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date: 27 June 2022

Abstract and Keywords

This article situates the growing literature on European immigration to the United States and white racial identity in the larger body of research on immigration history and in inspirations from literature and social theory. It places the new work, debates among those producing it, and critical responses to it within historiography and recent political debates. Differences over the utility of the idea that immigrants “became white” in the United States are especially emphasized, as are the ways that class, law, and gender intersect with race. Suggestions for further research are offered in conclusion.

Keywords: racial identity, immigration, whiteness, class, gender, law

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