Bayly, C.A. 405
Baynton, Douglas 253
Bayor, Ronald H. 2, 238
Bean, Frank 243n 2
Beck, Ulrich 140n 2
Beckert, Sven 405 (p. 511)
Becoming Old Stock (Kazal) 202
Being Brown in Dixie (Lippard and Gallagher) 368
Bell, Daniel 327
Bell, David 344
Bell, Thomas 198
Belmessous, Saliha 233
benefits for immigrants 24
Berlin, Germany 247
Berlin, Ira 98, 99
Berroll, Selma 340
Beyond the Melting Pot (Glazer and Moynihan) 185
Bhagavad Gita 435
Bibb, Henry 88
Big Aiiieeeee boys 58
bilingualism 77, 467, 468–72, 474, 493
binary racial systems 234
Binet, Alfred 252–53
Binet Scale 252–53
biological essentialism 177
biracial social systems 243n 2
Birmingham, Alabama 94
The Birth of a Nation (1915) 452–55, 459, 461
birthright citizenship 146
The Black Atlantic (Gilroy) 405
Black Church 430, 439–40
Black English 469, 474–75, 493
blackface 461
black market economy, 137. See also organized crime
Black Panthers 77, 93
Black Power movement 100
blacks
and the American Civil War 439–40
black Hispanics 9
“Black is Beautiful” movement 155
black label 223
Black Power movement 58
Black Pride movement 4, 216
and ethnic employment networks 269
and ethnic museums 482–83
and ethnic neighborhoods 297
and immigration in American South 368
and intermarriage 233, 239, 240
and labor unions 275
and machine politics 308, 311–12
and myths of ethnic success 343, 344
and organized crime 330–32
and religious composition of the U.S. 441, 444
“Black Students’ School Success” (Ogbu and Fordham) 347
Blakely, David 95
Blegen, Theodore 1, 50, 422
Block, Alan 325
bloodline nations 40
Blood on the Forge (Attaway) 198
Bloods 323
“blue highways,” 400
Blumenfeld, Isadore “Kid Cann,” 326
B’nai B’rith 382
Boas, Franz 50, 151
Bodnar, John 2, 291
Bohemians 264
Bonanno, Joseph 324
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo 177
bootlegging 324–25, 326. See also organized crime
borders and border enforcement
after World War II 130–34
borderlands 83, 241
border militias 7
Border Patrol 128, 131, 135–36
and citizenship and capitalism 125–27
“closed border” policy 149
and correspondence of immigrants 417, 418
and ethnic neighborhoods 287–88
and migration history scholarship 492
policy responses to 134–39
post-World War II border control policy 130–34
and production of illegality 128–30
and production of “illegality,” 128–30
and transnationalism 398–99, 402–3, 405–7, 408–9, 411
and undocumented immigrants 25
Borinqueneers 74
Boss Tweed’s New York (Mandelbaum) 303
Boston, Massachusetts 221, 263
Boston Herald 150
boundary blurring 187
boundary crossing 187 (p. 512)
boundary shifting 187–88
Bourdieu, Pierre 406, 407
Bourne, Randolph 151, 400, 486, 492
The Bowery 287
“bowing letters,” 424–25
boycotts 381
Bracero Program (Mexican Farm Labor Program Agreement) 20, 48, 73, 131–33
brain drain 57, 63
Brazilians 79, 424
Breckinridge, Sophonisba 49
Brinks, Herbert 425
Britain 37, 48, 349, 379, 389
British East India Company 35
British immigrants
and civic nationalism 145
and fears of divided loyalties 377–78
and immigration reforms 19
and intermarriage 233
and labor unions 274–75
and U.S. foreign policy 380
Brodkin, Karen 202, 214
Brotherhood Week 154
“brothers and sisters” act 19
Brown, JoAnne 252
Browne, Irene 369, 370
Brown v. Board of Education 176
Bruno organization 331
Buchalter, Louis 326
Buchanan, James 169
Buchanan, Patrick 5
Buddhists and Buddhism
and Latino immigrants 68
and religious composition of the U.S. 431, 435, 437–38, 442
and religious persecution 9
Buff, Rachel 297
Bunch, Lonnie 487
Bureau of Immigration 131
Bush, George W. 21, 64, 80, 155
business ownership 60, 62
Butte Miners Union 265–66
Cahan, Abraham 264
Calhoun, John 236
California
Alien Land Laws 175
and Asian immigrants 61, 219
and border enforcement 138
gold rush 14, 128, 420
and Hispanic political influence 28
and historical legacy of migration 60
and immigrant labor 273, 275
and immigration in American South 358
and intermarriage 235–36, 237
and Latino immigration 70, 82
and racial citizenship 170
State Park System 478
californios 69, 236
Cambodian American Heritage Museum 483
Cambodians 59, 357, 358
Campaign Finance Scandal 64
Canada 48, 79, 131, 266, 389
Cancian, Sonia 426
capitalism
and Asian Americans 218
and border security 125–27
and civic nationalism 153
and historical legacies of immigration 59, 65
and industrial union movements 266
and Latino immigrants 69
and new approaches to ethnic scholarship 491
and organized crime 320, 322, 328, 330, 333–34
and progressivism 250
and transnationalism 401, 408
Capone, Al 324
Caribbean immigrants
and African American migration trends 89
and African immigration 87
and the Cold War 386
and dual citizenship 388–89
and early European colonies 36
and immigration in American South 355–56, 364
and intermarriage 233
and the interwar period 93
and panethnicity 220, 223
and religious composition of the U.S. 437
and removal of quotas 97–99
and U.S. foreign policy 379, 383
and women in mass migrations 117 (p. 513)
Carnegie Endowment 50
Carnegie Steel 92
carpet industry 361
caste-like minorities 348–49
Castellino, Domini R. 347–48
Castles, Stephen 401
Castro, Fidel 20, 78, 385
Cather, Willa 443
Catholics and Catholicism
and American nationalism 144, 157
and American xenophobia 5
and assimilation 183–87, 188, 192
and civic nationalism 146
and eighteenth century immigration 37
and ethnic neighborhoods 286, 289, 292
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 43
and exclusionary immigration measures 6
French Catholics 5
and immigrant labor 266
and immigrant women’s lives 111–12
and intermarriage 238
Irish Catholics 5, 111–12, 113
and labor unions 276
and language retention 464
and Latino immigrants 68
and machine politics 310
and myths of ethnic success 338
and nativism 262
and racial classification 152
and religious composition of the U.S. 27, 434–35, 437, 439, 442–45
and religious nationalism 147–48
and religious persecution 9
and rural settlement 111
sociolinguistic impact of 473–74
and transnationalism 406
censorship 422
censuses 17, 53, 62, 166, 243n 2. See also U.S. Census Bureau
Central American Free Trade Agreement 133
Central American Relief Act 30n 3
Central Americans
and American foreign policy 383
and border enforcement 137
and Bracero Program 48
and correspondence of immigrants 427
and ethnic neighborhoods 297
and immigrant labor unions 276
and Immigration Act of 1990, 23
and immigration in American South 358, 368
and labor migration 28
and panethnicity 220
and policy responses 135
and political asylum 22, 30n 3
and post-1965 immigration 80, 81
See also specific countries
Central Europeans, 46–47. See also specific countries
Cha, Frank 366
chain migration 8, 56, 130
Chambers Brothers 332
Chan, Sucheng 60
Chang, David A. 241
Chao, Elaine 64
Charleston, South Carolina 89
Charlotte, North Carolina 365
Chauncey, George 293
Chávez, Cesar 76
Cherokees 169
Chicago, Illinois
and Asian immigrants 219
and economy-motivated migration 41
and ethnic museums 482, 485
and ethnic neighborhoods 287–88, 290–91, 293–94, 296
ethno-political history 10
and immigrant labor unions 275–76
and Latino subgroups 221–22
and machine politics 309–11
and migration of African Americans 91
and myths of ethnic success 341
and organized crime 321
and wartime labor shortages 92–93
and working class 263
and the Young Lords 77
Chicago Defender 91
Chicago Federation of Labor 381
Chicago School of Sociology 11, 288, 296, 422
Chicago stockyards 269
Chicago Women’s School of Sociology 49
Chicanos 76, 83, 239
Chicasaws 169
Child, Irvin 190 (p. 514)
Chileans 79–80
Chin, Frank 58
Chin, Vincent 58, 216
Chinatown (New York City) 60
“Chinatown Offers Us a Lesson” (McIntyre) 342
Chinatowns 288–89, 290
Chin Dun 175
Chinese
and assimilation 183
and economic niches 8
and ethnic employment networks 270
and ethnic museums 478
and ethnic neighborhoods 292
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 44
and historical legacy of migration 61, 63
and illegal immigration 22, 128
and Immigration Act of 1990, 24
and immigration in American South 356, 358, 364–66
and immigration scholarship 14, 28
and intermarriage 113, 237, 239
and international students 27
and labor unions 274–75
and medical exams 248
and model minorities concept 10
and myths of ethnic success 342, 343–44
and organized crime 331
and panethnicity 218, 219, 223, 225
and racial citizenship 170, 172
and racial nationalism 149
and religious composition of the U.S. 435, 438
and U.S. foreign policy 388
and women in mass migrations 112, 113
Chinese Exclusion Laws (1882-1943) 6, 15–17, 24, 54–55, 63, 128, 172
Chin Tong 175
Choate, Mark I. 405–6
Choctaws 169
cholera epidemics 248
Christianity 114–15, 148, 152, 188–89, 437, 438. See also specific religious sects
chronotope 454, 455–56, 459, 461
Chu, Stephen 64
Church Finns 398
Ciceronian dilemma 377
circular migration flows 63, 130
citizenship
Citizenship Clause 171
citizenship initiatives 138
and civic nationalism 146
and illegal immigration 124–25
and immigrant women’s lives 109
and immigration scholarship 1, 3
and Latino immigration 69, 71–72
and multiculturalism 492
and race 166–77
restrictions on 125–26
City College of New York 342
City Fusion Party 307
City Politics (Banfield and Wilson) 307
civic nationalism 144–46, 152–53, 157
civil disobedience 80
civil rights 155
Civil Rights Acts 70, 171, 172, 175, 342
Civil Rights Cases 172, 176
Civil Rights movement
and African American migration trends 100
and American multiculturalism 58
and ethnic museums 479
and ethnic neighborhoods 297
and immigrant women’s lives 115
and immigration in American South 356, 361–62, 367–70
and immigration scholarship 4
and intermarriage 232, 239, 240
and Latino immigration 74, 76
and myths of ethnic success 342–43, 346, 349
and new approaches to ethnic scholarship 491
and racial citizenship 175, 176
and religious composition of the U.S. 430, 440
civil service 307–9, 315
Civil War (U.S.)
and African American migration trends 99
citizenship after 167
and correspondence of immigrants 423
and emancipation 89–90
and postwar industrialization 38
and racial citizenship 170 (p. 515)
and racial nationalism 149
and religious composition of the U.S. 439–40
and religious nationalism 146–47
and restrictions on immigration 126–28
and U.S. foreign policy 378–79
Clarke, Una 313
classical language [link] , 469, [link]
class structure and divisions
and correspondence of immigrants 421–22
and current research agendas 11
and discrimination against African immigrants 100
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42–45
and immigrant unions 273–76
impact on migration patterns 38–39
and Latino immigration 70
and myths of ethnic success 346–47, 348
and organized crime 329
and panethnicity 214, 216, 224
and working-class formation 262–63
Cleveland, Grover 16
Cleveland, Ohio 92, 94, 485
Clinchy, Everett R. 154
Clinton, Bill 64, 155, 387
“closed border” policy 149
Close to Slavery (Immigrant Justice Project) 362
Clothilde 89
Coajuila y Tejas 169
coal industry 94, 266, 267
code language [link] , 469, [link]
Cohen, Mickey 326
Cold War
and Cuban refugees 221
and historical legacy of migration 63
impact on U.S. immigration policy 6, 55, 56
and intermarriage 240
and Latino immigration 78, 79
and migration history scholarship 491
and post-1965 immigration 80
and U.S. foreign policy 376, 383–87
collaboration, racial and ethnic 361–62
collective bargaining 309, 361
Collier, John 151
Colombians 358, 403
colonial era
and immigrant letters 417–18, 421
and immigrant women’s lives 108–10
and intermarriage 232–34, 237
and migration of women 117–18
and new approaches to ethnic scholarship 491
and panethnicity 218–19, 220, 225
color categories 235
“Colored’ and Catholic” (Faires and Faires-Conklin) 201
Color magazine 332
The Color of Money (1986) 330
Columbia University 50
Comité des Citoyens 171
Commentary 343, 345
common law 175, 235
communication technologies 11, 366–67, 401
Communist Party 264, 398
community formation, 263–68. See also neighborhoods of immigrants
community histories 496
community organization 294
Comparative Immigrant Entrepreneurship Project 403
compound bilingualism 471
confiscation of land 69
Congregationalists 439
Congressional Black Caucus 387
Congressional Budget Office (CBO) 21
Congressional Hispanic Caucus 388
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 332
Conn, Steven 4
Connelly, Matthew 405
Connor, Phillip 436, 444–45
Connor Prairie 478
conscripted labor 127
conservatism 346
Constitution 125
construction work 268
consumers 114
container theory 125, 140n 2
contract labor 56, 304. See also indentured servitude
convict immigrants 36 (p. 516)
“coolie trade,” 127
coordinate bilingualism 471
copper mining 265
Coppin, Fannie Jackson 90
copyright issues 498
correspondence. See immigrant letters
corridos 70
corruption 303, 314, 327, 332–33
cosmopolitanism 49
Covello, Leonard 338
“coyotes,” 26
crafts 339–40
craft unions 274
Creeks 169
Creole languages 98, [link] , 469, [link]
Creoles 170–72, 176
criminalization of immigrants 138
criminal prosecutions 124
criollos 71
Crips 323
critical race studies 495
Croker, Richard 305
Cromwell, Oliver 37
Crusade for Justice 76
Cubans
and assimilation 191
and the Cold War 78, 383, 385–86
Cuban Adjustment Act 78–79
Cuban American National Foundation (CANF) 385
Cuban Committee for Democracy 385
Cuban Refugee Program 79, 221
Cuban Revolution 385
and economic niches 8
and future of Latino migration 83
“Latin melting pot” phenomenon 267
and Latino political influence 28
and origin of immigrant communities 70–73
and panethnicity 217, 220, 224
and political mobility 10
and racial citizenship 170
refugees 20
and religious nationalism 148
and U.S. foreign policy 376, 388
and U.S. immigration legislation 55
cult of domesticity 110–11, 114–15
cultural capital 347
cultural deprivation 346
cultural diversity 49
cultural genocide 239
cultural paternalism 233
cultural self-determination 38–39
cultural values 10, 110
curriculum revisions 494–95
Cuvier, Georges 174
Czarist Russia 113, 467
Czechs 380, 383, 467
Daily Forward 264
Daley, Richard J. 10, 303, 309–11, 321
Daley, Richard M. 311
Dalton, Georgia 361
Daly, Marcus 265
Daniels, Ruby 93
Danilov, Victor 480
Danish Immigrant Museum 483, 486
Darity, William, Jr. 347–48
Davis-DuBois, Rachel 151
Dawson, Michael 216
Dawson, William 310, 311
Dead End (1937) 460
Dearborn, Michigan 297, 481
Death Comes for the Archbishop (Cather) 443
Declaration of Fundamental Religious Beliefs Held in Common by Catholics, Protestants, and Jews 154
Declaration of Independence 37, 145–46, 168, 439, 481
DeConde, Alexander 377–78
Deep South 86, 88–90, 95. See also The South (American South)
de facto segregation 367–68
DeFunis case 343
deindustrialization 96–97, 274, 334, 364
Delgado v. Bastrop 74
democracy and democratization 3, 5, 55, 153, 321, 498
Democratic National Convention 347
Democratic Party
and American foreign policy 385
and American nationalism 153
and foreign policy 381 (p. 517)
and machine politics 302–3, 303–5, 305–9, 309–10, 311–13
and panethnicity 214
demographic shifts
and ethnic neighborhoods 297
and immigration in American South 357
and intermarriage 233, 237
and migration history scholarship 491
and religious composition of the U.S. 437
denizenship 297
deportations 25, 81, 124
desaparecidos 80
desegregation 154–55
Detroit, Michigan 91, 94, 216
developing countries 315
DeWind, Josh 403
Diallo, Amadou 99–100
Diaoyutai Islands 58
diasporic communities 225, 377, 384, 490
Diawara, Manthia 100
Diaz, Porfirio 71
digital media 418–19, 427, 471, 496–99
Diner, Hasia 3
Dinkins, David 311–12
diocese 296
Direzione Generale degli Italiani all’Estero 382
“Dirty War” (Argentina) 80
Discriminating Against Discrimination (O’Neil) 343
discrimination 1, 99–100, 173, 319, 320, 453
displaced persons 18, 47, 51, 55, 384
Dissenters 37
district elections 315
Diversity Visas (DVs) 23
divided loyalties 376–78
dock workers 268
Dodson, Caroline 90
Dolan, Jay 2
Dollard, John 204
domestic service 113
domestic slave trade 88
Dominicans
and dual citizenship 389
and economic niches 8
and future of Latino migration 83
and immigrant women’s lives 116
and immigration in American South 358, 369
and origins of Latino immigration 72
and panethnicity 220–21, 222
and political mobility 10
and transnationalism 403
domus 293
Dore-Cabral, Carlos 222
Douglass, Frederick 199, 200
Dove, Samuel 90
“downward” assimilation 191, 192
Dream Act 7, 26–27, 138
Dred Scott v. Sandford 170, 171
Dreyfus Affair 456, 458
driver’s licenses 27
drug trade 25, 322, 327, 330–31, 334
dual citizenship 8, 388–89
dual housing market 295–96
dual identity 11
Du Bois, W. E. B. 199, 201, 386–87
due process 146, 171
Dugdale, Richard 255
Durkheim, Émile 407
Dutch 425, 426
Eagan, Catherine 205
Eagle Eye 96
Eason, Eddie 95–96
East Asians 183, 474
East Coast Seaboard Airline Railroad 95
Eastern Europeans
and assimilation 183
and Cold War 383–84
and economy-motivated migration 40
and ethnic museums 481–82
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 43–44
and exclusionary immigration measures 16
and immigrant labor 268
and immigrant labor unions 275
and Immigration Act of 1990, 23–24
and intermarriage 238
and myths of ethnic success 350n 4
and racial citizenship 9, 173
scholarship on 49
and U.S. foreign policy 8
and women in mass migrations 112 (p. 518)
and working class 262, 263
and World War I 46–47
and World War II 47
Eastern Orthodoxy 6
East Indians 35, 170
East Palestine, Ohio 485
Eck, Diana 27
Eckstein, Susan Eva 386
economic conditions
and border enforcement 136, 139
and Central American immigration 22
and citizenship 127
and correspondence of immigrants 423
and economic restructuring 361
economy-motivated migration decisions 39–41
and illegal immigration 22, 124
and immigrant labor 127
and immigration declines 8, 26
and immigration in American South 356–58, 359–63
and inequality 193
as motivation for immigration 8
recent European gains 29n 25
and sociolinguistics 474
and technological developments in agriculture 93
and World War II 48
Ecuador 137
Edgewater neighborhood 290
education
and assimilation 185–86, 192
and bilingualism 468–72
and correspondence of immigrants 419–21
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 44
and historical legacy of migration 61
and immigrant elites 27–28
and immigration laws 57, 98
and immigration reforms 19
and immigration scholarship 4
and myths of ethnic success 340–41, 348–49, 350n 3, 352n 37, 353n 41
new approaches ethnic scholarship 489–99
and religious composition of the U.S. 441
and segregate of Japanese students 15
and social mobility 10
and women migrants 114, 116
Edwards, Delroy 328
Eisenhower, Dwight David 18, 20, 54
elections
Asians elected to office 63–64
at-large elections 314–15
district elections 315
and organized crime 321
and voting rights 10, 155, 169, 315
ward elections 315
electronic media 418–19, 427, 471, 496–99
eligibility for immigration 6
elites 27–28
Elkhorn, Iowa 486
Elliott, Mark 177
Ellis Island
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42
and eugenics 251
and exclusionary immigration measures 16
immigration museum 478
and immigration scholarship 3, 4
and medical exams 248–50
and mental testing 255–56
and racialization 45
and scholarship on migrants 49
and white racial identity 197
El Movimiento 76
El Salvadorans 22, 72, 137, 274
Elspass, Stephan 426
emancipation 89–90, 107–10, 112, 115, 117–18
Emancipation Proclamation 99
Emergency Farm Labor Program (Bracero Program) 129–30
Emigrant Nation (Choate) 405–6
Emigrants and Exiles (Miller) 425
enemy aliens 46, 54
England 35, 467. See also Anglos
English common law 235
“English Official” legislation 466–67, 468
“English Only” legislation 11, 466–67, 468, 472, 474
“English Plus” legislation 474
Ensign, John 64
entrepreneurship 60, 340
Episcopalians 439
“epistolary ethics,” 426
“E Pluribus Unum” motto 3 (p. 519)
Epton, Bernard 311
equal protection 146, 171, 176
equal rights 144
Erens, Patricia 458
Erickson, Frank 326
Erie Canal 43
Erikson, Charlotte 377–78
Erin’s Daughters in America (Diner) 3
eruv 289
Escobedo v. Illinois 74
espionage 64–65
Espiritu, Yen Le 388
Essence 201
Ethiopia 386
Ethnic America (Sowell) 343
ethnic cleansing 492
ethnic communities and enclaves 263, 273, 364, 366. See also neighborhoods of immigrants
ethnic histories 486–87
ethnic museums 477–87
The Ethnic Myth (Steinberg) 338–39
ethnic succession model 319–20, 325–26, 329, 331
ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42–45
eugenics
and American xenophobia 5
and film depictions of race and ethnicity 454–55
legacy of 256–57
and mental testing 251–56
and Progressivism 250–51
and racial nationalism 150
Europeans
and acculturation 271
and the Age of Revolution 38
and colonial North America 108
and ethnic neighborhoods 290
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42, 45
European “nationalities,” 213–14
and immigration in American South 356
and intermarriage 233, 238
and language consciousness 474
and panethnicity 9
and racial citizenship 173
and religious composition of the U.S. 433, 438, 443
and rural settlers 110
scholarship on 49–51
See also specific regions of Europe
European Union (EU) 472
evangelicals 68, 147
E-Verify program 139
evolution 254
exclusionary practices 125, 151–56, 167. See also Chinese Exclusion Laws (1882-1943)
Executive Branch 149
expansionism 236
expansion of citizenship 167
extortion 321–22, 331
factory labor 41, 43, 113–14, 262
Fairchild, Amy 249, 258n 6
Faires, Nora 201
Faires Conklin, Nancy 201
“fair use,” 498
Faith on the Move study 436
“The Family,” 332
family-based immigration
and Asian immigration 54
and Atlantic Migration System 39
and correspondence of immigrants 417–18
and exclusionary immigration measures 15–19
and family histories 496
and family strategies 51
and immigrant women’s lives 114
and immigration in American South 357
and U.S. immigration legislation 56
and World War II 48
Family of Man (Steichen) 482
famine 43
Fante, John 198
Fascism 47, 382
Fay, Larry 326
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 319, 328, 329
Federal Housing Authority (FHA) 214
Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) 21
“feeblemindedness,” 251, 255, 259n 31
Felsen, Fast Eddie 330 (p. 520)
feminism 112, 115, 264, 493–94
Fenian Brotherhood 378–79
fertility rates 114, 117
Fifteenth Amendment 175
Filipinos
and border enforcement 137
and ethnic employment networks 270
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 44
and exclusionary immigration measures 16
and historical legacy of migration 60, 61
and immigrant women’s lives 116
and immigration in American South 356, 358, 363
and immigration reforms 19
and intermarriage 237
and naturalization laws 17
and panethnicity 219
and racial citizenship 167
and religious composition of the U.S. 438
and U.S. foreign policy 388
and U.S. immigration legislation 54–56
Filles du Roi 233
film depictions of race and ethnicity 452–55, 455–59, 459–61
Fink, Leon 361
Finns 37, 399, 485
First Amendment 147, 439
First Congress 439
First Peoples 35–36
Fischer, Michael 264
fishing industry 362
Fishman, Joshua 463
Fitzgerald, David 405–6, 408
Fitzpatrick, David 425–26
Five Civilized Tribes 169
Five Points neighborhood 323
Florida 28, 37, 67, 82
Foner, Nancy 99, 402, 445
Fong, Hiram 64
Ford, Gerald 59
Ford, Patrick 379
Fordham, Signithia 347
Ford Motor Company 92
“foreign language islands,” 467
foreign policy
and Asian American identities 218
and the Cold War 383–87
and exclusionary immigration measures 46
fear of divided loyalties 376–78
immigrant influence on 8, 375–76
and Latino immigration 83
and machine politics 308
nineteenth century 378–80
and panethnicity 225
in post-Cold War era 387–90
and research on ethnic influences 375–76
and World War I 380–83
Fort Wayne, Indiana 452–54, 459
Fort Wayne Daily News 453
Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette 453
Fort Wayne Sentinel 452
Foster, William Z. 272
Fourteenth Amendment 15, 24, 126, 146, 155, 171–73, 175
fragmentation 4
France 48, 388–89, 467
Franklin, Benjamin 235
Fratianno, James 325, 326
Frazier, E. Franklin 330
Freedmen’s Bureau 90
free speech 272
free thinkers 264
free trade agreements 82
“free workers,” 43
Freiheit 264
French-African marriages 233
French Canadians 148
French Catholics 5
French colonizers 233–34
French immigrants 34–36, 44, 464
French Revolution 378
Freyre, Gilberto 50
Fried, Albert 326
Friedman, Lester 458
Friends of Irish Freedom (FOIF) 381
frontier capitalism 266
frontier settlement 38, 110, 112–13
fugitive slave clauses 125
fur traders 35
Furuseth, Owen J. 365
Gabaccia, Donna 2, 3, 267, 405
Gadsden Purchase 69
Gage, Nicholas 332 (p. 521)
Gagliano, Luigi 267
Gallagher, Charles 368
Galton, Francis 250, 257
Gambino, Richard 342
gambling 331–32
Gamio, Manuel 50
Gamm, Gerald 296
gangs 290, 292, 333
Gans, Herbert 404
García, Macario 74
García, María Cristina 385
garment manufacturing 268
Garvey, Marcus 386
Gay New York (Chauncey) 293
Gee Hop case 16
gender issues
and Atlantic Migration System 39
and citizenship issues 166
and colonial North America 109
and current research agendas 11
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42–45
gender balance in migrant populations 110, 115–16
and immigration legislation 15, 16
and immigration scholarship 2–3
and religious composition of the U.S. 431
women and the proletarian mass 112–15
general strikes 276
generational change 192–93, 224, 339, 434, 444–45
genetics 254, 255, 257
genocide 36, 167, 492
“Gentlemen’s Agreement,” 15, 54, 149
gentrification 297–98
Georgia 7, 82, 138, 359, 361, 369
Gerber, David 426
German Heritage Museum 483
Germans
and correspondence of immigrants 418, 426
and economic niches 8
and eighteenth century immigration 36
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42, 44
and film depictions of race and ethnicity 461
Germans from Russia Heritage Society 483
German speakers 463–65
and immigration reforms 19
and labor unions 274–75
and machine politics 313–14
POWs 47
and racialization 45
and religious composition of the U.S. 434
and rural settlement 111–13
and U.S. foreign policy 378–80
and working class 263–64
Germany 40, 47, 382
gerrymandering 311
Gerson, Louis L. 377
Gerstle, Gary 5, 270
ghettos 44
GI Bill 74, 214, 238
Gilder Lehrman Institute 497
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins 251
Gilroy, Paul 405
Gingrich, Newt 345, 466–67
Giuliani, Rudy 312, 329
Gjerde, Jon 402, 492
glass-ceiling limits 62
Glazer, Nathan 185, 202, 204, 341, 343, 375, 492
Glick Schiller, Nina 400–404, 406–8
global capitalism 124–25, 127, 218, 491
globalization
and border enforcement 137
and correspondence of immigrants 421
and film depictions of race and ethnicity 460
and immigrant unions 273–76
and immigration in American South 356
and language consciousness 472–73
and migration history scholarship 492
Goddard, Henry 251–56, 259n 31
Godfather films 325
Gold, Mike 198
Golden Venture 60
Goldfield, David 367
Goldman, Emma 267
gold rush 14, 128, 420
Goldscheider, Calvin 339, 350n 3
Goldstein, Eric 203, 205
González, Rodolfo “Corky,” 76
Google Books 497 (p. 522)
Gordon, Linda 202
Gordon, Milton M. 2, 189, 191, 241
Gordon, Waxey 324, 327
Gould, Jay 327
government surveillance 11
graffiti 290
graft, 303. See also corruption; organized crime
Grant, Al 97
Grant, Eula 97
Grant, Madison 5, 251
gray market economy 137
The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Gordon) 202
Great Depression
and border enforcement 128
and declines in immigration 8, 46–47
and immigrant labor 127
and labor migration 17
and Latino immigration 73
and machine politics 306, 308
and organized crime 319
and transnationalism 399
unionization of immigrant labor 275
and working-class formation 263
Great Migration
and African American migration trends 91, 96–97
and ethnic neighborhoods 294
and machine politics 309
and origins of Latino immigration 75–76
and transnationalism 400–401, 408
and urbanization 86
Great Recession 193
Great Society 311
Great Steel Strike 272
Greeks 40, 113, 204
Greeley, Andrew 342
Green, James 264
“green cards,” 81
Griffith, David 360–61
Grimshaw, William 310
Grosfoguel, Ramón 220–21
Gross, Ariela 177
Guarnizo, Luis 403
Guatemalans
and border enforcement 137
and illegal immigrants 22
and immigration in American South 358, 361
and post-1965 immigration 80
and religious composition of the U.S. 442
unionization of immigrant labor 274
Guerra Chiquita 71
guestworkers 39, 48, 129–30, 362
Guglielmo, Jennifer 202, 204–5
Guglielmo, Thomas 5, 202, 203
Guiana 170
Gulf War 387
Gutiérrez, David 388
Gutman, Herbert 262, 492–93
gypsies, persecution of 205
H1-B temporary worker visas 61
H-2 programs 362
Habermas, Jürgen 407
Habsburgs 40
Hague Convention 401–2
Haitian Revolution 89, 170
Haitians 137, 445
Haley, Alex 200
Haley, Nikki 64
Hall, G. Stanley 253–54
Haller, Mark 325
Haller, William 403
Hamburg Athletic Club 321
Hampton, Fred 77
Hampton, University 479
handguns 334
Handlin, Oscar 1, 2, 433–34, 489, 492, 499
Haney-López, Ian F. 200, 202, 214
Hansberry, Lorraine 296
Hansen, Marcus Lee 422, 433–34
Hansen’s Law 433–34
Harlan, John Marshall 172
Harlem 99, 287, 308
Harris, Abram 93
Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups 2
Harvard University Library Open Collections Program 497
Hasidism 466 (p. 523)
Haugen, Einar 464
Hawaii 15, 16, 61, 64, 219, 471
Hayakawa, S. I. 466
Haymarket riot 264
healthcare workers 357
health insurance 48–49
Hebrew language 471–72
Hebrew Trades 264
Hellman, Lillian 460
Hemings, Mary 168
Hemings, Sally 168
Henderson v. Mayor of New York 128
Herberg, Will 188, 430–34, 436–39, 445
heredity 251, 254. See also eugenics
“heritage languages,” 467
“heritage” tourism 485–86
Hernández-León, Rubén 361
Hernández v. the State of Texas 74, 176
heroin 329, 332
Hidalgo, Daniel 241
hierarchical social structure 108, 187, 193, 242, 367
Hierarchical Structures and Social Value (Williams) 201
High, Arrington 96
Higham, John 200, 204, 410–11, 482–83, 491
Hill, Henry 328
Hillquit, Morris 381
Hindi 471
Hindus and Hinduism
and immigration in American South 370
and racial citizenship 174
and religious composition of the U.S. 431–33, 435, 437–38
and religious persecution 9
Hindu Students Council 434–35
Hirsch, Arnold 296
Hispanics
and anti-immigrant sentiment 6, 25
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42
“Hispanic” term 68, 84n 1
hispanos 69, 70
and intermarriage 242
and language retention 466
and language shift 474–75
and machine politics 309
and panethnicity 222, 224
and political activism 26
political influence of 28
and political mobility 10
and racial classifications 215
and religious composition of the U.S. 435, 442, 444
historical sociology 490–92
History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web 497
Hitler, Adolf 152
Hmongs 59, 60, 388
Hodes, Martha 241, 242
Hoffnung-Garskof, Jesse 296–97
Hofstadter, Richard 307
Holder, Eric 319
Holding Hands 97
Hollinger, David 410
Hollywood and Anti-Semitism (Carr) 459
the “Hollywood Question,” 459–61
Hollywood’s Image of the Jew (Friedman) 458
Holocaust 47, 184, 257, 491
Holocaust films 455–59
home-based labor 291
home ownership 295–96
homosexuals 293, 297–98
Hondurans 137, 358
Hong Kong 62
Honolulu, Hawaii 219
Hoover, Herbert 151
household incomes 62
House of Burgesses 168
House of Representatives 64
housing of immigrants 44, 291, 295–96
How Jews Became White Folks (Brodkin) 202
How the Irish Became White (Ignatiev) 201, 202
Hudson’s Bay Company 35
Huerta, Dolores 76
Hughes, Everett 50
Hughes, Helen MacGill 50
Hula 497
Hull House 49
Hull-House Maps and Papers 291
human capital 347
Human Genome Project 257
humanism 157 (p. 524)
humanitarian movements 138
human rights 129
Humphreys, Murray 326
Hungarian Revolution 18
Hungarians 55, 378, 379, 383
Huntington, Samuel 189–90
hybridity 266, 493
Ianni, Francis 326
identity 320–21
Ignatieff, Michael 145, 201
Ignatiev, Noel 201, 202
Ikeda, Kiyoshi 345
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, 136
Illinois 61, 219
Immigrant Justice Project 362
immigrant letters
definitions 417–19
described 416
future trends 426–27
as historical source material 422–24
types of analysis 424–26
written and sent 419–22
immigrant-rights movements 138
immigrant workers
and acculturation 270–73
and social networks 268–70
and unionization 273–76
and working class 261–63, 263–68
Immigration Act of 1917, 175
Immigration Act of 1924, 131
Immigration Act of 1952 (McCarran-Walter Act) 17–21, 23–24, 54–55, 57, 131–32
Immigration Act of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act)
and African American migration trends 97, 100
and American nationalism 155
and Asian immigration 2, 6–7, 53–57
and immigration in American South 357
and immigration scholarship 3
impact on migration trends 19–24, 30n 28
and Latino immigration 78
and nativism 5
and new approaches to ethnic scholarship 491
Immigration Act of 1990, 23, 78
Immigration and Ethnic History Society 2, 497
Immigration and Nationality Act 167
Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments 133
Immigration and Naturalization Bureau 57, 133
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) 21, 23, 25, 81, 134–35, 174–75
Immigration Commission 339
Immigration History Research Center 426
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) 7, 21–23, 134–35, 358, 388
Immigration Restriction Act 150
Immigration Restriction League 6
Immigration Service 132, 249
imperialism 225, 378, 379, 491
Indelible Shadows (Insdorf) 457
indentured servitude 40, 87, 235
Independence National Historical Park 479
India 17, 24, 27, 349, 432. See also Asian Indians
Indiana 138
Indian Citizenship Act 169
indigenous languages 472
indigenous peoples 233, 358. See also American Indians (Native Americans)
individualism 493–94
Indonesians 358
industrialization
and immigrant labor 261–62
and immigrant letters 420–21
impact on migration patterns 38, 41
industrial cities 263, 271
industrial growth 42, 43
Industrial Revolution 125
and labor opportunities for African Americans 91–92
infectious disease 248
informal economy 137, 325, 327–28, 334 (p. 525)
information technology 61
informed consent 498
infrastructure projects 43, 420
inheritance laws 110
Inouye, Daniel 58, 64
In re Ah Yup 173–74
Insdorf, Annette 457–58
integration 46
intellectual property 498–99
intelligence of immigrants 253, 256
interdisciplinary scholarship 202, 427
interethnic relationships 232–42, 292
intergenerational change 192–93, 224, 339, 434, 444–45
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees 47
intermarriage
and American identity 232–42
and assimilation 186–88, 193
and census data 241, 243n 2
and immigration scholarship 4–5
and panethnicity 9, 223–24
rates of 243n 3
and religious composition of the U.S. 441, 442
international auxiliary language [link] , 469, [link]
internationalized labor markets 43
International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union 268
International Monetary Fund 133
Internet resources 426
internments 54, 166, 376
interracial and interethnic mixing 28, 176
Intifada 387
Ireland 22–23, 147, 305
Irish
and American nationalism 153
and American xenophobia 5
and correspondence of immigrants 425–26
and Diversity Visa 22–23
and economic niches 8
and eighteenth century immigration 36
and employment opportunities 268
and ethnic employment networks 269
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 42–44
and fears of divided loyalties 377
and immigrant women’s lives 113
and intermarriage 238, 242
Irish county societies 268
Irish middle passage 203
and machine politics 302–8, 313–14, 316
and myths of ethnic success 342
and organized crime 319, 320, 327
and political mobility 10
and religious composition of the U.S. 444
and religious nationalism 147
and rural settlement 111–12
and U.S. foreign policy 376, 378–81
Irish Republican Army (IRA) 377, 387
The Irish World and American Industrial Liberator 379
iron curtain 48, 49
Iron Rangers 266
Iroquois Federation 36
isolationism 6, 382, 383
Israel 349, 384–85. See also Jews and Judaism
Israeli-Palestinian peace process 387
The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (Mearsheimer and Walt) 385
Italian American Mafia 325, 331
Italian American Museum 483–84
The Italian Immigrant Woman in North America (Caroli et al.) 3
Italians
and American nationalism 153
and assimilation 185–87
and Atlantic Migration System 48
and economy-motivated migration 40
and ethnic employment networks 268–69
and ethnic neighborhoods 8, 287–89, 296
and family-based immigration 19
and immigrant labor unions 275
and intermarriage 238
and language retention 464
and machine politics 303, 305, 307, 314
and marriage practices 113
and myths of ethnic success 338, 342
and organized crime 319, 330, 333
and political mobility 10
and racialization 45
and religious composition of the U.S. 434, 444 (p. 526)
and religious nationalism 148
and “symbolic ethnicity,” 6
and transnationalism 401
and U.S. foreign policy 380, 382
and white racial identity 198–99, 201, 204–5
Italy 47, 386, 405–6
“It’s Not ’a Black Thing’” (Tyson et al.) 347–48
Itzigsohn, Jose 222
Jablonsky, Thomas 287
Jack, Hulan 312
Jackson, Andrew 168, 379
Jacobson, Matthew 5, 202, 203, 407
Jains 437
Jamaica 137, 170
Japan 152, 349, 382
Japanese
and assimilation 183
and ethnocultural structure of the U.S. 44
and exclusionary immigration measures 15–16, 18
and historical legacy of migration 61
and immigration in American South 358
and intermarriage 237, 239
and medical exams 248
and model minorities concept 10
and myths of ethnic success 342–43
and panethnicity 218, 219, 220, 225
and “picture brides,” 16
and racial citizenship 166
and racial nationalism 149
and U.S. foreign policy 383
and U.S. immigration legislation 55
and women in mass migrations 112
Japanese American Citizens League 58
Japanese American internments 54, 376
Japanese Americans: Oppression and Success (Ikeda) 345
Japanese Empire 176
Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D. 384
Jay Treaty 378
Jeffers, Garland 332
Jefferson, Thomas 168, 234
The Jewish Women in America 2–3
Jews and Judaism
and American nationalism 153, 157
and assimilation 183–84, 187, 188
and civic nationalism 146
and the Cold War 383–85
and ethnic enclaves 8
and exclusionary immigration measures 47
and Holocaust films 455–59
and immigrant women’s lives 113
and intermarriage 238
Jewish law and neighborhood boundaries 289
Jewish Lower East Side 321–22
and language retention 466
and Latino immigrants 68
and machine politics 306, 308, 314
and model minorities concept 10, 495
and myths of ethnic success 338–40, 346
and organized crime 319, 321–22, 325–26
and political mobility 10
and racial classification 152
and religious composition of the U.S. 432–33, 437, 439, 442–45
and religious nationalism 147, 148
and religious persecution 9
sociolinguistic impact of 473–74
and “symbolic ethnicity,” 6
and transnationalism 401
and U.S. foreign policy 380, 382
and women in mass migrations 114–15, 264
and working class 264
Jews Without Money (Gold) 198
Jim Crow segregation
and African American migration trends 90–91, 95, 100
and the Great Migration 86
and immigration in American South 367
and immigration scholarship 3
and panethnicity 216
and racial nationalism 149
and religious composition of the U.S. 440
and transnationalism 409
and urban ethnic neighborhoods 294
Jimenez, José “Cha Cha,” 77
Jindal, Bobby 64
jingoism 63
Johnson, Ben H. 241–42
Johnson, Lyndon B. 19–20, 54, 79, 385 (p. 527)
Johnson-Reed Act (1924) 17, 24, 53, 55, 128, 150, 238
Jones Act 72
Jones and Laughlin Steel Company 92
Jones Brothers 332
Journal of American Ethnic History (JAEH) 2–3, 11, 200
Journal of Delinquency 256
Judeo-Christian identity 153–55, 188
The Jukes (Dugdale) 255
juvenile delinquency 322
Kallen, Horace 151, 492, 493–94
The Kallikak Family (Goddard) 255
Karelia 398–99, 408, 411
Kazal, Russell 5, 202, 205
Kazan, Elia 197–98
Keiser, Richard A. 309–10
Kelley, Florence 49
Kelley Brothers 332
Kellor, Frances 329
Kelly, “Honest John,” 304
Kennedy, John F. 54, 79, 148, 491
Kentucky 95
Keohane, Robert 400
Khmers 59
Kibria, Nazli 223
Killers street gang 321
Kim, Claire Jean 346
King, Martin Luther, Jr. 155, 239, 310
King, Rodney 297
King Coal (Sinclair) 199
Kingsley, Sidney 460
Kingston, Maxine Hong 58
kinship ties 332, 405
Kivisto, Peter 201, 389, 402
Klein, Christina 240
Knights of Labor 264, 274
Know Nothings 6, 147
Knox, Howard 255
Koch, Ed 10, 312
Koch, Robert 250
Korean American Christian Fellowship 440–41
Koreans
and economic niches 8
and ethnic employment networks 270
and family-based immigration 16
and historical legacy of migration 61, 63
and immigration i