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date: 31 March 2020

(p. 647) INDEX

(p. 647) INDEX

A. T. Kearney, 415, 423, 431, 467, 468, 487, 632
Abramovsky, L., 82, 406, 409, 430, 431
absolute surplus, 383
Accenture, 394, 636
accumulation, 384
Acharya, S., 399
active labor market policy, 159, 163166, 173
Adcorp, 636
advanced countries, 207, 209, 211, 213, 219, 221, 534, 536, 541, 542, 552, 557
advanced economies, 3, 5, 8, 14, 18, 3334, 212, 215, 220221
Aegis, 636
Africa, 417, 592, 593, 597, 600, 601, 606, 608, 612, 636
Africa Analysis and Z-Coms, 622
Afrikaans, 635
agglomeration, 629
Agnese, P., 152, 255, 258, 263, 264, 266, 267, 272274
agriculture, 13, 277
Ahn, S., 267, 279, 300, 306
Aiginger, K., 493
Alarcon, R., 390
Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki, 6, 180182, 185, 186, 192, 193, 197, 200, 527
Altbach, P., 342, 394
Altman, M., 17, 619, 633, 638
Amador, J., 315
Amante, M. S. V., 484, 487
American depository receipts (ADR), 387
Amiti, M., 41, 84, 88, 110, 114, 115, 122, 182, 183, 193, 255, 263, 268269, 272, 279, 305, 306
Amos, B., 411, 431
Anderson, E. G. Jr., 430, 431
Anderton, R., 79
Ando, M., 283, 308
Antràs, P., 43, 182, 184, 229, 245, 250, 260261, 263, 271
Aoyama, Y., 391, 395
Apollo Hospitals, 396, 398
apparel, 15, 362, 498501, 506508, 517518, 523. See also yarn-textile-garment industry
Archaryya, R., 281, 309
Arellano, M., 57, 90, 261
Argentina, 540, 542549, 552, 559, 568
argonauts, 391
Armenakis, A., 645
arm’s length relationship, 11, 259263, 268, 393
Arndt, S., 100, 102, 103, 113, 115, 117, 278, 307
Aron, R., 472, 487
Arora, A., 388, 612, 615
Arthuis, J., 125
ASEAN, 235, 238239, 249, 283, 284
Asia, 12, 13, 17, 235, 238, 245, 252, 255257, 264272, 276306, 417, 564, 568574
Aspe Armella, P., 566, 585
Assche, A. van, 287, 307
Asundi, J., 388
asymmetry, 8
AT&T Bell Labs, 385
Athreye, S., 612, 615, 628
Athukorala, P. C., 277, 307
Atlanta, 400
Aubert, P., 125127
Australia, 7, 10, 1213, 335351, 382, 393, 400, 631, 635
Austria, 211, 213214, 216, 218, 622
automobile manufacturing, 575
Autor, D., 44, 184
Ayers, S., 600, 605, 617
back-office activity, 75, 336, 414
Bain, P., 469, 487
Balassa, B., 278, 305, 307, 565, 586
Baldwin, R., 43, 113, 115, 180, 182, 183, 278, 312
(p. 648) Bamber, P., 5, 16, 534, 558562
Banerjee, A. V., 386
Banerjee, R., 385, 394, 399
Banerjee, S., 433
Bangalore, 383, 391, 392, 395, 396, 629, 636, 637, 642
Bangladesh, 577
Bank for Interamerican Development (IADB), 564
banking, 392
Banxico, 567, 586
Barako, D. G., 609, 615
Barba Navaretti, G., 45
Bardhan, A., 3, 20, 22, 44, 75, 114, 115, 123, 127, 180, 184, 481, 487
Barlet, M., 124, 127
Barnes, J., 527
Barret, K. C., 433
Barrientos, S., 491, 493, 527
Barry, F., 12, 312, 314, 315, 321, 322, 324, 327, 328, 330, 331
Bartles, F. L., 622, 623, 644
Basant, R., 629, 644
Batt, R., 469, 487, 488
Baud, C., 149
Baumol, W., 5, 6, 21, 22, 151
Bazaar Economy Effect, 278
Becker, S., 61, 79
Bedzarnik, R. W., 399
Belgium, 211, 213, 214, 218, 223, 400, 635
Bell, B., 17
Belo Horizonte, 400
Benner, C., 484, 488, 612, 615
Bercovitz, J., 616
Bergin, A., 12, 324, 327, 331
Bernhardt, T., 5, 15, 490, 495, 499, 528
Besson, F., 5, 9, 123
BFSI (banking, financial services, and insurance), 621, 622, 625, 635, 637, 638, 640, 641, 643
Bhagat, R. S., 428, 432
Bhagwati, J., 6, 22, 41, 566, 586
Bhatnagar, S., 630
bilateral trade, 288
bipolarization, 278
Birkinshaw, J. M., 406, 416, 428, 431, 432
Biscourp, P., 152
Blackman, Sue Anne Batey, 151
Blanchet, D., 124, 127
Blinder, A., 20, 22, 44, 75, 113, 115, .80, 382, 399
blue-collar jobs, 170, 408
blue-collar workers, 86, 88, 92
Blundell, R., 90, 269
bodyshopping, 381, 386, 388, 397
Bohnstedt, A., 611, 615
Bond, S., 57, 90, 269
Borini, F. M., 425, 433
Bottini, N., 465, 481, 488
Boulhol, H., 125
Boulin, J. Y., 468, 488
Bover, O., 90, 261
BPA/P (Business Processing Association of the Philippines), 630, 631, 632, 644
BPeSA (Business Process Enabling South Africa), 636, 641, 642, 644
BPO Partnership, 622, 625, 632, 634, 636, 637, 644
Bradley, J., 330
Brainard, S. L., 127
Brazil, 5, 7, 1314, 16, 19, 371, 393, 395, 400, 405407, 421, 426, 428, 478, 479, 484, 540, 542549, 552, 559, 568, 612, 614, 624
Brecher, R., 112, 115
Bredgaard, T., 9
Brenton, P., 79
Bresnahan, T., 589, 615
BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), 427, 430
British colonies, 13
British Telecom, 393
Brno, 401
Brooks, F. P., 384
Brown, D., 525
Brown, R., 85
Bruno, G., 45
Budget Group, 636
Buffett, W., 32
Bun, Maurice, 57
Bunyaratavej, K., 408, 414, 423, 431
business cycle, 5
Business Monitor International, 602, 606, 608, 615
(p. 649) business process outsourcing, 13, 15, 17, 336, 382, 391393, 397, 398, 400, 466, 467, 469471, 474487, 537544, 546554, 557562, 588, 613, 619622, 624, 625, 627643
business process outsourcing and offshoring (BPO&O), 619637, 639641, 643
business process services (BPS), 467, 468, 470, 475
business services, 8, 42, 75, 82
business-labor relations, 160, 165, 171
Cabral, S., 315
Cai, Fang, 13, 357, 365, 375, 378
call centers, 1618, 235, 316, 319, 320, 322, 390, 414, 534541, 543, 546, 548552, 554557, 562, 595, 602, 606, 612, 620, 621, 625, 627, 628, 631, 632, 634, 635, 640642
Calmfors, L., 114, 115
Camerer, C. F., 254
Campa, J., 114, 115, 255
Campbell-Kelly, M., 384
Canada, 284, 382, 400
Cantonese, 401
Cape Town, 635, 636
capital intensive, 11
captive centers. See foreign subsidiaries
captive offshoring, 208, 215216, 218219, 277. See also foreign affiliates, foreign direct investment
carbon permits, 8
Cardwell, W., 415, 432
Caribbean, 540, 544, 548, 551, 559, 560
Carmel, E., 405, 431, 540, 541, 559
Carphone Warehouse, 636
Castellani, D., 66, 109, 115
Cattaneo, O., 130
certification, 387, 601
Cha, Hoon S., 414, 424, 431
Chambers, J., 395
Chang, Y.-M., 282, 307
Channel Holdings, 636
Chanteau, J.-P., 126, 127
Chechi, D., 45
Chen, H., 107, 114, 115, 282, 307
Chen, L., 281, 308
Chen, Y., 260, 261, 271
Chenery, H., 373
Chennai, 395
chief executive officers (CEOs), 11
Chiesa, V., 424, 431
Childs, P., 317
Chile, 7, 16, 536, 537, 540, 542550, 552563, 614, 624
China, 57, 13, 16, 19, 21, 3031, 33, 75, 209, 216, 222224, 276310, 341, 344, 357360, 363, 365377, 400, 426, 429, 564, 567574, 577, 584, 612, 614, 622, 624, 636, 642
offshore destination, 11, 12, 14, 16, 20, 235, 238239, 249, 256258, 271
China-Japan-Korea (CJK), 284, 302
Cho, D.-S., 391
Christensen, L., 85
Christian, M., 527
Cincinnati, 394
Cisco Systems, 14
Connected + Smart Communities, 395
Globalization Center East, 383, 395, 396, 398
HealthPresence, 396
Telepresence, 397
Clark, K., 66
clusters, 17, 589, 590
CM Insight, 319, 320
Coase, R. H., 472, 488
Coe, N., 321
Cogneau, D., 127
Cohen, D., 122
Cole, R. E., 468, 488
collective bargaining, 10, 161162, 172, 174176
Colombia, 540, 542550, 552554, 556, 562
Commander, S., 612, 615
Commonwealth Business Council, 606, 615
communication, 361362
comparative advantage, 5, 8, 10, 2526, 180, 182, 183, 207208, 210211, 218222, 357359, 365, 372377, 380, 382, 383
comparative locational advantages, 219
compensation, 20
competition, 623, 636, 639, 640
(p. 650) competitive advantage, 21, 159, 175, 209, 218220, 224, 314, 315, 320, 325, 326, 330, 535, 540, 548, 549, 554, 589, 601, 625, 632, 633, 636, 641, 643
competitiveness, 14, 20, 159, 192, 206, 207–208, 211212, 222, 369, 371372, 374, 427, 453, 534, 544, 547, 552554, 560
complementarity, 159, 165, 166
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), 396
Connelly, R., 357
consortia, 383, 393
construction sector, 13
consumer market, 410, 623
consumer products, 12
continuing vocational training, 160, 164, 165, 167168, 173, 176
contract, 467, 473475, 478, 480, 484
contract manufacturing, 280
core activities, 216217, 219220
core competence, 406, 411, 412, 428
corporation tax, 311, 322, 329
cost, 207208, 210211, 215217, 219222, 380386, 389, 390, 393, 397, 398
cost competition, 10
Costa Rica, 542, 544547, 551, 559, 560
Coucke, K., 408, 414, 425, 431
country attractiveness, 437
Couto, V., 415, 431, 541, 561
Cramer, J. S., 254
Crinò, R., 8, 41, 76, 80, 9293, 114, 115, 123, 182
Criscuolo, C., 272
cross-country analysis, 6
cross-industry analysis, 6
Crozet, M., 127
Crusson, L., 124, 127
cultural factors, 12, 21, 451
Curran, D., 315, 321
currency, 19
customer, 381, 383, 387, 390393, 395398
customer base, 17
customer service, 11, 608, 611, 615, 635
customized production, 20
Cusumano, M. A., 384, 395
Cybermedia India, 606, 615
Czech Republic, 218, 222, 393, 400
Daemmrich, A., 9
Das, G., 5, 12, 297, 299, 306
data communication infrastructure, 381, 389
data entry and transcription, 628
data integrity, 627
data processing, 600
data security, 595, 611, 638
Dataquest, 402
Daudin, G., 124
Daugherty, P. J., 412, 431
Daveri, F., 42
Davoine, L., 477, 488
D’Cruz, P., 475, 484, 488
De Benedictis, L., 66, 115
De Gimel, L., 125
de Miranda Oliveira Júnior, M., 14
Dean, J., 281, 297, 307
Deardorff, A., 43, 113, 115, 281, 307
Dedrick, J., 331, 425, 431, 527
Dehejia, R., 525
deindustrialization, 576
Dekker, H. C., 474, 488
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (DTT), 411, 413, 431
demand, 2526, 2831
Demmou, L., 124
Denmark, 7, 9, 159179, 211, 213, 214, 218, 222, 400
Deschryvere, M., 6, 180182, 185, 186, 192, 193, 197, 200
design process, 20, 410, 411, 417, 424, 430
design to market, 20
Detert, N., 527
devaluation, 387
developed countries. See advanced countries
developing countries. See emerging countries, economies
developing economy, 5, 8, 14, 15, 18
digital economy, 393
digitization, 628
Dimension Data, 636
distribution, 204, 205, 593, 635
Divakaran, S., 402
Dixit, P. K., 278
Dodgson, M., 430, 431
Doh, J. P., 431
Dolan, C., 495
(p. 651) Domberger, S., 432
domestic market, 13, 14, 19
domestic outsourcing. See domestic sourcing
domestic production, 13, 376
domestic sourcing, 11, 14, 17, 189, 191, 194, 196199, 206
dominant economy, 8, 2425;, 2829;, 3233
Dominican Republic, 543, 547, 548, 550, 551, 559
Dongier, P., 600, 605, 617
Dorn, D., 66
Dossani, R., 20, 22, 44, 181, 184, 469, 470, 488, 536, 559, 562, 628, 639, 644
Downing, R., 433
Drury, C., 433
DTI Department of Trade and Industry, South Africa, 639642, 644
Du, Yang, 13, 364365, 371372
Duflo, E., 386
Dumont, J.-C., 127
Durand, C., 5, 9, 123, 149
Dussel Peters, E., 16, 527, 564586
Dutch, 635
Dutz, M., 402
early adopters, 21
econometric analysis, 6, 8793, 422424
econometric studies, 7680
economic crisis, 4, 567. See also financial crisis
economic development, 17, 18, 24, 367, 372, 378, 490, 544, 554, 557, 561
economic upgrading, 493, 495505
economies of scale, 20, 220, 623, 637
economies of scope, 242
Economist, The, 394, 399, 400
Economist Intelligence Unit, 410, 411, 414, 432
Economisti Associati SRL, 591, 606, 618
EDS, 636
education, 5, 810, 12, 14, 18, 19, 21, 28, 3031, 73, 74, 189, 190, 194, 196, 198, 199, 210, 213, 219, 221, 362, 378, 382, 383, 385, 390, 393395, 397, 427, 442, 538, 539, 547, 549, 552, 596, 599, 632, 637, 638, 639
exports, 1213, 335351
efficiency, 208, 212, 213
Egan, E. A., 389
Egger, H., 79, 80, 111, 113116
Egger, P., 79, 80, 114, 115
Egypt, 468, 622, 639
Ekholm, K., 79, 61, 193
electronics, 575. See also high tech
Elfrink, W., 396
Ellis, W., 409, 432
emerging countries, economies, 3, 14, 18, 2425, 3334, 208, 209, 211, 220–221, 223224, 277, 395, 405, 406, 408, 409, 411, 426, 429, 430, 534536, 538, 542, 544, 548, 551, 556, 557, 560, 563, 637
employers, 10
employment, 5, 8, 9, 12, 1416, 185201, 206, 207, 209, 210, 213, 215, 217, 221, 223225, 233, 243, 252, 262268, 270274, 564565, 620, 622, 624627, 629, 631638, 640, 643
manufacturing, 73, 218, 578579
services, 17, 346351
employment growth, 494, 506, 509, 512, 513
employment protection legislation, 43
employment training, 9, 18
engineering, 16, 631
engineering services, 382, 549, 555, 556, 560, 561
English, 637, 638
entertainment, 393, 395
entrepreneurs, 17
entrepreneurship, 386
entry/exit, 237
Eriksson, T., 409, 432
Ernst, D., 20, 22, 127
Espinosa, J. A., 473, 488
Estrada, G., 646
EUKLEMS, 42
Euro currency, 399
Europe, 12, 209, 211213, 215217, 219225, 235, 238, 239, 358, 382, 393, 417, 466, 468, 470, 477, 540, 548550, 552, 559, 562, 563
Central and Eastern, 15, 282, 622
Western, 15, 41
European Commission, 184, 194
European Monitoring Center on Change (EMCC), 124, 125
(p. 652) European Union, 8, 12, 17, 42, 79, 92, 210, 211, 221, 284, 567574, 605
Eurostat, 8, 42, 185
Everest Group, 599, 600, 615, 621, 628, 634, 637641
Evgeniev, E., 493, 527
expertise, 536, 541, 543, 547, 549, 555, 556
export market share, 493, 496503
export platform, 313323
export unit value, 493, 497504
export/import certificates, 8, 3233
export-oriented industrialization, 16, 21, 564585
exports, 17, 191, 208209, 212, 220, 224, 358, 361365, 374, 380, 382, 383, 385391, 397, 535, 538, 540, 542544, 547551, 553559, 561563, 624, 629631, 637
externalization, 288
factor bias, 100, 101, 103, 111, 112
Fafchamps, M., 606, 614, 615, 616
Fagan, C., 486, 488
Falk, M., 61, 79, 87
Falkinger, J., 113, 116
Falzoni, A., 44
family life, 15
Farrell, D., 625
FÁS, 323
FDI. See foreign direct investment
Feenstra, R. C., 20, 22, 42, 74, 79, 80, 100102, 114, 116, 129, 130, 142, 254255, 263, 264, 267, 278280, 527
Feeny, D., 411, 434
Feldman, M., 589, 590, 616
Felipe, J., 646
Fenema, Paul C. van, 432
Fernandez-Stark, K., 5, 16, 534541, 547, 549563, 607, 616, 620, 621623, 628
final assembly, 6
final goods, 12, 230
finance and accounting outsourcing (FAO), 621, 622, 631, 634, 637, 638, 641, 642
finance sector, 12, 18, 21, 569
financial crisis, 160, 172173
financial services, 639
financialization, 122152
financing, 17, 569
Finland, 6, 7, 10, 181, 185, 188191, 195198, 200, 204206, 400
firm size, 243, 247
Flanagan, Robert, 525, 528
flexible labor market, 164
flexicurity, 9, 159160, 165, 172
“flying geese,” 13, 305
Fontagné, L., 127
foreign direct investment, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 183, 184, 200, 208, 211, 220, 222223, 229, 231, 233, 253, 255, 258, 260264, 266, 268, 273, 277, 280, 288, 293296, 311315, 322, 324, 328330, 341343, 346, 372, 405407, 430, 540, 548, 557, 562, 565, 595, 619, 620
foreign entry-mode, 208, 217, 219, 220, 222
foreign invested enterprises (FIE), 280
foreign location, 213, 216217, 219220, 222
foreign subsidiaries, 11, 15, 16, 18, 19, 181, 183, 184, 188, 189, 191, 195200, 205, 206, 253, 258, 288, 341343, 346, 407, 409, 541, 542, 550, 630
Forfás, 312, 314, 315, 317, 328, 329, 331
foundries, 391
France, 7, 8, 9, 122152, 211, 213214, 393, 400, 568569
Francis, J. L., 589, 616
Franke, R., 82
Frederick, S., 254, 527, 577, 586
Free Trade Agreement (FTA), 281, 289, 302, 564
Freeman, R., 66, 123, 180, 183
Freund, C., 41
Friedman, T. L., 409, 432
Frost and Sullivan, 622, 634638, 640, 641
Froumien, I., 394
Fujitsu, 636
Fukao, K., 252, 255, 264, 267
Galvin, S., 317
Gambardella, A., 589, 612, 615
Gangnes, B., 287, 307
Garicano, L., 43
Garner, A., 44, 395
Gartner Research, 637
GAS (Government Assistance and Support program), South Africa, 639, 641
(p. 653) Gatere, P. K., 609, 615
Gathara, P., 600, 601, 616
Gauteng, 635, 636
Geishecker, I., 44, 74, 79, 85, 87, 105, 109111, 114, 116, 118, 119, 123
Gelb, B. A., 577, 586, 638
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), 335, 356
GENPACT, 636
geography and location, 12
Gereffi, G., 5, 16, 130, 469, 488, 490, 491, 493, 495, 527, 534, 536538, 540, 542, 544, 546, 547, 549551, 554, 555, 557, 558, 560, 562, 563, 577, 586, 607, 616, 620623, 628, 631
Germany, 7, 8, 19, 7274, 79, 8295, 101, 102, 105111, 114, 117, 119, 211, 213, 214, 216, 222, 400, 568569, 622, 635
Gersbach, H., 183
Ghosheh, N., 15, 467, 470, 474, 475, 478480, 482487, 489
Gião, P. R., 14, 405, 428, 432
Giblin, M., 328, 331
Gicho, R., 608, 616
Gillwald, A., 637
GINI coefficient, 7, 161, 162
Giuliani, E., 589, 616
Givord, P., 124, 127
global business and trade, 12, 17
global delivery system (GDS), 540543
global depository receipts (GDR), 387
global economic crisis, 4, 5
global economy, 4, 5
global labor market, 10, 19
global linkages, 4, 13
global markets, 387, 622, 633, 638
global offshore delivery model, 387
global production chain, 10, 276, 283
global sourcing, 200, 207, 208, 223, 224
global supply chain, 21, 405, 407, 410
Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP), 279, 305
global value chain, 5, 9, 16, 17, 276304, 490495, 526, 535, 537, 538, 548, 556, 560, 563
globalization, 72, 122152, 160, 167170, 173176, 188, 213, 215, 225, 288, 311, 312, 357, 377, 380, 386, 395, 396, 398, 400, 405, 408, 410, 411, 427, 491
adjustment to, 19
of production, 15
Gloeckner, G. W., 433
Glyn, A., 123
Godechot, O., 151
Goldberg, L., 114, 115, 255
Goldstein, A., 589, 616
Gomory, R., 5, 6, 21, 22
goods content of services, services content of goods, 21
Goos, M., 123
Görg, H., 42, 79, 87, 101, 105, 109111, 114, 116, 118, 119, 194, 197, 269, 272, 312, 328
governance structures, 16
Greece, 400
Green, F., 477, 488
Green, J., 528
Green, S., 365
Greenaway, D., 45, 328
Griffith, R., 82, 324, 431
gross domestic product (GDP), 7, 17, 624, 630, 633
Grossman, G. M., 20, 22, 43, 8081, 91, 114, 116, 182, 260, 276, 278, 281
Guscina, A., 123
Ha, B., 294, 295, 308
Hahn, E. D., 431
Hakansson, H., 414, 423, 432
Hakkala, K., 45, 79, 184, 193. See also Nilsson-Hakkala, K.
Hall, B., 181
Hamel, G., 431, 471, 489
Hamermesh, D., 42
Hammer, M., 469, 488
Han, Hongyul, 5, 12
Hanauer, E., 340
Hangzhou, 400
Hanley, A., 42, 194, 197, 269, 272
Hannif, Z., 478, 488
Hansen, M. T., 428, 432
Hanson, G. H., 20, 22, 42, 74, 79, 80, 100102, 114, 116, 129, 254, 255, 263, 264, 267, 278, 279
Hansson, P., 79
(p. 654) Harrison, A. E., 20, 22
Hart, O. D., 260
Hartog, J., 254
Haruna, S., 252, 261, 269, 271
Hasan, R., 43
Hatonen, J., 409, 432
HCL Technologies, 395
Head, K., 41, 77, 266, 267
health, 392, 393, 395, 396
health benefits, 9
Heckscher-Ohlin, 81, 281
Heeks, R., 385, 386
Helg, R., 45, 79
Helpman, E., 20, 22, 41, 229, 250, 260261, 263, 271, 276, 281
Henders, B., 414, 423, 432
Hewlett Packard (HP), 394, 395, 636
Heyman, F., 45
Hicks, G., 21, 22
Hicks, J. R., 26
high value-added activities, 8, 410, 411, 413, 423, 425
high-skill industries, 106, 107, 111, 119
high-tech sector, 180, 184, 495
high-value services, 552, 556, 557
higher education, 11, 21, 73, 335351
higher skill levels, 626
higher-skill, 634, 635
Hijzen, A., 42, 79, 87, 101, 116, 141145, 252, 269, 271
Hilmer, F. G., 433
Hindustan Construction Company (HCC), 396, 398
Hine, R., 45, 79, 87, 116
Hira, R., 399
Hirschheim, R., 645
historical experience, 19
Hoecht, A., 474, 488
Holman, D., 473, 477, 480, 488
home country, 24, 28, 30, 76, 180, 181, 183, 185187, 195, 197, 200, 201, 208, 210, 219220, 346348, 408, 409, 413
Hong Kong, 13, 284, 337, 338340, 400
Hood, N., 431
Horgos, D., 5, 8, 66, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 110112, 114116, 118
horizontal activities, 621, 629, 641
Horstmann, I. J., 260261, 271
horticulture, 15, 496498, 511, 512, 516, 517, 523
host country, 185, 221, 222, 348350
Hsieh, C., 79
Hu, Ying, 366
human capital, 75, 180, 216, 218, 220, 221, 349, 350, 377, 426, 427, 534, 536, 538, 547, 552, 553, 555, 557, 611, 632, 643
human resources outsourcing (HRO), 631, 634, 637, 641, 642
Human Sciences Research Council, 641
Hummels, D., 66, 107, 114, 116, 278, 279, 308, 312, 527
Humphrey, J., 493, 495
Hungary, 218, 385
hybrid mode, 411, 413, 428
Hyderabad, 392
Hyun, H., 297, 308
Ibarra, D., 567
IBM, 394, 636
immigration, 160, 167, 169171, 175, 176
import matrices, 42
import substitution led industrialization (ISI), 17, 386
import substitution policy, 16, 565, 566
imported inputs, 5, 6, 9, 104, 105, 108, 114, 118, 285, 575
imported intermediates. See imported inputs
imported sophistication, 288
imports, 193, 217, 225, 230
in house (“captive unit”), 467, 472, 480
incentives, 17, 630, 632, 639, 642
income security, 163166, 172174
index, 101, 102, 104111, 113115, 118
India, 6, 7, 13, 14, 1721, 75, 209, 211, 216, 219223, 239, 249, 277, 341, 372, 411, 424, 426, 468, 470, 476481, 484, 486, 577, 620, 622, 624, 627637, 639, 640, 642
Computer Policy 1984, 386, 535, 536, 539543, 548, 552, 557559, 561563, 588, 599, 600, 602, 604, 607, 609, 612, 614
Computer Software Export Development and Training Policy 1986, 386
Department of Electronics, 385, 386
(p. 655) indices. See index
Indo-UK Advanced Technology Center, 393
Indonesia, 283, 337
Industrial Development Authority, 311, 316, 317, 319, 329, 330
Industrial policy, 534, 548, 556, 566, 567, 584
inequality, 3, 6, 7, 21
information and communication technologies (ICT), 12, 13, 17, 75, 184, 204, 205, 311, 312, 315317, 337, 338, 348, 380, 465, 467, 470, 477, 487, 534, 535, 538, 541, 632
application specific integrated circuits, 395
cloud computing, 392, 400
embedded systems, 391, 399, 400
microprocessors, 399
middleware, 392
voice over internet protocol, 395
information technology enabled services (ITES), 467, 468, 470, 471, 473, 475, 480, 620, 624, 628630, 635, 640, 642, 643
information technology outsourcing (IT/ITO), 537539, 542544, 546, 548, 549, 551, 621, 622, 624, 628631, 634, 637, 641, 642
Infosys Technologies, 14, 629, 630
CampusConnect, 394
co-creation, 383, 392, 393, 397, 398
eCommerce, 392
mConnect, 392
Progeon, 400
SET Labs, 392
infrastructure, 14, 17, 19
innovation, 8, 14, 20, 21, 180, 181, 183, 185, 200, 201, 211213, 221, 222, 245, 246, 377, 381, 384, 385, 389, 391, 392, 394, 397, 398, 410, 411, 414, 418, 427, 430, 536, 541, 543, 555, 616, 629
input-output table, 82
Insinga, R. C., 424, 432, 471, 488
insourcing, 407, 412, 413
institutional structure, 9, 17
institutions, 16, 19
labor, 5
insurance, 392, 401
Intel, 394
intellectual property, 185, 337, 338, 348, 392, 398, 625
intermediate inputs, 8, 12, 19, 42, 74, 80, 193, 230, 235, 280, 282. See also middle products
internalization, 210, 212, 216, 219, 407, 413415, 424428
international branch campus, 341343, 346
international business, 12, 407
international division of labor, 346350, 380, 391, 397, 527
international financial services, 322323
International Labor Organization (ILO), 486, 487, 496, 527, 624
international linkages, 338341
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 47, 123, 430, 432, 493, 527
International Standards Organization (ISO), 387
International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 610
International Trade Centre (ITC), 623, 624, 632, 638
internationalization of production. See globalization of production
Internet, 468, 470
interviews, 6
intrafirm offshoring. See offshoring, intra-firm
intrafirm sourcing, 277. See also outsourcing
Inui, T., 42, 252, 269, 271
IPAP Industrial Policy Action Plan, South Africa, 641
Irani, F., 645
Ireland, 6, 7, 10, 12, 19, 211, 212, 216, 222, 385, 400, 426, 470, 612, 622, 635
Isenberg, Daniel, 591, 604, 608, 614, 616
Ishii, Jun, 116
Israel, 385, 470
Italy, 8
IT-enabled services, 17
Ito, B., 11, 185, 229, 242244, 261263, 269, 271
Ito, K., 255258, 269
Jabbour, L., 127
Jaffee, D., 3, 20, 22, 123, 127, 182, 229241, 246248
(p. 656) Japan, 7, 1012, 19, 21, 218, 229251, 252275, 277, 281, 288, 357, 371, 393, 400, 401, 567569
Japan Industry Productivity database (JIP), 255, 263, 267, 269
Javalgi, R. G., 466, 488
Jayashankar, M., 390
Jenkins, R., 384
Jensen, J. B., 20, 22, 42, 129, 130, 142
Jensen, P., 44, 408, 414, 423, 432
Jinji, N., 252, 261, 269, 271
job creation, 207, 210, 213, 218, 221, 222, 427, 430, 346350, 494, 633, 640, 641
job loss, 72, 74, 209, 213, 217218, 220221, 347, 407, 430
job mobility, 164
job quality, 15, 465467, 475478, 480483, 485, 486
Johannesburg, 635, 636, 640
joint venture (JV), 408, 422
Jona-Lasinio, C., 42
Jones, C., 399
Jones, R., 102, 116, 278, 279, 281, 299, 303, 307, 308
Jonker, N., 254
Jonsson, S., 431
Jorgensen, R., 66
Ju, K., 296, 308
Juma, V., 600, 616
Kalleberg, A., 477, 489
Kalmbach, P., 82
Kang, D., 289, 308
Kaplinsky, R., 494, 496, 521, 527
Kariuki, E., 595, 598, 601, 613, 616
Karnataka, 396
Kashangaki, John, 608, 616
Kaushal, S., 433
Kedia, B. L., 408, 412, 423, 432
Kenney, M., 20, 22, 44, 181, 184, 536, 559, 562, 628, 639, 644
Kenya, 6, 7, 17, 588618, 622, 636, 637
Kenya ICT Board, 592, 595601, 611, 613, 614, 616
Kenya Ministry of Trade, 605, 616
Ministry of State for Planning National Development and Vision 2030 (Kenya), 616 National Economic and Social Council, 592, 602, 617
Kierzkowski, H., 278, 279, 303, 307
Kim, T., 296, 308
Kim, W., 301, 308
Kimura, F., 282, 308
Kimutai, C., 608, 616
King, W. R., 413, 424, 430, 432
Kinyanjui, K., 602, 608, 616
Kierkegaard, J., 20, 22, 44, 152, 620, 629
Kiviet, J., 57
Kiyota, K., 183
Kletzer, L. G., 20, 22, 44
Knottenbauer, K., 82
knowledge, tacit, 389
knowledge cluster, 410
knowledge driven, 215
knowledge economy, 540, 556
knowledge gap, 208
knowledge intensive, 216, 221
knowledge process outsourcing (KPO), 537539, 548, 549, 555, 557, 561, 621, 634, 637, 638, 641
knowledge sector, 9
Koch, K., 384
Koebel, B., 61, 79, 87
Kohler, W., 113, 116
Kojima, K., 372
Kondratowicz, M., 115
Korea, South. See South Korea
Korea International Trade Association (KITA), 290, 294
Korean Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP), 294296, 308
Korean Trade-Investment Promotion Agency (KOTRA), 294
Koskela, E., 111, 116
Kotabe, M., 432
Kotlarsky, J., 14, 435, 645
Kraemer, K., 331, 425, 431, 527
Kraft, P., 384
Kramarz, F., 127, 128, 152
Krämer, H., 82
Kreickemeier, U., 111, 116
Krishnadas, K. C., 391, 400
Kroll, C., 3, 20, 22, 44, 75, 114, 115, 123
Krueger, A., 44, 565, 566, 586
(p. 657) Krugman, P., 260, 583
Kucera, D., 525
Kumar, K., 424, 432
Kumar, R., 433
Kuraksina, K., 14, 435
Kyostila, V., 415, 432
labor cost, 85, 192, 205, 206, 215, 216, 369372, 374, 440, 534, 535, 549, 550, 552, 557, 621623, 625, 630, 632, 634
labor demand, 8, 14, 21, 41
labor elasticity, 8
labor force, 543, 545, 552, 554
labor force, aging, 12
labor force, female, 15
labor force, science and technology, 20
labor force, younger, 17
labor force bifurcation, 17, 18
labor market, 207211, 213, 221222, 299301
labor market policy, 160, 163, 165
labor market regulations, 43
labor mobility, 160, 170
labor share, 122123, 141152
labor skills, 8, 9, 11, 14, 17, 75, 92, 207, 210212, 222, 380391, 394, 396398, 442, 535, 539, 540, 546, 547, 553, 554, 557
labor-intensive activities, 638
labor-supply effect, 81
Lacity, M., 623, 625, 645, 646
Lamy, P., 209
Lanz, R., 129
Latin America, 5, 16, 284, 466, 468, 470, 534, 535, 539, 540558, 564565, 568, 569, 584
Lau, S., 277, 308
Laugesen, N., 44
Lavasa, 396
Lazonick, W., 123
learning, 430
Lederer, S., 622, 623
Leaver, M., 272
Lee, E. A., 391, 400
Lee, K., 297, 299, 301, 302
Lee, S., 293295, 308, 309
Leech, N. L., 433
Leiponen, A., 185, 197, 200
Lessmeister, R., 527
Letsema Consulting, 599, 615
Levasseur, S., 124
Levina, N., 14, 435
Levy, F., 44
Lewin, A. Y., 405, 408411, 414, 415, 423, 431, 432, 541, 559, 561
Lewis, A., 367, 378
Lewis, C., 612, 615
Li, K., 277, 303, 305, 309, 493, 527
Liang, M.-Y., 302, 309
liberalization, 75, 76, 210, 344, 386, 406, 566568
Lim, G., 293, 309
limitations, 17
Linden, G., 527
Lipsey, R., 123, 313, 331
Liu, R., 44
living standards, 15
local factors, 18, 19, 21
location choice, 438, 625
locational advantages, 208, 210, 211, 219
Lopez, A., 535, 561
Loewenstein, G., 254
Lorentowicz, A., 79
Lorenzi, J.-H., 126
Low, L., 331
low-skill industries, 106, 107, 111, 119
low-skilled labor, 74, 76, 92
lower-skill activities, 638
LTT, 180, 184
Luxembourg, 635
Lynn, L., 408, 409, 411, 414, 423, 425, 428, 433
Ma, A., 282, 303, 309
Maalim, A., 608, 616
MacSharry, R., 312, 317, 322, 329
Mahindra Satyan BPO, 636
maintenance, 384, 399
Malaysia, 13, 15, 283, 337, 338342, 349, 400, 624, 637, 642
Mandarin, 401
Mani, M., 431
Manila, 631, 636, 637, 640, 642
Mankiw, G., 122
Mann, C., 20, 23, 44
Manning, A., 123
(p. 658) manufacturing, 5, 8, 10, 13, 21, 31, 32, 46, 7679, 8293, 101, 185, 190192, 194, 197, 198, 200, 204, 209, 210, 215219, 221, 222, 231236, 277, 280, 285, 358, 360363, 365, 367370, 372377, 389, 390, 392, 408, 414, 419, 430, 567, 568, 575, 576, 610, 621, 623, 624, 629
high end, 19
offshoring, 8, 9, 11, 16, 20, 105111, 115, 119, 231236
and shift to services, 12, 17
Manzini, R., 431
Maria, J. R., 315
Marin, D., 79
Marjit, S., 281, 309
Mark, O., 608
Markusen, J., 23, 43, 127, 260, 261, 271
Mas-Colell, A., 528
Massini, S., 409, 432
material offshoring, 45
Mathews, J. A., 390
Mattoo, A., 623, 624, 645
Mauritius, 393, 400, 622, 642
Mayer, T., 41, 127
McCormick, D., 589, 616
McIvor, Ronan, 412, 414, 424, 433
McKinsey & Company, 595, 597, 599, 600, 611, 613, 614, 616, 634, 645
McKinsey Global Institute, 311
McMillan, 20, 22
measurement, 102, 104, 116
medical care, 21
medical device industry, 12, 318, 319
medical transcription, 390
Mehta, A., 623, 628, 629, 632, 645
Mehta, N., 645
Menon, J., 277, 307
mercantilist, 25, 28
Mercedes-Benz, 400
Merchants, 636
Messenger, J., 15, 467, 470, 474, 475, 478480, 482489
Meta Group SRL., 591, 606, 618
methodologies, 387
Mexico, 7, 1517, 19, 284, 371, 393, 400, 426, 540, 542549, 552, 558, 562, 564587, 599, 614, 622, 636, 639
Microsoft, 394, 395
middle products, 276310. See also intermediate inputs
middle-income country, 620, 626, 640
migration, 13
Milberg, W., 5, 15, 80, 94, 122, 123, 130, 141, 149, 490, 491, 494, 495, 499, 505, 527, 528
Miller-Idriss, C., 340
Minevich, M., 466, 489
mining, 16
Minondo, A., 79
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), 253, 260261
Ministry of Strategy and Finance (MOSF), 299
Miroudot, S., 9, 129
Mitra, D., 43
mobile devices, 15, 16
mobile telecommunications sector, 501503, 509511, 518, 519, 523
mode of production, 384
Mol, M. J., 408, 413, 424, 428, 431, 433
Moncarz, R., 44
Monczaka, R. M., 466, 489
Monitor Inclusive Markets, 604, 617
Monterrey, 400
Moreno Brid, J. C., 568, 586
Morgan, G. A., 420, 421, 433
Morris, M., 527
Morrison, A. J., 415, 431
Morrison Paul, C., 61, 79
Mouhoud, El Mouhoub, 127
Moxon, R. W., 423, 433
MTN, 636
Mucchielli, J.-L., 127
Mudambi, R., 410, 414, 433
Muendler, M., 61, 79
Muente-Kunigami, A., 600, 605, 617
Mukherjee, D., 408, 412, 423, 432
Mullan, J., 536, 541, 542, 548, 549, 562
multiculturalism, 160, 175
multinational corporation, corporations (MNC). See multinational enterprises
multinational enterprises (MNE), 1417, 76, 180, 184, 185, 210, 277, 311, 313323, 383, 388., 395, 397, 398, 405408, 410, 411, 413, 415, 416, 425, 428430, 628, 629, 636, 638, 641, 642
multi-stage production, 278
Mumbai, 396
(p. 659) Munch, J., 66
Mureithi, M., 597, 613, 617
Murnane, R., 44
NACE classification, 46
Nahm, B. T., 301, 309
Nair, V., 393
NASDAQ, 391
NASSCOM National Association of Software Services Companies, 536, 562, 628630
Nathan, D., 527
National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM), 381, 382, 387, 388, 391
National Innovation System (NIS), 180, 201
near-shoring, 14, 17, 393, 398, 467, 469, 470, 540, 541, 543, 548, 550, 558, 559, 561
Neoit, 433
Netherlands, 7, 8, 10, 163, 166, 173, 211216, 218221, 400, 622, 635, 637
networks, 19, 338, 339, 410, 411, 589, 596, 601, 604, 638
new markets, 14
New Zealand, 337, 400
Ng, F., 278, 279, 309
Nguyen, Q., 254
niche activities/sectors, 536, 543, 547, 549, 550, 557
niche markets, 19
Nickell, W., 64
night work, 470, 474, 479, 480, 485, 486, 487
Nilsson-Hakkala, K., 184. See also Hakkala, K.
non-core activities, 219, 221
non-production workers, 86, 88, 90, 92, 244. See also white-collar workers
nonstrategic activities, 407, 411, 413415, 417, 419, 420, 422, 423, 425, 427, 428
North America, 15
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 564587
Norway, 400
NPC, 633
Nyabiage, J., 608, 617
Observatory for Borderless Higher Education, 341
occupations, 5, 18
O’Donoghue, T., 254
office machinery, 12
offshorability index, 382
offshore development centers (ODCs), 387, 388, 398
offshore outsourcing (O&O, offshoring and outsourcing), 181, 183, 184, 188, 189, 191, 195200, 205, 206, 233, 242243, 277279, 630, 637
offshore services, 534557, 559563
offshoring, 100118, 180186, 188201, 205210, 216219, 222, 229230, 234, 252, 252274, 311, 312, 317, 320, 322, 323, 330, 384, 467, 620
business process, 13, 15, 322
captive, 406
definition, 18, 76, 80, 8284, 92, 405, 406, 409, 429
determinants, 7576
indices, 5, 18
intra-firm, 79, 236, 240, 243, 295, 299, 409
measurement, 278282
production, 231, 232
services, 75, 76, 79, 8284
strategic, 14
O’Hearn, D., 313
Ok, W., 296, 301, 309
Okita, S., 372
Okubo, T., 183
Oliveira Júnior, Moacir de Miranda, 405, 415, 428, 432, 433, 484, 489
Olsen, K., 42
O’Mahony, C., 324, 331
O’Mahony, M., 42
Oman, C., 399
Omar, R., 612, 615
openness, 6
Opertti, F., 550, 562
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 41, 159, 162, 164166, 174, 176, 177, 183, 207212, 215217, 279, 282, 311, 312, 314, 382, 398, 409, 410, 414, 433, 526, 568570
Orhangazi, Ö., 122
O’Riain, S., 321, 331
Oshri, I., 621624, 628631, 638, 645
O’Sullivan, M., 123
Ouma, M., 611, 617
(p. 660) outsourcing, 15, 2830, 168, 174, 181, 183184, 188200, 205206, 208, 215, 217219, 253, 319, 320, 399, 409, 410, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 472, 474, 476, 481, 537, 538, 557, 558, 560563, 620626, 629631, 634, 635, 640643
domestic, definition, 406, 408, 409, 412
international, 15, 253, 277
Pakistan, 577
Palma, J. G., 624, 645
Panagariya, A., 6, 22, 41
Park, B. S., 300, 309
Park, S., 301, 309
Parker, G. G., 430, 431
Parkhe, A., 414, 433
Parthasarathy, B., 13, 14, 380, 391, 395
parts and components (P&C), 281, 283
patents, 185
Pavelin, S., 312
Pearce, J., 475, 489
Peeters, C., 408410, 414, 423, 431, 432
Penrose, E., 472, 489
Peoples, J., 123
per capita income, 6, 7
Peru, 16
Pflanz, M., 604
pharmaceutical industry, 12, 317318, 411
Philippines, 7, 17, 283, 371, 385, 393, 401, 426, 468, 470, 476, 478481, 484, 486, 487, 536, 539, 540, 588, 599, 600, 602, 604, 607, 609, 614, 620, 622, 624, 625, 627, 630637, 639, 640, 642
Philippines Congress, 622, 625, 631, 632, 645
Picart, C., 124, 127
Pickles, J., 527
Pietrobelli, C., 589, 617
Pingry, D. E., 431
Pisu, M., 44
Pizzurno, E., 431
Poland, 393, 401
Polaris Software, 388
policy, 6, 15, 187, 201, 622, 632, 633, 635, 639, 640, 641, 643
international, 17
issues, 17
national, 8, 17
policymakers, 632, 634, 640, 642
political climate, 17
Porter, M. E., 471, 489, 589, 617
Prahalad, C. K., 471, 489
Prasad, A., 466, 489
Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA), 281
price effect, 81
private organizations, 17
product cycle, 245
product development, 14
product development cycle, 407, 408, 411, 427, 430
production activities, 19, 411, 413, 414, 417, 424
production sharing, 282
production workers, 86, 88, 92. See also blue-collar workers
productivity, 16, 21, 2428, 183, 207, 208, 210, 211, 213, 215, 220, 222, 242, 243, 250, 255, 260275, 363, 367, 372, 384, 387, 388, 395, 491, 524, 525, 623, 641
effect, 81
labor, 568
programmers, 385, 386, 391, 399, 425, 426
promotional initiatives, 544, 547, 549, 556
proprietary knowledge
proxy, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108
public sector, 635
Pune, 395
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), 7
Qiang, Christine Zhen-Wei, 600, 605, 617
Qu, Yue, 13, 372, 375, 378
Quantec, 633, 637
Quinn, J. B., 412, 433
Rabellotti, R., 589, 616, 617
Ragin, C. C., 590, 617
Ragoussis, A., 129
Raichur, 396
Ramaswami, K. V., 43
Ramos, D., 535, 561
Ramos, N. M., 632, 633, 646
Rapoport, D., 527
Rathelot, R., 124, 127
Raubold, A., 79
(p. 661) Rawski, T. G., 357
Readman, J., 494, 496, 521, 527
Reddan, F., 331
reengineering, 384, 399
Regional Production Network (RPN), 282, 283, 302
regression analysis. See econometric analysis
regulations, 16, 19
labor, 5, 9
Reif, X., 44
Reitsperger, W. D., 411, 431
“relational infrastructure,” 17
relative surplus, 383
relocation. See offshoring
remote work, 466, 467, 478
research and development (R&D), 10, 14, 85, 87, 215, 216, 222, 235, 238, 240, 244, 245, 246, 392, 395, 397, 407, 409411, 417419, 424, 426, 535, 537, 538, 541, 544, 554, 555, 619, 621, 628, 629
globalization of, 14
offshoring of, 6, 20, 75, 180183, 400
outsourcing of, 390, 392
surveys, 181
Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI), 234, 255256
Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA), 185, 186, 187, 190, 191
Research.fi, 187
Reserve Bank of India, 382, 389
Ricardo, D., 2426, 281
Ricart, J. E., 152, 255, 274
Richardson, R., 469, 489
Ries, J., 41, 77, 266267
Risks, 430
Riungu, C., 608, 617
Robert-Nicoud, F., 43, 279, 307
Roberts, K., 357
Robertson, R., 525
Robinson, M., 466, 489
Rodriguez, C. A., 43
Rodrik, D., 42, 583
Romer, P., 377
Roodman, D., 90
Ros, J., 568, 586
Rossi, A., 491, 527
Rossi-Hansberg, E., 43, 8081, 91, 114, 116, 182
Rouvinen, P., 527
Royal Dutch Shell, 635
Ruane, F., 312
Rubert, G., 79
Rukwid, R., 74
Rupee, 386
rural-urban divide, 3
Russia, 7, 13, 20, 75, 400, 426, 435, 614
Ryan, P., 328, 331
SACCCOM South African Contact Centre Community, 642
Sako, M., 82, 430, 431, 433, 535, 541, 563, 620, 622624, 628
Salinas de Gortiari, C., 566
Salomons, A., 123
Salus, P. H., 385
Salzman, H., 408, 409, 411, 414, 423, 425, 428, 433
Samsung Economics Research Institute (SERI), 277, 289, 299, 302
Samuelson, P. A., 6, 23, 26, 43
San Jose, 396
Santos-Paulino, A., 304
Sanyal, K. K., 278, 281, 309
Sarkar, S., 527
Sarna, R., 525
Sato, H., 273
Satyam, 629
Savchenko, Y., 402
Saxenian, A., 391, 589, 615
Sayek, S., 113, 116
Schmitz, H., 493, 589, 617
Schumer, C., 393
Secretariat of the Economic Council (SEC), 186
sector bias (labor), 8, 100, 101103, 105, 109114, 116
semiconductor industry, 390
Sen, A., 493
Sen, P., 386, 387
Sener, F., 113, 116
Senses, M., 42
Seppälä, T., 527
(p. 662) service firms, 207, 208, 211, 216, 218221. Also see service companies
service sector, 209212, 217219, 222. Also see service industries
services, 5, 10, 21, 42, 117, 180, 185, 190, 191, 201, 204, 205, 207213, 215222, 235, 238, 240, 242, 377, 406, 408415, 417420, 424, 425, 427, 428, 430, 495, 534, 544, 547563, 588, 591595, 600, 605, 607, 608, 614, 620631, 633643
globalization, 1213
high value, 16
imports, 8
offshoring, 8, 10, 11, 16, 17, 20, 41, 181, 183
offshoring labor market impact, 20
tradability, 182
SETA Sector Education and Training Authority, 639
Shamis, G. S., 466, 489
Sharma, A., 433, 630, 646
Sharma, R. S., 424, 433
Shen, L., 365
Shephard, R., 85
Sheppard, C., 638, 639, 646
Sheth, J., 630, 646
Shi, Y., 472, 473, 489
shift-share analysis, 107, 108
Sibal, 632
Siddiqui, Aijaz, 433
Siedschlag, I., 320, 325
Siegel, Donald, 61, 79
Silicon Valley, 615
Sillard, P., 124127
Singapore, 13, 283, 337, 338342, 385, 393, 400
Singer, B., 591, 617
Singh, R., 433
Singh, S., 391
Single European Market, 312, 314
Sinn, H. W., 278, 309
Sitkin, S., 474, 489
Sjöholm, F., 45
Skaksen, Jan, 111, 116
skill mix, 5
skill upgrading, 11
skilled, 211, 213, 215, 216, 220222
skilled labor, 15, 18, 21, 74, 76, 92, 100103, 109113, 180, 266, 272, 408, 411, 424, 639
Slaughter, M., 45, 79, 329, 330
Sleuwaegen, L., 408, 414, 425, 431
Slovakia, 218
small and medium enterprises (SMEs), 11, 14, 15, 162, 216, 252275
small firms. See small and medium enterprises
Smith, D., 622, 646
Smutzler, A., 183
Sneed, H. M., 399
social upgrading, 494, 505515
social welfare policies, 9
socioeconomic outcomes, 5
software bottleneck, 384
Software Engineering Institute, 387, 399
software industry, 12, 17, 21, 320322
Software Technology Parks (STPs), 381, 387, 388, 389, 397, 399, 630
Sojo Garza-Aldpe, E., 566, 587
Song, L., 493, 527
sourcing, 207, 208, 215219, 224
South Africa, 7, 1719, 591, 594, 599, 604, 613, 614, 620, 622, 624, 625, 632643
South Africa Airways, 636
South America, 622
South Korea, 7, 10, 12, 15, 239, 249, 276310, 384, 569
Southwood, R., 602, 608, 617
Sowinski, L. L., 606, 617
Soviet Union, 14, 443
Spain, 16, 400, 569, 622
spatial proximity, 12
special economic zones, 630
spillover benefits, 15
Spurgeon, A., 485, 489
Sridharan, E., 385
Srinivas, A., 390
Srinivasan, T. N., 6, 22, 41
Stack, M., 409, 425, 433
Standard Bank, 636
Standard Industrial Trade Classification (SITC), 283
Staritz, C., 130, 527
start-ups, 396
Starwood Hotels and Resorts, 396
(p. 663) statistical analysis, 6
Statistics Denmark, 193
Statistics Finland, 181, 185187, 190192, 201, 204206
Stenbacka, R., 111, 116
Stiglitz, J., 583
Stockhammer, E., 122, 155
Strand, B., 43
strategic activities, 413415, 417420, 423425, 427430
strategic inputs, 21
Strauss-Kahn, V., 79, 87, 101, 107, 114, 116
stress, 473475, 478, 480, 485
Strobl, E., 42, 269, 272
Sturgeon, T., 491, 538, 563
subfactors, 277
Subramanian, C. R., 386
subsidiaries, 231, 235, 240, 241, 405, 407, 409, 411440
subsidies, 8, 14
Sudan, R., 600, 605, 617
Sugden, R., 123
Suh, J., 301, 309
supply-chain, 10
survey, 5, 11, 12, 14, 181
Swagel, P., 41, 122
Swaim, P., 42, 141145
Sweden, 400
SWOT analysis, 15, 22, 436, 440, 452, 453
Syrquin, M., 373
Szirmai, A., 277, 309
Taiwan, 282
Tajoli, L., 44, 79
Tan, H., 402
Tanaka, T., 254
Tanka, K., 255258, 269
tariffs, 8, 566
task, 180184, 191, 193, 197, 235, 237, 238, 240, 242
Tata Communications, 396
Tata Consulting Systems, 629
tax incentives, 544
tax rates, 12
Tayles, Mike, 412, 433
TCS, 636
technological change, 3, 13, 21, 3132, 101, 102, 116
technological innovation, 21
technological progress, 74
technology, 210, 220
technology infrastructure, 641
technology spill-overs, 624, 643
technology transfer, 349
telecommunication industry, 406, 417, 621
telecommunications, 391, 406, 411, 417, 420, 601, 607, 621, 625, 636, 637, 640, 641
Telecommunications Management Group (TMG), 605, 617
Teleperformance, 636
Teletech, 636
temporary imports to be exported, 575
Thailand, 337
Thatcher, M. E., 431
third party provider, 467, 472, 540543, 548
Tholons, 302, 306, 310
three lows, 288
Thursby, J., 180, 184, 186, 193
Thursby, M., 180, 184, 186, 193
Time zone, 467, 470, 485, 540, 543, 559
Timmer, M., 42
Todo, Y., 11, 42, 252, 269, 271, 273
Tokyo, 396
Tomiura, E., 11, 229, 236, 242, 244246, 249, 251, 252, 261263, 269, 271
Torre, I., 535, 561
tourism sector, 12, 15, 16, 503, 504, 512514, 519, 520, 523
trade, 182, 190, 193, 196, 199, 208210, 212, 222, 224, 255, 259, 260, 491, 492, 526, 534, 535, 538, 541, 543, 544, 549, 559, 560, 562, 563, 633, 634, 641, 643
balance, 32
international, 16, 2427, 3234, 74
intra-firm, 19, 76, 232, 233
task, 80, 81
training initiatives, 547, 551, 553, 554
transaction costs, 223, 224
transnational education, 335351
triangular trade, 286
trilateral trade, 286
tripartite cooperation, 286
Trefler, D., 41
(p. 664) Tschang, T., 631, 632, 646
Tunisia, 468
Turrini, A., 45
Udell, J., 385
UNCTAD, 75, 591, 617
unemployment, 17, 207, 620, 633, 638, 640, 642
unemployment benefits, 9
unemployment insurance, 164, 167, 171, 173
uneven economic development, 3
unions, 10, 160163, 165169, 172174, 176, 567
United Kingdom (UK), 7, 79, 211, 212, 222, 335, 337, 341, 371, 393, 400, 410, 469, 631, 635638
United Nations, 366, 526
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 41, 180, 282, 312, 319, 324, 331, 405407, 423, 425, 426, 430, 433, 434, 496, 503, 528
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), 493, 496
United States of America (US), 6, 7, 14, 16, 19, 2022, 79, 180, 183, 211, 212, 216, 222, 235, 335, 341, 380, 382385, 389394, 396, 399401, 410, 425, 426, 430, 468, 469, 486, 540, 541, 543, 546, 550552, 568570, 622, 625
Customs and Border Protection Law, 393
H1B visas, 389, 390, 391, 399, 401
Immigration Act 1990, 389
L1 visas, 390, 399
as trading partner, 17, 565, 567, 571575, 578582
universities, 335351, 383, 385, 393, 394
university graduates, 639
Unix, 385, 397, 399
unskilled labor, 74, 76
upgrading, 1516, 18, 548, 550553, 555557, 560, 563
Upward, R., 44
urbanization, 13
Uruguay, 540, 543, 544, 547, 550, 560, 562, 563
US Chamber of Commerce, 430, 434
Valverde, M., 478, 489
value added, 9, 13, 17, 535, 537, 538, 544, 548, 549, 552, 554556
value chain, 17, 122, 123, 146152, 180, 207, 208, 212, 213, 216218, 221, 222, 224, 373, 375, 377, 405, 408, 428, 430, 595, 600, 625, 626, 627, 643
value chain entry, 548, 556
Van Biesebrock, J., 528
Van der Heijden, 626, 627, 638, 639, 641
van Dijk, Meine Pieter, 589, 616
Van Egeraat, C., 322, 331
van Gorp, D., 10
Van Praag, C. M., 254
van Welsum, D., 10, 44, 184
Varadarajan, R., 408, 409, 434
Varian, H., 528
Vasconcellos, Eduardo Pinheiro Gondim de, 428, 432
Vashistha, Atul, 603, 617
Vashistha, Avinash, 603, 617
Venables, A., 45
vendors, 628, 641, 642
venture capital, 396
Vernon, R., 245
vertical activities, 621, 641
vertical collaboration, 629
vertical industries, 641
vertical specialization (VS), 277
Vickery, G., 44, 184
Vietnam, 337
Vincent-Lancrin, S., 348
VOIP (Voice over internet protocol), 470
volatility, 16
von Glinow, M. A., 432
Wadhwa, V., 539, 553, 557, 563
Waema, T. M., 605, 614, 617
wage differential. See wage gap
wage elasticity, 41
wage gap, 101, 110, 111
wage growth, 494, 506, 507, 509514
Wage Indicator, 425, 426, 434
wage rigidity, 111112, 116
wages, 5, 8, 1216, 19, 2831, 3637, 80, 81, 100103, 109114, 116, 119121, 201, 209212, 215, 219221, 224, 244, 288, 358, 361, 363, 366369, 373, 376, 378, 382, 383, 389, 393, 415, 426, 476, 477, 478, 479, 483, 507, 510, 580, 625
relative, 76, 8586, 100, 120
(p. 665) Wakasugi, R., 11, 185, 229, 231, 269
Walsh, F., 42
Wan, G.-A., 304
Wang, Meiyan, 13, 357, 364365, 371, 375, 378
Warrier, P., 396
Weeks, M. R., 411, 434
Wei, Shang-Jin, 41, 84, 88, 110, 114, 115, 122, 182, 183, 193, 255, 263, 268269, 272, 279, 280, 305, 306
Weinhold, D., 41
welfare state, 9, 159162, 169172, 175, 176
Were, Elizabeth, 608, 616
Werle, M. J., 424, 432
Western Cape, 635
Whinston, M., 528
White, P., 312, 317, 322, 329
white-collar jobs, 8
white-collar workers, 86, 88, 90, 92, 182
Willcocks, L. P., 472, 473, 489, 623, 625, 645, 646
Williamson, O. E., 472, 489
Winkler, D., 8, 7397, 114, 117, 122, 123, 130, 141, 491, 494, 505, 527
winners and losers, 1921 (winner take all)
Wipro, 394396, 398, 399, 629
Wolf, M., 44
Wolf, W., 399
Wollf, E., 151
Woo, K., 79
workforce development, 547, 553, 554, 556, 560, 563
working conditions, 470, 472475, 477, 478, 480, 482, 483, 486489
working time, 474, 479, 483, 486, 488
World Bank, 213, 214, 380, 384, 565, 595, 596, 599, 601, 602, 607, 610, 616618
World Economic Forum, 637, 638, 644
World Trade Organization (WTO), 209, 225, 335, 336, 357, 408, 434, 526, 564
World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), 496
Wright, B., 44
Wright, P., 44
Wunsch, S., 623645
Xiang, Chong, 66
Xie, Zhenming, 357
Xing, Yuqing, 527
Yamashita, N., 252, 264, 267, 277, 307
Yan, B., 79
yarn-textile-garment industry (YTG), 17, 575, 577582
Yeaple, S. R., 253, 254
Yeats, A., 105, 114, 117, 278, 299, 309, 312, 527
Yi, Kei-Mu, 115, 116, 278, 279, 305, 310, 527
Yin, R. K., 590, 618
Ylä-Anttila, P., 527
Zavatta, R., 591, 606, 618
Zensar Technologies, 395
Zernike Group BV, 591, 606, 618
Zhang, X., 252, 261, 269, 271
Zheng, Zhenzhen, 357
Ziguras, C., 12