- Consulting Editors
- List of Contributors
- Editors’ note
- The Global Lessons of Offshoring
- On Technical Progress and the Gains and Losses from Outsourcing
- Service Offshoring and Labor Demand in Europe
- Services Offshoring and the Relative Demand for White-collar Workers in German Manufacturing
- The Sector Bias of Offshoring: Empirical Importance for Labor-market Implications
- How Much Does Offshoring Matter?: Evolution of Imports and their Relation to Profits, Labor, and Firms’ Strategies in France, 1990–2009
- The Welfare State as an Investment Strategy: Denmark’s Flexicurity Policies
- The Impact of Overseas R&D on Domestic R&D Employment
- The Impact of Offshoring by Service Firms on a Country’s Comparative Advantage
- Offshoring and Japanese Firms
- Offshoring of Japanese Small and Medium Enterprises
- Trade in Middle Products between South Korea and China: A Survey on the Extent of Offshore Production Sharing
- Offshoring, Inward Investment, and Export Performance in Ireland
- Offshoring Higher Education: The Australian Experience
- Employment Expansion in Globalization: How Is China Responding to the Change in Comparative Advantage?
- The Changing Character of Indian Offshore ICT Services Provision, 1985–2010
- Offshoring Strategy in Subdsidiaries of Multinational Corporations in Brazil
- Evaluation of Russia’s Attractiveness as an IT Offshoring Destination
- Job Quality in Offshored Business Services
- Does Industrial Upgrading Generate Employment and Wage Gains?
- Regional Competitiveness in the Latin America Offshore Services Value Chain
- Are NAFTA and Export-oriented Industrialization Passé for Mexico’s Economy? Global Lessons
- Kenya’s IT-Enabled Services and Employment Consequences of Offshore Linkages
- Industrial Strategy, Offshoring, and Employment Promotion in South Africa
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter studies four sectors—apparel, horticulture, mobile phones, and tourism—over the period 1990–2009 in a number of developing countries and examines the extent to which the internationalization of production has improved living standards in those developing countries that attracted significant offshoring activity. Section 2 defines economic and social upgrading and describes the general framework for mapping their relation to each other. Section 3 summarizes the evidence on economic upgrading and downgrading, and section 4 does the same for social upgrading and downgrading. Section 5 presents the evidence on the interrelation between the economic and social realms. Section 6 concludes with a summary of findings and a note of caution about the interpretation of results, given the problems with data on international trade and labor markets at this detailed level of analysis.
William Milberg is Professor and Chair of Economics at the New School for Social Research and a Fellow at the New School’s Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis.
Thomas Bernhardt is a Ph.D. candidate in Economics at the New School for Social Research.
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