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date: 03 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

German neuroscientists played a crucial role in the foundation of neuropsychology. In the 19th century, Gall formulated new assumptions with respect to the nature and localization of mental functions in the brain. Wernicke popularized an approach in which mental functions were represented as networks of centers of more elementary functions. His followers, like Kussmaul, Lissauer and Liepmann, using this approach, created influential theories of aphasia, agnosia, and apraxia. In the 20th century, Goldstein and others opposed to this approach, arguing in favor of a more holistic view of the behavior of brain-injured patients. Many neuropsychological tests originate from assessment and rehabilitation procedures developed in German clinics for brain-injured soldiers. Because of the Nazi regime, individuals like Goldstein, Quadfasel, and Teuber emigrated to the United States and there contributed significantly to the rise of modern neuropsychology. From the 1960s, Poeck played a significant role in the “resurrection” of neuropsychology in Germany.

Keywords: history, neuropsychology, Germany, assessment, rehabilitation, professionalization

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