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date: 28 June 2022

Abstract and Keywords

How immigration and ethnicity shaped delinquent youth groups (gangs) and adult organized crime syndicates (mobs) is examined. Ethnicity has played a key role in these organizations. Gangs and mobs used ethnic ties as an organizing principle to foster trust in their illicit activities. Scholars have usually applied the theory of ethnic succession to account for the changes in supremacy over the informal economy. Yet scholars have attached too much importance to the ethnic succession theory. To fully understand the underworld, scholars need to recognize interethnic cooperation, the persistence of class, and the rewards of whiteness.

Keywords: organized crime, gangs, ethnicity, whiteness, racism

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