Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 01 April 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter studies four sectors—apparel, horticulture, mobile phones, and tourism—over the period 1990–2009 in a number of developing countries and examines the extent to which the internationalization of production has improved living standards in those developing countries that attracted significant offshoring activity. Section 2 defines economic and social upgrading and describes the general framework for mapping their relation to each other. Section 3 summarizes the evidence on economic upgrading and downgrading, and section 4 does the same for social upgrading and downgrading. Section 5 presents the evidence on the interrelation between the economic and social realms. Section 6 concludes with a summary of findings and a note of caution about the interpretation of results, given the problems with data on international trade and labor markets at this detailed level of analysis.

Keywords: apparel industry, horticulture industry, mobile phones, tourism, developing countries, internationalization, offshoring, outsourcing, living standards

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.