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date: 16 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

<p>The concepts of measurement and theory have always been central to psychological science. This chapter reviews the history of applied mental tests and the ideas behind them, with a specific emphasis on individually administered intellectual measures in the era of scientific psychology (i.e., after Wundt). The chapter discusses theoretical underpinnings associated with mental tests and test/theory falsifications. Beginning with the contributions of Francis Galton and J. McKeen Cattell and continuing through the present, the topics discussed include anthropometric testing, Charles Spearman’s two-factor theory and general intelligence factor, Alfred Binet and David Wechsler’s pragmatic approaches, Raymond B. Cattell and John L. Horn’s fluid and crystallized intelligence, John B. Carroll’s three-stratum model of cognitive abilities, and Alexander R. Luria’s conceptualization of brain-based, cognitive processing. The chapter closes with a discussion about theory-building and falsification in mental testing and the importance of reconciling theory with clinical practice in psychological assessment.</p>

Keywords: intelligence, mental testing, Binet, Wechsler, Galton, Cattell, Spearman, Horn, Carroll, Luria

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