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date: 25 February 2020

(p. 673) Index

(p. 673) Index

Abdollah, Mirza, 283
Abdullah, Jamal, 377
Abdurahimova, Feruza, 265–66, 268–69, 270
academia: and ancient music, 78, 82–83;
Bastin’s research on blues tradition in Southeast, 104;
and cultural politics, 102–3;
disaffection with impurity of ancient traditions in, 206;
folklore as independent discipline in, 73, 95–96;
and hyperglobal perspective, 475;
perception of authenticity in, 20;
and postrevival, 105–6;
recent revival studies in, 107–10;
and revival as paradigm, 101–2;
revival scholarship, 5–8, 99–100, 101;
Rosenberg’s experiences in, 96–99;
and Transforming Tradition, 100–101;
Uzbek musical literacy and, 255, 261–62, 269–72, 273. See also conservatories; education; transmission
accordion clubs, Scottish, 560
Aceh, Indonesia: differences in revivals in, 385;
distinguishing features of revival in, 374;
ethnographic research on, 374;
following Helsinki Peace Agreement, 380–81;
posttsunami revival in, 375–80
activism: central to American folk movement, 492, 506;
in Hungarian dance house movement, 182, 192–94;
legitimization and, 4;
Livingston on revival and, 8;
Native Americans and social, 300–301, 318, 451;
Adler, Guido, 82
Adorno, Theodor, 141
aesthetization, 46
affinity groups, 552–53, 554, 565, 589–93
Afghanistan: ethnographic research on, 374;
revival in, 382–85, 386
Afghanistan Institute of Music (ANIM), 383–84
Afifuddin, Afeed, 377
Afifuddin, Maulana, 377
African Sketchbook, 655
“African Space Program” tour, 655–56
Afrocreolization, of Garifuna, 350–51, 355–57
Aga Khan Trust for Culture in Afghanistan, 384–85
Aghniashvili, Lado (Vladimer), 577
Akbar, Maulana, 377
Alabama Shakes, 668–69
Ala-Könni, Erkka, 401–2
Alburger, Mary Ellen, 560
Algonquians, 76, 80
alienation, 562
Alimatov, Turgun, 275n8
Alizadeh, Hossein, 288
Allen, R. Raymond, 109, 563
allotment, 446–47
Aloe (NGO), 377–78
“Aman Duniaku Aman” (Secure, my world is secure), 380
amateurs: English folk music resurgence and, 497–98;
and foreign singers of Georgian polyphony, 583;
pelimanni revival and, 401–2
American Folklore Society, 95
American Indian Movement, 448–49
American instrumental folk music revival: assessing, 116–19;
Hollow Rock String Band and, 120–22;
scholar-collectors’ experiences in, 122–29
American student movement, 448–49
American Wake, 602
Americas, as parallel to medieval antiquity, 75–76, 79, 80. See also United States
Anatomy of a South African Village, 654
Anchiskhati Choir, 580
ancient music: as departure for experimental improvisation and personal expression, 404–13;
Finnish avant-garde folk music and, 415n7. See also early music
(p. 674)
Anderson, Robert T., 556
Anderson, Tom, 559
de Andrade, Mario, 423
Andreev, Vasiliy, 257
Anglicism, 207
Anglin, Joe, 125
animation, 244–46
annual commemorative ceremonies, for 2004 tsunami victims, 379
An Sain, 148
Anthology of American Folk Music (Smith), 105–6
anthropology, revitalization theories in, 6–7
“anti-nautch” movement, 210, 214
antiquarians: fifteenth- and sixteenth-century, 6;
and revival of early music, 74, 78–80;
and study of medieval antiquity, 74–81, 89–90
antiquity, study of, 74–81, 89–90
apartheid, establishment of, 647–50
Arabov, Ilyos, 264
Araqishvili, Dimitri, 577, 578
Araújo, Guilherme, 429
archaeology: antiquarianism morphs into, 78;
interpretive, 12–13;
musical, 90
archives: of Afghan music, 382, 383, 386;
of ancient music, 409;
Archives of Folk and Primitive Music, 96;
Berlin Phonogram Archive, 578;
Dance House Archive, 182, 192;
dissemination and, 25;
founded by Herbert Halpert, 96;
of kantele players, 407–8;
Memorial University of Newfoundland Folklore and Language Archive, 97;
and Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore, 142;
repertory and, 662;
of runo-song texts, 396;
of South African jazz, 660, 661, 662;
Taylor’s theories on, 35, 647
Archives of Folk and Primitive Music, 96
Aref Ensemble, 292
Arraes, Miguel, 428
arranged folk music (Uzbek): commonalities of, with traditional music, 272–73;
development of, 256–58;
history of, 254–56;
during post-Soviet era, 262–72;
promulgation of, in Uzbekistan, 252;
sound of, 253–54;
State Conservatory as flagship institution for, 259–62
arts therapy, 379–80, 387n3
Asch, Verna, 450
Ashrafiy, Muxatar, 261–62
Askew, Kelly, 233
Asplund, Anneli, 406
Association des Ressortissants de Thionck Essyl (ARTE), 239–41
Atkins, E. Taylor, 155n30
Aubert, Laurent, 456
audio recordings: and authenticity of early music, 83;
of Chickasaw communal dance songs, 312, 315;
of Choctaw music, 304;
of Chris McGregor and Blue Notes, 656–59;
dissemination through, 26;
of Dollar Brand, 655;
of Georgian folk polyphony, 578, 583–84;
of Hungarian folk music, 197, 199;
Iranian classical music and, 278, 282, 287, 293, 294;
and Irish diaspora, 609, 611;
learning music through, 123–24;
as representation of music, 49–50, 103;
of South African jazz, 653;
transcription of, 86
August Revolution of 1945 (Vietnam), 165
Australia: commemorative military music of, 374;
and Irish diaspora, 600, 612
authenticity: accepting, of tradition, 125;
of American folk music, 105;
of American instrumental folk music, 117, 118;
of ancient music, 79–80, 83;
anxiety over loss of, 165;
authority and legitimacy and, 19–24;
and authority over kathak dance, 220;
Bahianos and, 428, 435–36;
of bossa nova, 422, 426;
of ca trù, 163;
and choro revival, 62, 66;
criteria for, 6, 36n15, 406, 413;
and Croatian revival, 327–28, 333, 335, 341;
debates over, 117;
definitions of, 111n5, 297n17; as drive for revival, 434;
early music and, 83;
and emergence of Casamançais regionalism, 241;
emotional, 567;
and English folk music resurgence, 497, 507;
and Finnish folk creative process, 413, 414;
Georgian polyphony and, 579, 585, 586, 588, 589, 591;
global hybridity and, 223;
Hawaiian search of, 536;
historically continuity and, 45, 67, 68;
and historical veracity, 286–91;
of Hungarian dance house movement, 197;
in Hungarian folk music, 197;
hybridity and, 223;
of Iļģi, 479, (p. 675) 481;
importance of, to revival production, 46–47;
improvement of culture through values based on, 61;
invocation and manipulation of, 8;
in Iranian classical music, 281, 282–85, 287–88, 295;
and Iranian dance in diaspora, 620, 622–23, 634, 635, 636;
and Irish diaspora, 598, 601, 603, 604, 605, 614;
of Ivana Kupala, 523;
of kathak dance, 206, 211, 219, 220, 221, 222;
of Korean intangible cultural heritage, 138–39;
of Latvian music, 471;
legitimization and, 4, 8, 45, 394, 414;
Livingston on tradition and, 453;
and Native flute, 449, 451, 452, 454, 459;
of neo-traditional Senegalese choreography, 229;
object-oriented criteria for, 6, 20, 326, 491;
and origin fallacy, 118;
person-oriented criteria for, 20–22;
and processes of professionalization, institutionalization, commercialization, and commodification, 63–64;
process-oriented criteria for, 22–23;
and promotion of folk music, 6;
of public folklore, 105;
quality and, 47;
of radif, 297n13; and re-creation of ancient music, 406;
and rejection of revivalist artists, 620;
reproduction as measure of, 14;
revival processes and cultures as, 6;
and sceptic perspective of globalization, 473–74;
sceptics versus transformationalists and, 477–78;
of Skandinieki, 469;
of South African jazz, 661;
in “The Birth of Hawai‘i,” 539, 543;
theorizing of, 9;
tradition and, 453;
tradition characterized by, 55;
traditions bound to rules governing, 28;
in Uzbek performance, 270;
William Thomas’s theorem on, 43. See also purity
authenticity police, 36n13, 291
authority: authenticity and legitimacy and, 19–24;
and kathak dance revival, 216, 220;
in “The Birth of Hawai‘i,” 543;
on traditional Native American music, 301
autoexoticism, 633–35
Autonomy Law (1987), 360
avant-garde music, Finnish folk, 404–13, 415n7, n11. See also bossa nova; Tropicália movement
Azizboev, Salohiddin, 271
Bacone College, Native music added to curriculum of, 447–48
Bahianos: alternative path of, 428–30;
approach of, to revival, 419–20, 435–36;
background of, 427–28;
and emergence of Tropicália movement, 430–32;
Nara Leão and, 418–20;
as revivalists, 422
Baily, John, 330, 339, 374
Bakalama, 239–43, 244, 246–47
Bakhtin, Mikail, 59n4
ballet, Iranian national dance and, 627–28, 629, 635
Ballets Africains, 228, 232–33
Ballgame, Choctaw communal songs and dances as part of, 304–5
bans, musical: in Afghanistan, 382–83;
ethnomusicalogical literature regarding, 373
Barbeau, Marius, 85–89, 90
Barbieri, Gato, 655
Barker, Simon, 149, 155n27
Bartók, Béla, 192
Bartók Ensemble, 184–85, 186, 188, 193
Bastin, Bruce, 104
bát âm orchestra, 175
Baumann, Max Peter: on categories of performing musicians, 449;
continuum of, 16, 277, 292;
on fusion processes, 476;
on revival and cycles of change, 393;
on syncretism model of music revivals, 450–51;
on utopias of past and future, 294
bayadères, 208–10
BBC Radio 2, 500–501, 504, 505
Bealle, John, 108
Béart, Charles, 230
Beck, Jean-Baptiste, 87–89, 90
Beck, Ulrich, 473
von Becker, Reinhold, 397
Belfast Harp Festival, 604
du Bellay, Joachim, 74
Benga, Féral, 231
Benjamin, Sathima Bea: in Europe, 646, 651, 652;
influences on, 649, 652;
leaves for Europe, 649–50;
music of, following departure from South Africa, 647, 654–56
Benjamin, Walter, 44
Berán, István, 197
Berkeley folk revival, 107–9 (p. 676)
Bernardini, Jean-François, 29
Bethânia, Maria, 418–20, 427, 428, 431
Bhabha, Homi, 222
bharata natyam, 634
Bigenho, Michelle, 284
“Big Fish, Small Pond: Country Musicians and Their Markets” (Rosenberg), 98–99
Bigolo (Seck), 231
Biko, Steve, 660
Bilaniuk, Laada, 524
bilyi holos, 520, 522
Binkley, Thomas, 83
“bird calls,” 445
“Birth of Hawai‘i, The”: configuration of culture in, 539–44;
embedded in Hawaiian culture, 530–31;
grounded in Hawaiian Renaissance, 532–37;
as Hawaiian mainstay, 544–46;
history and making of, 537–39;
significance of, 546–48
Bitka na Neretvi (Battle of Neretva), 330
Black Arisin’, 364, 368
Black Caribs, 350, 370n2
“Black History, Black Culture” (Soul Vibrations), 368
Blacking, John, 328
block flute, 443–45
blood heritage, 263–64
Blue Eagle, A. C., 447
bluegrass, 96, 100, 123, 129
Bluegrass: A History (Rosenberg), 99
Blue Notes, 646–47;
in Europe, 651;
formation of, 649;
music and recordings of, 653, 656–59;
transformation and diaspora and, 652
Boal, Augusto, 426, 427, 431
Bohlman, Philip: on embeddedness, 167;
on historicism, 327;
and musical creativity continuum, 454;
on new symbols in revival, 287;
on revival and community, 426;
The Study of Folk Music in the Modern World, 7
Borumand, Nur Ali, 283, 286, 288–91, 296n11
bossa nova: evolution from, to Tropicália, 422–25;
Nara Leão and, 418–20
Boym, Svetlana, 13, 273, 274
braid, of Yulia Tymoshenko, 513
Brand, Dollar: education of, 648;
in Europe, 649–50, 651, 652;
and formation of Jazz Epistles, 649;
influences on, 649, 652;
music of, following departure from South Africa, 646, 647, 654–56, 659–60;
recordings of, 653. See also Ibrahim, Abdullah
breakdown, of revivals, 28
Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia, A (Harriot), 75fig., 76, 77fig., 79fig.
Briggs, Charles, 7–8
Britain: Georgian singing in, 587–89;
imperial rule in India, 207, 221–22. See also England; Scotland
Britons, ancient, 76
broadcasting, Iranian classical music and, 279–80. See also BBC Radio 2;
“Birth of Hawai‘i, The”; Radio Tehran
Brocken, Michael, 500
Brotherhood of Breath, 659
Brown, LaDonna, 313, 314, 315–17
Brown, Michael, 21, 462
Browner, Tara, 443, 447, 455
Brunvand, Jan, 563
Bunting, Edward, 604
Burney, Charles, 78
Butt, John, 13
Cajun and Zydeco Dance Music in Northern California (DeWitt), 107
California Choctaw Gathering, 311–12
Camara, Toumani, 242
Cambridge Folk Festival, 500–501
Camden, William, 78
Camp, Charles, 105, 106
Canada: instrumental folk music revival in, 128;
and Native relations, 446;
revival dialogue in, 109–10
Cantometrics, Lomax’s theory of, 35n2
Cape Breton, 118, 128
Cape Bretonish, 54
Carlos, Roberto, 431
Carthy, Martin, 479
Casamance, Senegal, 235, 237–48
de la Casas, Bartolomé, 76
caste, and kathak dance revival, 214–15, 219–20
ca trù: etymology of, 165–66;
historical ontologies of, 166–70;
as intangible cultural heritage, 160, 161–63, 177;
revivalist discourse on, 163–65;
revival of, 160, 170–76
(p. 677)
Ca Trù Thái Há Ensemble, 171, 173, 175–76
Ca Trù Thăng Long Club, 174–75, 179n16
Ca Trù Thăng Long Theater, 174
Cazimero, Robert, 534, 543, 548n2
Cazimero, Roland, 534
cells, 104–5
Center for the Development of Human, Civil, and Autonomy Rights (CEDEHCA), 364
Center for the Preservation and Propagation of Iranian Music, 281–82
CFA (come from away), 109–10
Chadwick, Helen, 587, 588
Chandra, Sheila, 590
change: acceptance for, 19;
in art and cultural production, 141;
and Brazilian popular music, 423, 424, 425, 429, 435;
ca trù and, 175, 176;
causes of, 21;
and Choctaw and Chickasaw music revivals, 318;
constructed through revival, 3–4;
consumption and, 105;
as core of modernity, 55;
cycles of, 393;
and development of revival organizations, 556;
economic, in Hungary, 195–96;
effected by Kathaks, 214–15;
effected through revivals, 66, 69;
and Garifuna revival, 365–66;
to Indian policy, 301;
and Iranian classical music, 279, 286;
and Irish diaspora, 613, 614;
and kathak dance revival, 206–7;
in Korea, 136, 140;
versus loss, 354;
and Native flute, 453, 454, 459;
of Newfoundland’s folk revival, 97;
past and creation of cultural, 394, 395, 413;
Pelimanni music and, 400, 409, 410;
politics of, 101;
revival and reconstruction as separate from, 223;
of revivalists, 229;
Slobin on, 450;
survival through, 18;
through transmission and dissemination, 25–26;
traditional music revivals as responses to, 562–66;
tradition and, 12, 28, 55–56, 297n24, 532;
uncovering processes of, 47. See also cultural change; economic change
Chang Sahun, 138
chant, revival of: following independence, 580–83;
foreign involvement in, 574–75;
internationalization of, 583–89;
and musical transformations and cycles of renewal in Soviet era, 578–80;
overview of, 575–76;
revival and, 573–74;
and revivalist trends under Russian occupation, 576, 577–78;
and transnational affinity groups, 589–93;
transnational connections and, 593–95. See also church music, Croatian
Charkh, 639–40
Charles, Terence, 367–68
Chateaubriand, François-René, 78
Chi Ch’unsang, 144
Chickasaw: and Choctaw communal songs and dances, 306–7;
history of, 302–4;
music and dance revivals of, 301–2, 312–18
Chickasaw Nation Dance Troupe, 313–15, 316
Chickasaw Social Songs and Stomp Dances, 312
Chieftains, The, 611
“Chieu Phu Tay Ho,” 179n18
children: arts therapy for, 378–79, 387n3; assimilation of Native, 446;
English folk music workshops and activities for, 502–3;
and Native flute, 445
Choctaw: Chickasaw communal dance songs and, 313–15;
history of, 302–4;
music and dance revivals of, 301–2, 304–12, 317–18
Choctaw-Chickasaw Dance Songs, Volumes I and II, 309
Choctaw-Chickasaw Heritage Committee, 306–11
Choctaw Gathering, California, 311–12
Ch’oe Insŏ, 151
Ch’oe Sangil, 144
choirs: Anchiskhati Choir, 580;
church, 576;
community, 574;
foreign, of Georgian polyphony, 583–89, 591;
Georgian, 574, 577, 580, 592;
Rustavi Choir, 582;
Soviet, 578–79
Cho Kongnye, 144–45
Chŏng Chaeguk, 151
Chongmyo (Royal Ancestral Shrine), 149
Chongmyo cheryeak, 149–50
Ch’ŏngsŏnggok, 151–52
Chŏng Yŏnsu, 137
choral singing, Latvian, 470
choreophobia, 622, 626, 628, 629, 630, 640
Choron, Alexandre, 78
choro revival, 61–62, 66
choro roda, 62
Chosŏn wangjo kungjung yori, 141
Cho Ŭlsŏn, 144, 145
Ch’ŏyongmu, 150 (p. 678)
chronotope, 59n4
Chu Hà, 171
church music, Croatian, 332. See also Georgian polyphony
church revivals, 117
Cissé, Ousmane Noël, 234
Civil Rights movement, 300–301, 448–49
Clancy Brothers, 610–11
classicization: and cultural reclamation, 221;
of Indian classical dance genres, 210–13, 220;
of kathak dance, 215–19, 223
classification, redefined, 103
Clifford, James, 344
clothing: for Chickasaw communal dance, 315–16;
of Choctaw communal dance, 310;
hula, 536
Cohen, John, 102
Cohen, Sara, 339
Coloff, John, 445
Comanche Flute Music Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya, 449, 450, 454
comfort, music as, 329–30
Comhaltas Ceoltoiri Eireann (CCE), 561–62, 610
commemorative ceremonies, for 2004 tsunami victims, 379
commercialization: and English folk music, 491, 492–93, 506;
globalization and, 471–72;
hybridity and, 479;
as necessary aspect of revival, 63–64;
process of, 16–18;
and transition to post-revival, 28, 453
Committee for the Revival of Georgian Church Singing, 577–78
commodification: and Iranian classical music, 283;
as necessary aspect of revival, 63–64, 219;
process of, 16–18
common interest groups. See special interest groups
community/communities: defined, 554;
dilemma posed by idea of, 104;
and Georgian polyphony, 589–93;
Internet special interest groups as, 565;
and Irish diaspora, 614;
competitions: English folk music resurgence and, 504–6;
Irish music and dance, 607, 610
“El Cóndor Pasa,” 142, 154n14
conga, 368
conservatories: Honarestan-e Ali-ya Musiqi conservatory, 278;
Open Society Georgia Foundation, 580–81;
pelimanni revival and, 401;
Tbilisi State Conservatoire, 578, 579, 580, 586;
Uzbek, 252, 253, 255, 267, 269–71;
Uzbek State Conservatory, 259–62;
Vietnamese, 164. See also academia; education; transmission
Consolidated Amusement trailer. See “Birth of Hawai‘i, The”
constellations, 554
consumption, 105
contra war (1983-1987), 359–60
Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, 143
Cook, Nicholas, 36n6
Cooke, Peter, 559
core revivalists, 65, 525
cosmopolitan cultural formations, 64–65
Cozad, Belo, 445
Cram Cook, Nilla, 629
Craven, David, 358
creative process: attributing innovation to, 421;
as marker of authenticity, 23, 406, 412–13, 415n7; “musicking” as, 483;
and reimagined/reinvented tradition, 228, 408;
rock fusions as, 483. See also creativity
creativity: and American instrumental folk music revival, 116, 123;
authenticity and, 23;
continuum for musical, 454;
discriminatory, 454, 455;
Finnish music revival and, 410, 412–13;
integrative, 454, 455;
kathak dance and, 219;
and Korean cultural heritage, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140–41, 144, 153n2; limitations on, 409;
opportunities for, through transformation, 17;
and pelimanni revival, 402;
and post-revival turn, 29;
preservation and, 152–53;
rationalized, 454–55;
revivalist activities prioritizing, 11;
Reynolds on slowdown of, 668;
and syncretism, 23;
tensions surrounding, 19, 21, 28;
tradition conveyed through, 547;
ubiquitous, 454, 455. See also creative process
Creoles: and dialogic space between Garifunas and, 363–69;
Garifuna cultural rescue and, 353;
Garifuna relations with, 351, 356, (p. 679) 361–63;
Garifuna’s history with, 350, 369;
heritage of, 370n3
Croatian revival: and music as comfort and torture, 328–31;
overview of, 325–26, 343–45;
and postwar articulations of traditional music, 335–43;
and post-war tradition-based popular music, 331–35;
spiritual, 236–38
cross-cultural transmission, 26–27
Crumbo, Woody, 445, 447
Csoóri, Sándor, 188
Csűrős Banda, 198–99
cultural change: versus cultural loss, 354;
effected through revivals, 3–4, 66–68, 69;
emotional trauma of, 556;
isolation from conditions causing, 20–21;
kathak dance revival and, 206–7;
as motivator of scholar-revivalists, 6;
pelimanni revival and, 400–404;
and preservation of Korean cultural heritage, 140;
revivals as responses to, 562–66;
traditions as springboards for, 56, 297n24;
Wallace’s revitalization movement theory and, 567. See also change
cultural exchange, kathak dance revival and, 221–22
cultural formations, cosmopolitan, 64–65
cultural grey-out, 551, 565
cultural heritage. See intangible cultural heritage
culturalization, and Croatian revival, 338
cultural objectification, 621, 628, 629, 633, 640
cultural politics: and American folksong revivals, 102–3, 106;
effects of, on American revival studies, 107–10;
impact of, 107–10;
as inherent in revivals, 101–2;
mobilization of folklore in American, 95;
music-dominated festivals as means for advancing, 99;
of Soviet Union, 471
Cultural Property Preservation Law, 136
cultural society, Croatian, 336–38
cultures: and adoptive identity, 562–63, 567;
as dynamic, 118–19
custom(s): Communist campaign against Uzbek, 267;
and Garifuna cultural rescue, 355, 356;
and Irish diaspora, 602, 606;
and Ivana Kupala revival, 520;
in posttsunami Aceh, 376;
preservation of Croatian, 327–28;
revival of Croatian, 338. See also tradition(s)
Cutting, Jennifer, 481
cyberspace-based special interest groups, 554
cycle(s): cultural history as, 119–20;
in Finnish folk music, 393;
of music-cultures, 393;
of revival and Georgian polyphony, 576–83;
revivals as, 28–29, 116–31, 533;
time as, 301, 319n2
Dai Bozhe, 519–20
Đại Lâm Linh, 175–76
dainas, 470
dance halls, and Irish diaspora, 609–10
Dance House Festival, 194
Dance House Guild, 194–95
dance house movement, Hungarian: institutionalization of, 194–96;
integration of activism and scholarship into, 192–94;
interethnic and multistate character of, 187–89;
intimate connection of, to dance, 184–87;
as music and dance revival, 184;
music revival fostered by, 196–200;
overview of, 182–84
đàn đáy, 169
Daniélou, Alain, 286, 288
Daniel Sorano Theatre, 233
đào nương, 168
Đào Trọng Từ, 164
Dávila, Arlene, 544
Davis, Rosita, 356, 359
de Andrade, Mario, 423
death: and Irish diaspora, 601–2, 609;
of language, 669–70;
revival from, 43, 117
decapitation ceremony, Croatian, 327
decline, musical: in Aceh, 375–81;
in Afghanistan, 382–85;
conclusions on revivals following, 385–87;
following human and natural disasters, 12;
indicators of, 373;
literature on revivals in societies suffering or recovering from, 373–75;
in Sri Lanka, 381
decontextualization: dissemination through, 25;
freedoms provided by, 394;
malleability through, 434;
preservation through, 4;
revival as, 31, 44. See also recontextualization
defiance, music as, 330 (p. 680)
de Graça, Maria, 418–20
dehumanization, music as tool of, 330–31
de la Casas, Bartolomé, 76
de la Halle, Adam, 89
Đeletovci, 338–40
de Mello, Jack, 537
de Mello, Jon, 537–42, 546–48
demonstrations, of Korean students, 139, 147–48
Densmore, Frances, 446–47
Desmond, Jane C., 621
“Detroit Schottische,” 127
devadasis, 208–10
de Valera, Éamon, 608
development organizations, folk, 502–4
development(s): Garifuna-Creole integral, 366, 368, 369;
invigorating Nicaraguan indigenous resurgence, 354–55, 361, 362
De Vos, George, 563
De Warren, Robert, 634
DeWitt, Mark F., 107
Diamond, Beverley, 443, 458
diaspora(s): as elective, 593;
Internet and, 27;
Iranian dance in, 630–40, 640;
loss through, 601;
South African jazz and, 652–54;
tradition and transformation and, 19. See also Irish diaspora
Diatta, Aline Sitoe, 241
“Did Your Mother Come from Ireland” (Kennedy and Carr), 603
Dillion, Quincy (“Quince”), 119
Diouf, Abdou, 238
disasters. See decline, musical
discriminatory creativity, 454, 455
dissemination: of bossa nova, 424;
changes in nature of, 24–27;
of Choctaw communal dance songs, 309;
of English folk music, 501–2;
of fiddling, 126;
of Georgian polyphony, 579;
of kathak dance, 211, 219, 220;
methods and infrastructure for, 4;
of revived art forms, 219;
of runo-song, 398–99;
of samba-song, 423;
transformation and, 18;
of Uzbek traditional music, 258;
of Zimbabwean popular music, 473
Đỗ Bằng Đoàn, 167, 168
doers, shift from knowers to, 47–51
Dollar Brand Trio, 646–47, 652, 654. See also Brand, Dollar; Ibrahim, Abdullah
Domingo, 437n12
dorageh, 286, 288
Dorson, Richard M., 6, 95
Đỗ Trọng Huề, 167, 168
do Vale, João, 426
Drayton, Michael, 75
Dryden, John, 80
du Bellay, Joachim, 74
Dubliners, The, 611
Duke Ellington Presents the Dollar Brand Trio, 650, 654
Dulsori, 147
Dundes, Alan, 95, 98
Dungan, James, 560–61
Dung Linh, 175
Duprat, Rogério, 430
Durkeim, Emile, 556
Dvořák, Antonín, 447
Dyani, Johnny, 649, 651–53, 655–59
Dylan, Bob, 102, 106
early music: defined, 73;
and postindustrial university, 81–83;
restoration of, 78–80;
revival of folk music and, 73, 84–89, 90
Early Music: defined, 73;
and postindustrial university, 82–83;
revival of, 73–74;
use of term, 81–82
Early Music Movement, 287
Ecole Normale William Ponty, 228, 230–31
economic change: of Choctaws and Chickasaws, 318;
impact of, Hungarian dance house movement, 195–96;
and Senegalese cultural revival project, 237–38;
in Ukraine, 512, 521
economic space, folk festivals as, 496–97, 499
Edinburgh Strathspey and Reel Society, 560
education: and Casamançais regionalism, 240, 241;
development of Finnish folk music, 399, 401, 410, 415n9;
and English folk music resurgence, 492, 502–6;
fiddling in Shetland, 559;
“grandparent,” 119–20;
of Indian cultural reformers, 221;
Iranian musical, 278, 282;
music, in Afghanistan, 374, 383–84, 386;
music in American, 69;
promotion of Hawaiian culture through, 533, 534, 535;
and (p. 681) rise of postindustrial university, 81–83. See also academia; conservatories; transmission
Edwards, K. D., 450
“Eggs and Marrowbones,” 127
Eighth National Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party, Resolution 5 of, 162
“El Cóndor Pasa,” 142, 154n14
electric folk fusions, 471–72
electric folk revival, 468, 476, 477–80
Elizabeth I, Queen, 608
Ellington, Duke, 650, 651, 654, 656
embeddedness, 160, 167–68
Emmerson, George, 559, 560
Engels, Friedrich, 55
England: Irish immigrants in, 600;
revival in, 467, 477–78
English folk music resurgence: competitions and folk development organizations and, 502–6;
festivals and, 495–99;
historical context of, 490–95;
media and, 499–502;
overview of, 489–90, 506–7
ensembles: Georgian polyphony, 578–79, 580, 583;
and Iranian dance in diaspora, 635–38;
pelimanni, 403–4, 414–15n6; primary, 575
environment of revival, 16–17
epic songs, Romantic nationalist transformation of Finnish, 396–400
“É proibido proibir” (Veloso), 431–32
Eriksen, Anne, 55–56, 297n14
Erkomaishvili, Anzor, 582, 586
Erkvanidze, Malkhaz, 579, 580, 584
Erwinsyah, Edy, 379
Escobar, Arturo, 351, 354
Estrada, Isabel, 358, 365
ethnicity: and adoptive cultural identity, 562–63, 567;
authenticity and, 118;
bolstering, as motivation for revival, 11;
in Brazil, 427, 433;
bridging, through Choctaw and Chickasaw dance, 311;
Chetnik and Ustasha nationalistic movements and, 330;
classification by, in Croatia, 340–41;
and Croatian identity, 327;
dance as constitutive of, 621;
and development of Uzbek arranged folk music, 257–58;
and emergence of Casamançais regionalism, 238–44, 246;
and Garifuna cultural rescue, 357–61, 364–65, 368;
in Hawai‘i, 548–49n9; and Hawaiian identity, 531–32, 544;
and Hawaiian Renaissance, 535, 545;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 187–92;
hybridity and, 480;
Iranian dance and, 618, 623, 636;
in Ivana Kupala, 522–23;
Ivana Kupala and Ukrainian, 512, 514, 517, 519, 522–23, 524;
and Latvian identity, 470;
movement systems constitutive of, 621–22;
music as emblem of, 562, 563;
as person-oriented criterion for authenticity, 21;
and Senegalese neo-traditional performance, 235;
and Sinhala-Tamil conflict, 381. See also nationalism
ethnic purity: as person-oriented criterion for authenticity, 21–22;
restoration of, as motivation for revival, 11, 562, 563. See also racial purity
ethnomusic, Croatian, 333–35
ethnomusicology: and alterations to Ukrainian tradition, 521;
defined by Study Group for Applied Ethnomusicology of the International Council for Traditional Music, 373;
and history of revival scholarship, 8;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 191;
and political significance of collected musical folklore, 523–26;
and postindustrial university, 82;
and theory of Cantometrics, 35n2;
views on musical fusion processes in, 471–72
Europe: development of folk music in, 47–50;
Dollar Brand and Bea Benjamin leave for, 649–50;
South African exile to, 646–47;
South African jazz in, 650–52;
thick globalization and revival in, 467–68;
L’Exil d’Alboury (Ndao), 236
exile: of Edward Said, 644–46;
and Irish diaspora, 600. See also South African jazz
“expansive globalization,” 467
experimental improvisation, ancient music as departure for, 404–13
Eyerman, Ron, 17, 266 (p. 682)
fakelore, 6, 95, 622
Farhat, Shahin, 286
Fauchet, Claude, 78
Fayaz, Mohammad Reza: on Borumand, 289, 290;
on historical purity, 291;
and influence of Western musicologists, 285–86;
on return to fundamentals of purity, 284;
on revival of Iranian classical music, 281
Fayzullayev, Boboqul, 275n6
Feintuch, Burt, 13, 24
Feis Ceoil, 607
festivals: American instrumental folk music, 129–30;
BBC Radio 2’s involvement in, 500–501;
Belfast Harp Festival, 604;
Croatian folklore, 341–43;
economic impact of, 496–99;
English folk music resurgence and, 489–90, 495–99, 500–503, 505–6;
Finnish folk, 395;
Georgian polyphony, 578–79, 581, 582, 583, 585, 589;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 185, 194;
Irish music, 610, 611–12;
Međunardona smotra folklora, 327, 330;
in post-Soviet spaces, 512–13;
and revival of ca trù, 175, 179n17;
and shift from knowers to doers to marketers, 50;
Feza, Mongezi, 649, 656–59
Fiddler Magazine, 129
fiddling communities and associations: from eighteenth century on, 559–62;
emergence of, on Internet, 552–55;
and grassroots revitalization of traditional music and dance, 557–58, 567;
Internet, as real communities, 565;
and new steady state phase of cultural revitalization, 555–57
Filene, Benjamin, 8
Finland: ancient music as departure for experimental improvisation and personal expression, 404–13;
pelimanni music and rejuvenation of rural culture, 400–404;
revivals in, 394–95, 413–14;
Romantic nationalist transformation of epic songs, 396–400
fishing rituals, Korean, 148
Fishman, Joshua, 669
Flatley, Michael, 612
fleadh cheoil, 561–62, 610
“Flop-Eared Mule” tune, 127
flute. See Native flute
Flute Songs of the Kiowa and Comanche (Ware), 450
Fodor, Sándor “Neti,” 198
FolkArts England conference, 489
Folk Arts Panel, 449–50
folk clubs, 26, 492–93, 495
folk development organizations, 502–4
Folk Industry and AFO Conference, 489
Folk Industry and Association of Festival Organisers Conference, 505–6
folklife movement, 105
folklore: collection of Irish, 607;
Croatian, 325, 335, 336, 341–43, 344;
dance as form of, 624;
development of academic, 564;
and development of Uzbek arranged folk music, 257, 267;
documentation of Korean, 137;
ethnomusicology and political significance of collected musical, 523–26;
fakelore and, 6, 8;
Finnish, 399, 406;
and Georgian polyphony, 574–75, 577, 580, 590;
growth of public, 105;
historical-reconstructional approach of Asian, 137;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 189, 195;
preservation of Vietnamese, 162;
primary and secondary, 575;
revival of, 101;
and revival of folk music, 95–99, 101;
scholar-revivalists and, 6, 118;
scholarship on, 7, 19, 23;
and theory of cultural evolution, 6;
Ukrainian, 512, 519–20, 522;
urban folk revivalism and, 563
folklorismus, 564
folk music: American, 448–49;
authenticity and, 21;
and change from tradition to heritage, 52–54;
concept of, 47;
consumption of American, 105;
Croatian, 326, 333;
defining, traditions, 16;
development of, in Europe, 47–50;
early music and, 84–89;
English, 468, 478;
ethnic purity associated with, 11;
European, 47–48, 53–54, 73;
Finnish (p. 683) avant-garde, 393, 395, 404–13, 415n7, n11;
folklore and revival of, 95–99;
Georgian, 577, 579, 586;
and heritagization, 53–55;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 184–85, 192, 195;
Irish, 560–61;
issues surrounding contemporary, 102;
Korean, 141;
landscape of, 51–52;
Latvian, 469, 470, 480, 481, 482–83;
mediaization of, 49;
nineteenth-century collection of, 6;
popularization of, 48;
post-revival, 105–10;
preservation of, 559;
professionalization of, 50;
rebranding contemporary interpretations of, 26;
recontextualization in, archetype, 16–17;
recording of Hungarian, 194;
in regions of former Soviet Union, 474;
and rejuvenation of rural culture, 400–404;
resurgence in English, 28–29;
revival of American, 94, 100–101, 563;
revival of early music and, 73, 79–80, 84–89, 90;
structural changes in, 51;
as symbol of national identity, 474;
transmission of, 25, 90;
Folk Music Department, Sibelius Academy, 395, 405–6, 410–11
Folk Music Movement (Finland), 395
“Folk Music Revival in Europe” (World of Music), 8
folk songs: Georgian, 576, 577, 578, 580, 582–83;
popular versus local, 154n15;
preservation of Korean, 143–45;
Romantic nationalist use of Finnish narrative, 396–400;
Sharp’s definition of, 490
Folksongs and Folk Revival (Guigné), 109
Folkworks, 503–4, 505–6
food, preservation of Korean court, 141
foodways, study of, 105
Ford, Henry, 557–58
Ford Foundation teaching program, 173–74
Forsyth, Megan, 54
Forte, Maximilian, 354–55
Foucher, Vincent, 230–31, 239
Frank, Robert, 102
free jazz movement, 647
Freeland, Jane, 360–61
freezing of cultural artifacts, 135, 140, 152, 602
Freire, Paulo, 358
French-Canadian folk songs, 85–89
Frente Única, 430–31
Frisbie, Charlotte, 102
functional harmony, 278, 576, 590
funeral songs, Korean, 140
fusion and fusion processes, 197–98, 471, 476;
Baumann on, 476;
bossa nova and, 423–24;
of choro with jazz and rock, 66;
colonialism and, 219, 222;
Finnish music and, 405;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 197–98;
Iranian dance and, 631–632;
and Ivana Kupala revival, 522;
Latvian electric folk, 471, 475, 478, 479, 481;
Laurent Aubert on, 456;
and modern thick globalization, 468. See also hybridity; syncretism
Fuzzy Mountain String Band, 121–22
Gaelic Athletic Association, 605–6
Gaelic League, 606–7
Gal Costa, 418–20, 437n12
Galeano, Eduardo, 358
Gambacc, 241
Garakanidze, Edisher, 579–80, 584, 587–89
Garfish Dance, 314, 317
Garifuna cultural rescue: Afrocreolization and culture loss and, 355–57;
characteristics of, 352–55;
and dialogic space between Creoles and Garifunas, 363–69;
overview of, 350–52, 369–70;
trajectory of, 357–63
Garifuna Power, 364, 365
Garmarna, 480
Gaultier, Juliette, 88fig.
Gedutis, Susan, 606
gender: analysis of, in revival contexts, 511;
kathak dance and, 208–10, 222. See also women
Georgian Harmony Association, 589
Georgian polyphony: following independence, 580–83;
foreign involvement in, 574–75;
internationalization of, 583–89;
and musical transformations and cycles of renewal in Soviet era, 578–80;
overview of, 575–76;
revival and, 573–74;
and revivalist trends under Russian occupation, 576, 577–78;
and transnational affinity groups, 589–93;
transnational connections and, 593–95
(p. 684)
Gertze, Johnny, 649
giáo phường, 169–70, 179n15
Gibbon, John Murray, 89
Gil, Gilberto, 418–20, 428–31, 432
Gilberto, João, 423, 437n6
Gilliland, Henry, 566
Gillis, Verna, 450
Ginsberg, Allen, 102
“Girl with the Blue Dress On,” 127
globalization: analysis of historical development of, 466–67;
application of perspectives on, 477–82;
combining perspectives on, 482;
commercialization and, 471–72;
defined, 466;
effect of, on Indian performing arts, 206;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 196–97;
hybridity and, 479–82;
hyperglobal perspective, 474–75;
identity bolstering motives linked to, 11;
and Latvian revival, 469–71;
of local products, 46;
post-revival and, 30;
and revival in Europe, 467–68;
of revivals and related movements, 62–63;
sceptic perspective, 473–74;
and shift from tradition to heritage, 54;
“thick globalization,” 467–68, 483;
“thin globalization,” 467;
as threat to Vietnamese intangible cultural heritage, 162;
transformationalist perspective, 475–77;
understanding perspectives on, 472–73. See also Westernization
Goertzen, Chris, 274n1, 556
Goldblatt, David, 466–67
Goldstein, Kenny, 100
Gonazalez, Clarence, 364
Gone to the Country: The New Lost City Ramblers and the Folk Music Revival (Allen), 109
Good News from Africa (Ibrahim), 656
Gorani, 583, 584fig.
Gordela, 579
Gore, Georgiana, 622
Gottlunch, Carl Axel, 397
Gow, Niel, 560
Grabar, Oleg, 626
de Graça, Maria, 418–20
Grammy Awards, 459
Grančica, 338–40
Grand Apartheid, 648
Grande Liquidação, 437n13
grandparent education, 119–20
great boom, 100, 106
Green, Archie, 100
groundnut farming, 242
Guava Jam, 533–34
Guigné, Anna Kearney, 109
Guilbert, Yvette, 89
Gulashvili, Malkhaz, 593
Guss, David M., 621
Gwangwa, Jonas, 649
Hahn Man-young, 151
Hahoe mask dance drama, 138
Hainari, O. A., 406–7
hair, of Yulia Tymoshenko, 513
Hall, Stuart, 594
de la Halle, Adam, 89
Halmos, Béla, 183, 184–86, 187, 193
Hamba Kahle/Confluence, 655
hanbok, 141
Hannerz, Ulf, 594
Hanoi Ca Trù Club, 171, 179n16
Harkin, Michael, 350
harmony: functional, 278, 576, 590;
link between modernity and, 266–67
harp societies, Irish, 561
Harriot, Thomas, 75fig., 76, 77fig., 80
Hassan, Marzuki, 376
hát ả đào, 164, 166–67, 170, 175, 177
hát ca công, 166–67, 178n4
hát chơi, 166–67
hát cô đầu, 166–67
hát cửa đình, 164, 166–67, 171–72, 174, 175, 177
hát cửa quyền, 166–67, 175
hát nhà tơ, 166–67
hát nhà trò, 167
hat nói, 170
hát thi, 167
Hawai‘i: ethnicities in, 548–49n9;
self-determination of, 535, 548n5
Hawaiian, as ethnic group, 531–32
Hawaiian Renaissance, 531, 532–37, 541, 545–46
Haynes, Bruce, 84
Heap, Steve, 499–500 (p. 685)
Held, David, 466–67
Helsinki Peace Agreement (2005), 380–81
Henry, Edwin O., 561–62
Herat, Afghanistan, 382
Herder, Johann Gottfried von: on Baltic songs, 469;
romancero and, 84–85;
romantic nationalism and, 6, 396, 604;
term “folk” coined by, 21
heritage: American and European usage of, 59n5;
authenticity of Croatian local, 341;
Brazilian, 422;
Canadian, 109;
change from tradition to, 31, 51, 52–54;
Chickasaw, 316–17;
and cultural error, 14;
cultural imperialism and, 574;
endangered, 581;
exalting ancient, 11;
Finnish, 396, 397, 399;
Georgian, 576, 577, 583;
history and, 163;
and Iranian dance in diaspora, 636;
and Irish diaspora, 611;
of maqom traditions, 258;
modernity and, 56;
music as, 55;
Native flute and, 459, 460;
preservation of, 331–32, 447;
production of, 56;
protection of, from exploitation, 21;
restoration of Croatian folklore, 336–38, 340;
and Senegalese neo-traditional performance, 231, 232;
heritagization, 53–55
Hernandez, Bharath, 354
Herzog, George, 96
Heywood, J., 491
Higher Institute of Brazilian Studies (ISEB), 425
Highwoods Stringband, 109
Hill, Derek, 626
Hinton, Leanne, 669–70
Historic Cities Program, 385
historization, in revival production, 46
history: of African American musicians, 653;
becoming part of, through revival, 69;
of Berkeley folk scene, 108;
of Brazilian musical movements, 420–28, 433;
of ca trù, 160, 163, 166, 168;
cyclical patterns of cultural, 119–20;
of early music revivals, 73–74, 89–90;
of Garifunas and Creoles, 350, 352;
of Hawai‘i, 531, 533;
heritage and, 163;
of Hungarian dance house movement, 184–87;
of Hungarian folk music, 197;
of Iranian classical music, 277–80;
Iranian cultural, 623, 629;
Irish diasporic, 604, 605, 607, 615;
Jola, 240, 241;
of kathak dance, 211–15, 217–18;
musical and choreographic theatre and creation of seductive versions of, 229;
of Native Americans in Oklahoma, 302–4, 446;
reconfiguring identity and, 27;
reinterpretation of, 4, 20;
reissues and, 103;
of scholars’ involvement in revival processes, 5–6;
and South African jazz, 655–56, 662;
of Upland South, 123;
use of, 12–15, 44, 266;
of Uzbek arranged folk and traditional music, 254–62, 273–74;
veracity of, 286–91. See also past
Hobsbawm, Eric, 7, 12, 35n1, 558
Hodjaeva, Ro’zibi, 272–73
holders, of culture, 137–39
Holladay, Stella, 124
Holland, Jerry, 118
Hollow Rock String Band, 120–22, 127
Hommes de la Danse, Les (Huet & Keita), 237
homogenization: effects of, 45–46;
problems caused by, 54–55
Hsu, Francis L. K., 566
Huet, Michel, 237
hukai pō, 540
hula: position of, before Hawaiian Renaissance, 533;
and reclamation of Hawaiian culture, 535–37;
taught in Hawaiian universities, 534;
in “The Birth of Hawai‘i,” 530–31, 541
Human Cultural Properties, 137
humanness, music and, 330–31
Hungaraton series of Hungarian folk music, 197
Hungarian Academy of Science’s Musicology Institute, 194
Hungarian dance house movement: institutionalization of, 194–96;
integration of activism and scholarship into, 192–94;
interethnic and multistate character of, 187–89;
intimate connection of, to dance, 184–87;
as music and dance revival, 184;
music revival fostered by, 196–200;
overview of, 182–84
Hungarian Heritage House, 195, 199 (p. 686)
Hương Thanh, 179n18
Hurricane Katrina, 374
hybridity: authenticity and, 22, 223;
in Brazil, 297n18;
and English folk music resurgence, 493;
financial impact of musical, 481;
globalization and, 468, 473;
Iranian national dance and, 628;
in kathak dance revival, 208, 222;
and “new aesthetic,” 16;
and sceptic criticism, 479–82. See also fusion and fusion processes; syncretism
hyperglobal perspective of globalization, 474–75, 483
hypermedia, 475
Ibrahim, Abdullah, 646, 647, 652. See also Brand, Dollar
identity: adoptive cultural, 562–63, 567;
Bahiano, 428;
bolstering, as motivation for revival, 11;
Brazilian national, 422–23, 426;
Chickasaw communal dance songs and, 316–17;
Choctaw communal dance and, 311;
and Croatian revival, 326;
defining Native cultural, 301;
destabilized by moments of crisis, 434;
and development of Uzbek arranged folk music, 257–58;
and dialogic space between Creoles and Garifunas, 363, 365–68;
and emergence of Casamançais regionalism, 242–44, 247;
folk music as symbol of national, 474;
Garifuna, 350–51;
Georgian polyphony and, 579;
globalization as threat to, 470;
Hawaiian, 531–32;
and history of arranged folk versus traditional music in Uzbekistan, 254, 256;
Indian, 207–8;
Iranian dance and, 618;
Ivana Kupala and ethnic, 524;
kathak dance revival and, 222;
Latvian, 470, 482–83;
movement systems constitutive of, 621–22;
music and, 355, 562;
nature of gender, 511;
negotiation of Irish, 603;
preservation of Iranian, 284–85;
reassertion of Choctaw and Chickasaw, 318–19;
revival and reclaiming indigenous cultural, 300;
of revival participants, 511;
and shift in Uzbek nationalism, 262–64;
and South African jazz, 645;
of Soviet republics and later independent nations, 275n6
Iļģi, 469, 471, 475–82
Ilinskaja Pjatnica, 482
imagination: of Ireland, 598, 601, 602, 603, 604;
and re-creation of ancient music, 404, 406;
and representations of past, 11, 13–14, 409;
in supplementing historical sources, 80, 409, 411;
tradition as territory of, 24
improvisation: ancient music as departure for experimental, 404–13;
in art therapy, 378–79;
in ca trù, 173–74, 176;
creativity and, 23;
in Early Music performances, 84;
in Finnish music education, 415n9;
in Georgian polyphony, 575, 579, 585, 592;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 184;
in Iranian classical music, 283;
in Iranian dance, 619, 623, 624, 626–27, 633, 635, 636, 638;
musicking and, 483;
on Native flute, 452, 455, 458;
in participatory music, 67;
in South African jazz, 654, 655;
Stravinsky on, 290
Indian Flute Songs from Comanche Land, 450
Indianists, 447
Indian Removal Act (1830), 303
indigenous resurgence: Forte on, 354–55;
of Hindu tradition, 208, 221;
of Korean intangible cultural heritage, 136;
and metaphor as means of understanding processes and dynamics, 63. See also Chickasaw; Choctaw; Garifuna cultural rescue; Native flute
industrialization: of Finland, 400;
and revival of early music, 74, 81–83
innovation: authenticity and, 23–24;
and Brazilian modernism, 423;
ca trù and, 176, 177;
causes of, 435;
and Finnish ancient music, 404;
of Finnish folk music, 394, 395, 413–14;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 199;
importance of, 267;
influences appearing as, 17;
introduced into folklore, 257;
kathak dance and, 219, 220;
Lönnrot and, 397;
and Native flute, 454–55, 457, 458;
preservation and, 8, 19, 292;
protest bossa nova and, 425;
resistance to, 12;
revival and, 393, 421, 433;
revival resulting in, 5;
and study of participatory aspects of revivals, 68;
tradition and transformation and, 18–19, 28;
valued by Soviet institutions, 266
(p. 687)
institutionalization: of Early Music, 73–90;
effects of, 45;
of English folk and traditional music, 504;
of Hungarian dance house movement, 194–96;
of Indian classical dance genres, 210–11;
of kathak dance, 213, 215;
as necessary aspect of revival, 63–64;
process of, 16–18;
transmission through, 27;
of Uzbek traditional music, 255, 260–61
intangible cultural heritage: ca trù as, 160, 161–65;
global perspectives on, 142–43;
Korean court music as, 149–52;
Korean folk songs as, 143–45;
Korean percussion bands as, 145–47;
Korean shaman rituals as, 147–49;
preservation of, 135;
preservation of Korean, 136–42, 152–53. See also ca trù; Hungarian dance house movement
integrative creativity, 454, 455
intentional fallacy, 118
interculturality, 351
International Center for Georgian Folk Song (ICGFS), 582–83
International Centre for Music Studies (ICMuS), 504
International Council for Traditional Music, 140
internationalism, and Uzbek arranged folk music, 267–69
internationalization, of Georgian polyphony, 574, 583–89
International Music Conference (1961), 286
International Native American and World Flute Association, 452
International Research Center for Traditional Polyphony, 581–82
Internet: dissemination through, 27;
emergence of fiddling and traditional dance music communities on, 552–55;
English folk music resurgence and, 501–2;
hypermedia and, 475;
impact of, on revival, 551–52;
and Irish music and dance revival, 614;
special interest groups on, as communities, 565;
traditional music organizations on, 556–57
interpretive archaeology, 12–13
invented tradition, 7–8, 35n1, 619
Iranian classical music: first revivalist movement in, 280–85;
and historical veracity, 286–91;
implications of revivalist movements in, 294–95;
influence of Western musicologists on, 285–86;
musical modernizers in, 277–80;
second revival movement in, 291–94
Iranian dance: and autoexoticism, 633–35;
and choreophobia, 626–27;
conceptual approaches to, 621–23;
in diaspora, 630–31;
first known performances of, outside Iran, 632–33;
historical and cultural background of, 623–24;
national dance, 627–30;
new vision of, 638–40;
regional folk dance, 624–26;
“revival” and “revivalists” in context of, 619–21;
solo improvised dance, 626;
and state folk dance ensemble model, 635–38
Iranian National Ballet, 629
Iran National Folklore Organization, 630
Ireland: characteristics of Irish music, 603–4;
Georgian singing in, 587–89;
history of emigration from, 600–601;
as homeland, 599–600;
images of, 602;
isolation of, 599;
revival in, 467, 604–8;
traditional music revival activities in, 559, 560–61. See also Irish diaspora
Irish diaspora: history of, 600–601;
loss through, 601–2;
overview of, 598–99, 614–16;
and perceived life of homeland, 599–600;
performance of Irishness in, 608–14;
revival and, 604–8
Irish Melodies (Moore), 605
Irish tenor, 605
Istrian Peninsula, 333–35, 343
Ivana Kupala, St. John’s Eve (Midsummer’s Eve) (Latvia): ethnomusicology and political significance of, 523–26;
following Ukrainian independence, 517–19;
government sponsorship of, 512–13;
in Kharkiv, 521–23;
in Kyiv, 519–21;
political and social symbolism associated with, 514;
as revival, 514–16, 526–27
Jabbour, Alan, 13, 68
Jackson, Bruce, 84
Jamal, 638–39
James, Simon, 474
Jamison, Andrew, 17, 266
Jamo Jamo Arts, 247
Japan, and Irish diaspora, 614 (p. 688)
Järvelä, Mauno, 404
Jászberény Camp, 194
Jazz Epistles, 649, 653
Jeu de Robin et Marion (de la Halle), 89
Jiminez, Amanda, 366–67, 368–69
Jobin, Tom, 424
Johnson, Meredith, 313, 317
Jola, and emergence of Casamançais regionalism, 238–44, 246
jongleurs, 86
Jordania, Joseph, 587
Joutsenlahti, Leena, 406, 408–9
Jylhä, Konsta, 401, 403
Kabul, Afghanistan, 382, 383
Kalevala, 397, 399
Kañaalen, 241, 242, 244
Kanahele, George, 532–33, 535, 536, 545
Kane, Frank, 585, 586–87
Kanggangsullae, 144–45, 154n16
Kangnŭng tanoje, 147
Kangnyŏng mask dance drama, 138
Kang Sanggi, 137–38
Kanté, Facelli, 232
kantele players, 406–8
kaona, 539–40
Karomatov, Faizulla, 260, 261–62, 263
Kartomi, Margaret, 297n18
Kartuli Khoro, 577
Kashgar rubab, 261
Kastinen, Arja, 406–8, 409
Kathakas, 217–19
kathak dance and revival: characteristics of, 220–21, 222;
classicization of, 215–19, 223;
in context of Indian independence and nationalism, 207–11;
cultural exchange and, 221–22;
description and history of, 211–13;
overview of, 205–7;
roots and histories of, 213–15;
social class and, 220
Kathaks: as authorities of kathak dance, 216, 220;
caste shift of, 214–15;
identity shift of, 222;
as story-tellers, 218
Katrina, Hurricane, 374
Kaustinen Folk Music Festival, 400–401
Kavkasia, 585–86
Keawe, Lia, 542
Keita, Fodéba, 228, 231–34, 237, 249n7
Kelemen, László, 193
Kéti, Zé, 426
Khaleqi, Ruhollah, 278
Kharkiv, Ukraine, Ivana Kupala in, 519, 521–23
Kiani, Majid, 279–80, 282, 296n11
Kihune, Heali‘i, 543
Kim, Chongho, 148
Kim, Yong Woo, 144–45
Kimble, Taylor, 123–24
Kim Kŭmhwa, 148
Kim Sŏkch’ul, 148, 149
Kim Sŏngjin, 151
Kim Taerye, 148
Kim Yŏlgyu, 147
King Arthur (Dryden), 80
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara, 43–44, 50, 620
klapa singing, 332, 345n2, 346n9
klezmer music, 54
Klymenko, Iryna, 525
knowers, shift of, to doers, 47–51
Koch-e-Kharabat school, 385
Kodály, Zoltán, 192
Kodoba family, 198
Kokil Music College, 384
Könczei, Csongor, 194, 199
Korea. See South Korea
Koridze, Pilimon, 578
Koskoff, Ellen, 28
Koutsouba, Maria, 622
kulturno-umjetnička društva, 325, 335–41
kumpanjija, 327, 346n5
Kunanbaeva, Alma, 257, 267
Kupalo, 515–16, 520
Kurdish music, influence of, on Iranian classical music, 292–93
Kürti, László, 189
Kyhälä, Jouko, 412
Kyiv, Ukraine, Ivana Kupala in, 519–21
“Lady of the Lake,” 126
Laitinen, Heikki, 395, 402, 405–6, 408–12
Lajtha, László, 185, 192
Lake, Ma‘iki Aiu, 534
Lakhushdi, Georgia, 591, 592fig.
Lakota flute songs, 445
Land League, 605 (p. 689)
Landowska, Wanda, 75, 79–80, 81
language revitalization, 669–70
Latvia: adaptation of performance techniques of Russian minorities in, 482;
globalization and revival in, 469–71;
hybridity and, 481
Law 961 (Korea), 136
Leão, Nara, 418–22, 426, 434–35
Lê Đức Mao, 168
Lee Hyegu, 155n34
legitimacy: authenticity and, 8, 28, 45, 223, 301, 394;
authenticity and authority and, 19–24;
and cultural change, 393;
and emergence of Casamançais regionalism, 241;
of English folk music, 507;
of folk orchestral performance as academic pursuit, 270;
in Georgian polyphony, 592;
hybridity and, 16;
Iranian dance and, 628, 629;
of kathak dance, 214, 219, 222;
of post-colonial elites, 229;
and promotion of revival materials, 26;
of protest bossa nova, 420;
recognition of past as source of, 12;
in revival, 4
Lengyel, László “Türei,” 198–99
Lê Thị Bạch Vân, 172, 174
Leupp, Francis, 447
Levin, Theodore, 253–54, 271, 273
Levy, Bertram, 120–21, 125–26
Liedes, Anna-Kaisa, 411
Lieurance, Thurlow, 447
Lindberg, Ulf, 20
Linich, Carl, 585–86
Linton, Ralph, 5, 558, 563
List, George, 96
literacy: of Canadian jongleurs, 86;
fetishization of musical, 259;
of Gascogne peasants, 79;
importance of musical, 255;
nostalgia and, 90;
Soviet valorization of, 262;
at University of Tehran, 282;
Uzbek musical, 269–72;
Western notation and notions of musical, 254. See also notation
Living Human Treasures, 19, 142
Living Hungarian Folk Music, 197
Livingston, Tamara: on authenticity, 284, 287;
on authenticity and tradition, 453;
on core revivalists, 525;
on ideologies in North America and Western Europe, 9;
on popular culture component of revivals, 451;
on preservation and innovation, 292;
on purpose of revival, 393;
on revival, 280;
on revival and modernity, 283;
and revival as activism, 10;
on revival breakdown, 28;
on revivalists, 274n1, 288;
on revival musics, 608;
theoretical model of, 8, 61–66, 101–2, 660–61;
on tradition, 446
Lloyd, A. L., 477
localness, 545
Locke, Kevin, 443, 445, 450, 453–54, 455
Lomax, Alan, 35n2, 329, 551
Lönnrot, Elias, 397–99, 404
Lopez, Frank, 351
Lord, Albert, 23, 406
loss: following war and natural disasters, 331, 339;
of Garifuna culture and identity, 350, 351, 355–57, 369;
grandparent education and, 119–20;
of Iranian identity, 293;
of Iranian musical tradition, 284;
of Korean cultural heritage, 136, 137;
of Latvian identity, 470;
nostalgia and, 274;
in South African jazz, 658–59, 661;
through diaspora, 598, 600–602;
of Ukrainian tradition, 521;
love, as theme in Native flute songs, 457–58
love flute, 445
Lowenthal, David, 13, 163
Lundberg, Dan, 476
Lysloff, Rene T. A., 552
Määtälä, Viljo, 400
MacColl, Ewan, 477
Mackinnon, Niall, 13
Mahalli Dancers, 630
Muktupāvels, Māris, 471
Malm, Krister, 414–15n6
Manding Mousso, la Révolte de la Femme Mandingue (Camara), 242
Mané, Fodé, 247
Marcus, Greil, 95, 106
Markaz-e Hefz o Eshāeh-ye Musiqi-ye Irani, 281–82, 285, 294
marketers, shift of doers to, 47–51 (p. 690)
Martin, György, 185, 186, 192–93
Martins, Carlos Estevam, 425
Marušić, Dario, 334
Marx, Karl, 10, 55
Maryna, 515–16
Masekela, Hugh, 649
Mather, Cotton, 117
MBalia, 243
Mbaye, Alioune, 231
McAllester, David, 443, 452
McGregor, Chris: on conscious South Africanism, 644;
education of, 648;
influences on, 649, 652;
on life outside of South Africa, 650;
music and recordings of, 653, 656–59. See also Blue Notes
McGregor, Maxine, 650, 651
Medaglia, Júlio, 430
media: English folk music resurgence and, 499–502;
and evolution of musical movements, 434;
and growth of bossa nova, 424;
growth of Brazilian, 437n8. See also “Birth of Hawai‘i, The”
mediaization, of Swedish folk music scene, 49–50
mediated intimacies, 512
medieval music. See early music
Međunarodna smotra folklora, 327, 330, 342–43
Meeker, Lauren, 165
Meftahi, Ida, 628
Meili, Max, 83
Melnyk, Taras, 525
Melucci, Alberto, 328
Memorial University of Newfoundland, 96–97, 110
Memorial University of Newfoundland Folklore and Language Archive (MUNFLA), 97
memory, and South African jazz, 661–62
Merriam, Alan P., 96
metaphor, 44, 63, 117
metonymy, 44
Meusare-sare (Working together), 377–78
Meyer, Paul, 650
Mezőség, 187, 189
Middle Ages: included in antiquity, 74;
use of term, 76–78
Mills, Joan, 590
mindscapes, musical, 52–53, 56
Ministry of Development and Reconstruction (Croatian), 336
minstrel shows, and Irish diaspora, 608–9
Miskitu, 360
mobility, revival and transnational, 246–48
modernity: authenticity and, 287;
effect of, on Indian performing arts, 206;
and Iranian classical music, 277–80;
motion of, 55;
revivals as reaction against and product of, 283;
tradition and, 55–56, 265–68, 279, 284, 297nn14,24
Moholo, Louis, 649, 651–52, 657–59
Moiseyev Dance Company, 635
Mo Manhwa, 137
Montaigne, Michel de, 76, 79
Moon, Peter, 534
Moore, Thomas, 605
Moray, Jim, 494
motrebs, 623, 627
Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de Casamance (MFDC), 238–39, 244
Moyake, Nick, 649, 651
Muminova, Mehrihon, 264
Munaf, Sherina, 376
Munro, Ailie, 560
Muravskyi Shliakh, 522
musical literacy, Uzbek, 269–72
musical mindscapes, 52–53, 56
music camps, Irish, 612
“musicking,” 483
“Music Revivals: Towards a General Theory” (Livingston), 60, 61–66, 101, 660–61. See also revival model of Tamara Livingston
Musikologie, 82, 90
Musikwissenschaft, 82–83, 90
musiqi-ya ’elmi, 279
Musique ancienne (Landowska), 81
“Muxamassi Nasrulloi,” 271
Muzsikás, 197, 198
MySpace, 501
Nadel, Siegfried, 573
Naficy, Hamid, 637–38
Najafi, Najmeh, 633–34
Nakai, R. Carlos, 443, 451–52, 453, 455
narodnjaci, 332–33, 334fig., 346n3
National Academy of Ballet, 629–30
National Ballet, Senegalese, 234–35
national dance, Iranian, 624, 627–30
National Gugak Center, 149, 150, 151
National Indian Youth Council, 448–49
nationalism: and compilation of epic poetry, 11, 395, 396–97;
and development of Uzbek arranged folk music, 257–58;
and Georgian polyphony, 577, 579, 582;
globalization and, 474;
and history of arranged folk versus traditional music in Uzbekistan, 255–56;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 187–89;
and Iranian classical music, 279–80, 284–85, 293–94;
kathak dance revival in context of Indian, 207–11;
Latvian, 482;
as motivation for revival, 11, 393, 394–96, 401, 413;
nostalgia and, 273–74;
and Senegalese neo-traditional performance, 233–37, 244;
shift in Uzbek, 262–64;
and Uzbek folk orchestras as agents for international understanding, 269. See also ethnicity; patriotic songs, Croatian; patriotism, and English folk music resurgence
National Literary Society, 606
National Strategy for Music Education (Afghanistan), 383, 384
National Theatre, Senegalese, 233, 235–37
Native American Music Awards, 453
Native Americans: Civil Rights movement and, 300–301;
constraints placed on, 300;
music and dance revivals of, 301–2;
as parallel to medieval antiquity, 75–76, 79, 80;
suppression and assimilation of, 446–47. See also Chickasaw; Choctaw
Native flute: non-Native involvement with, 459–62;
overview of, 442–43;
during postrevival period, 453–59;
during prerevival period, 446–49;
during revival period, 449–53;
traditional, to 1879, 443–45
Native flute circles, 456–57
natural disasters: ethnographic research on, 374;
as motivation for revival, 12. See also decline, musical
nautch girls, 209–10
Nazemi, Abdollah, 630
Nazeri, Shahram, 293, 294
Ndao, Cheikh Aliou, 236
Neal, Mary, 491
Ned, Buster, 305–11, 313–15, 318
“Ne dirajte mi ravnicu,” 329
Negra, 368–69
Nelipolviset, 406
neoclassical movement, 36n6
Nettl, Bruno, 82, 533, 562
Neuenfeldt, Karl, 451, 452
Nevaquaya, “Doc Tate,” 448, 449–50, 452, 454–55, 456
Newcastle University, 504
New Criticism, 118
Newfoundland, 96–97, 109–10
New Living Village Music recordings, 197
New Lost City Ramblers, 121, 335
New Music Manifesto, 430
new steady state, 7, 28, 555–56, 593, 594
New St. George, 480, 481
New World, as parallel to medieval antiquity, 75–76, 79, 80
New Zealand, Irish immigrants in, 600–601
Nghệ Thuật Ca Trù, 171–72
Ngọc Đại, 175
Ngô Linh Ngọc, 171
NGOs, 377–78
Nguyễn Lê, 179n18
Nguyễn Mạnh Tiến, 171, 179n18
Nguyễn Thị Chúc, 173
Nguyễn Thị Phúc, 170
Nguyễn Thúy Hòa, 166fig.,171, 175–76
Nguyễn Văn Khuê, 166fig., 171, 175, 176
Nguyễn Văn Mùi, 166fig., 171
Nguyễn Văn Ngọc, 170
Nguyễn Xuân Diện, 168, 169
Nguyễn Xuân Khoát, 170–71
Nicaraguan Afro-Garifuna Organization (OAGANIC), 361–62
Nieminen, Rauno, 405, 407fig., 412
99 Georgian Songs (Garakanidze), 587–88
nongak, 145–46, 154n19
non-government organizations, 377–78
Nordstrom, Byron J., 556
Nordstrom, Carolyn, 346n5
Norwegian traditional music, 556–57 (p. 692)
nostalgia: and “The Birth of Hawai‘i,” 544;
and Iranian classical music, 284;
and Iranian dance in diaspora, 630;
and mobilization of past, 13;
patriotic Vietnamese, 163;
and preservation of Korean cultural heritage, 136;
and revival in post-Soviet spaces, 511–12;
and study of medieval antiquity, 73, 75, 80, 89–90;
and Uzbek arranged folk and traditional music, 273–74
notation: publication of, as dissemination, 25–26;
and Uzbek musical literacy, 269–72. See also literacy
Nova Bossa Velha, Velha Bossa Nova, 418
Novák, Ferenc, 186
Ntshoko, Makay, 649
Nyanyian Tsunami (Tsunami Song), 376–77
O amor, o sorriso e a flor, 437n6
Obando Sancho, Victor, 353
objectification: and Iranian classical music, 283;
as necessary aspect of revival, 219;
production of, 45
object-oriented criteria for authenticity, 6, 20, 326, 491
Obnavljamo baštinu project, 336, 337fig., 340
obnova, 326, 343, 345n1
Observer Effect, 124
Okamura, Jonathan, 545
Old Fiddlers Association, 557
Old-Time Herald, 109, 129
old-time music, American, 96, 102, 108–9, 123, 129–30, 557, 563
Old-Time Music and Dance (Bealle), 108
Old Time News, 129
Olson, Laura, 257, 471–72
omasta päästä, 408
“On Building and Developing a Progressive Vietnamese Culture Rich in National Character” (Vietnamese Communist Party), 162
O’Neil, Francis, 560–61
Orfeu, 437n10
Orientalism, 207–8, 223–24n2, 622–23, 629
origin fallacy, 118
orphans: in Afghanistan, 384;
arts therapy for, 378–79, 387n3
Ortega, Daniel, 358
Os Mutantes, 430, 431–32
O’Toole, Fintan, 615
Out of Place (Said), 644
outsiders: ethnic, 22;
and Georgian polyphony, 574–75, 590, 593;
and Hawaiian culture, 547–48;
legitimacy and, 394;
as revivalists, 15–16, 107, 619;
role of, in revivalist projects, 343–44
“Over the Waterfall,” 127–28
ox decapitation ceremony, Croatian, 327
O’zbek Halq Musiqasi, 258–59
Pachanga, 239
Pacheco, Johnny, 239
Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, 278
Pak Pyŏngch’ŏn, 148
Palacio, Andy, 359
parallel traditions, 622
Pareles, Jon, 669
Pars National Ballet, 630
Park, Mikyung, 148
Park Chung Hee, 136
Parker, Logan, 305
Parry, C. Hubert H., 491
participation: in choro revival, 62;
consideration for, 60–61;
face-to-face, 64;
motivation for revival, 65;
observation and, 116–31;
significance of, 66–68
participatory music, significance of, 66–68
Pashofa Dance, 313
past: ancient, in “The Birth of Hawai‘i,” 540–41;
appropriation of, to reshape cultural environment, 29;
borrowing from, 394;
Croatian revival and appropriation of, 344–45;
as danger to future of music culture, 668–69;
Georgian polyphony as restoration of, 590;
illusion of continuity between present and, 229;
mobilization of, 12–15;
movement to present from, 119;
nationalism and connection to, 263–64;
presence of, 287;
and present in Croatian folklore, 335;
reconstruction and validation of, in Hawaiian Renaissance, 541;
representations of, 11;
revival as drawing upon, 5;
transferring musical elements from, 4;
and understanding of revival, 43–44. See also history; nostalgia
Past in Music, The(Ethnomusicology Forum), 13 (p. 693)
patriotic songs, Croatian, 326–27, 329
patriotism, and English folk music resurgence, 491. See also nationalism
Pávai, István, 193
Payne, Richard W. “Doc,” 444, 448, 449, 456
Peacock, Kenneth, 109–10
“Peekaboo Waltz,” 127
pelimanni music, 400–404, 413
percussion bands, preservation of Korean, 145–47
performance: and academic status, 270;
Chickasaw cultural identity through, 316–17;
of Choctaw communal dance songs, 309–10;
and English folk music resurgence, 492–93, 495–99;
goals of, in post-Soviet Uzbekistan, 267–68;
hybridity and, 480–81;
of Irishness in diaspora, 608–14;
of Istrian ethnomusic, 334–35;
as means of discovery for new audiences, 501;
new teaching contexts’ impact on, 173–74;
pelimanni revival and amateur, 401–2;
as representation of music, 49–50;
revival of, as medium of post-colonial elites, 229;
shift from participatory to presentational, 16–17;
transmission through, 26. See also Senegalese neo-traditional performance
“performance approach,” 98–99
Pernambuco, Brazil, 428–29
Perraton, Jonathan, 466–67
personal expression, ancient music as departure for, 404–13
person-oriented criteria for authenticity, 20–22, 394
Petrie, George, 561
Petrosiants, Ashot, 257, 261, 270
Pham Duy, 170
Phạm Thị Huệ, 174, 175, 179n15
Phó Đình Kỳ, 171
Pickens, Bienum, 307
Picts, 76
Pilzer, Joshua, 339
place-based special interest groups, 554
Plains flute, 443–45
Plan Australia, 378, 387n3
poetry: Iranian classical music and, 293–94;
and Iranian dance in diaspora, 633;
Vietnamese, 170
politics: authenticity and, 20;
and Casamançais regionalism, 246;
Choctaw and Chickasaw self-determination and, 303;
and English folk music resurgence, 494;
Georgian, 580–81;
Hawaiian assimilation, 535;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 190–91, 195;
and kathak dance revival, 214;
Kaustinen Folk Music Festival funding and, 401;
as motivation for revival, 11–12, 418–22, 424–29, 433;
and protest song movements, 23;
of “revivalist” in United States, 109;
and revival performance in Senegal, 230–37;
and South African jazz, 653, 655, 657, 659–60;
Tamil artistic revival and, 381;
Tropicália movement and, 431;
Ukrainian, 512. See also cultural politics
“Politics of Culture: Folk Critique and Transformation in the State of Hungary, The” (Taylor), 188
polyphony. See Georgian polyphony
Pomazan, Yefrozynia, 515, 516fig.
“Pongjiga,” 145
Popular Center for Culture (CPC), 425–26
popular music, Croatian post-war tradition-based, 331–35. See also bossa nova; protest bossa nova; Tropicália movement
post-colonial regimes, revival of performance as medium of, 229, 233–37
postfolkore, 468, 469
post-processual archaeology, 12–13
post-revival, 28–30;
ca trù and, 176;
choro revival and, 66;
conceptualization of, 9;
defined, 4;
Finnish revival activities in, 395;
folk music and, 105–6;
and Georgian polyphony, 574, 593–95;
globalization and, 466, 472, 474–76;
and Hawaiian culture, 545;
innovation and, 23–24;
Iranian, 295;
and Iranian classical music, 294–95;
and Korean folk culture, 152;
Native flute and, 442, 453–62;
and new steady state phase of cultural revitalization, 555–58;
and notion of continuum, 16;
recent studies, 107–10;
stage following, 666;
understanding development of, culture, 566
(p. 694)
posttraumatic stress disorder, 378, 386, 387n3
present: dissatisfaction with, as motivation for revival, 3–4, 10–11;
and past in Croatian folklore, 335
preservation: Bernardini on, 29;
of customs, 327–28;
in diaspora, 19;
and global perspectives on intangible cultural heritage, 142–43;
of heritage, 331–32;
innovation and, 8, 19, 292;
of intangible cultural heritage, 135;
of Korean court music, 149–52;
of Korean folk songs, 143–45;
of Korean intangible cultural heritage, 136–42, 152–53;
of Korean percussion bands, 145–47;
of Korean shaman rituals, 147–49;
tension between conservation and, 28;
through decontextualization and recontextualization, 4, 44
primary ensembles, 575
process-oriented criteria for authenticity, 20, 22–23, 394
production(s): artistic, as nonviolent resistance, 426;
authenticity of, 46–47;
emphasis on, 45;
meaning of, 43;
social networks in artistic, 421
product-oriented criteria for authenticity, 20
professionalization: of English folk music, 493, 497, 498–99, 501, 505, 506;
and Finnish folk music, 395, 403, 406;
of folk music, 53–54;
of Georgian folk polyphony, 578–79;
of Hungarian dance house groups, 197–98;
as necessary aspect of revival, 63–64;
process of, 16–18;
of Roma musicians, 341;
of Senegalese neo-traditional performance, 237;
and shift from knowers to doers to marketers, 50
Program for the Socialization of Peace and Reintegration of Aceh, 380
promotion: changes in nature of, 24–27;
of Korean intangible cultural heritage, 139–40;
methods and infrastructure for, 4
Proper Distribution, 501–2
protest bossa nova, 419–20, 422, 425–31
psychosocial homeostasis, 566
Public Enlightenment movement (Finland), 394–95, 413
Pukwana, Dudu, 649, 652, 657–59
p’ungmul, 145–46
punk bands, Irish and Irish-diaspora, 613
punta, 363–64, 365, 366, 367
punta rock, 364
Purcell, Henry, 80
purity: of Chickasaw communal songs and dances, 315;
of Croatian traditional music, 343;
and first revivalist movement in Iranian classical music, 281, 283–85;
and historical veracity, 286–91;
of Indian performing arts, 208–10;
of kathak dance, 206, 219;
and Native flute, 449, 459;
and rejection of revivalist artists, 620. See also authenticity; ethnic purity
Qahremani, Esma’il Khan, 289, 296n11
qarbzadegi, 278
Quách Thị Hồ, 170, 171
quản giáp, 168
Quitzow, Sulgwynn, 108
racial purity, 287–88, 297n18. See also ethnic purity
radif: authority of, 285, 288, 297n13;
Borumand and, 289, 296n11; increased attention to, 282–83;
Nazeri on, 294;
second revival movement as reaction against, 295;
Shahnazi and, 296n12
Radio Tehran, 279–80
Rădulescu, Speranţa, 191
Rafly, 376, 379
Raimbergenov, Abdulhamid, 384
Rajabi, Yunus, 258–59, 271, 275n6
Ramazani, Nesta, 628–29
Ramnarine, Tina, 400
Ramos, Vernon, 363, 365
Rao, Maya, 217
Rashid, Ali Mohammad, 286
Ras Lila, 214
Ratil, Iozef, 577
rationalized creativity, 454–55
ratôh taloe, 377
Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore, 142
“Reconstructing Heritage” project, 336, 337fig., 340
recontextualization: authenticity balanced by processes of, 591;
brings new demands, 394;
change through, 28;
of Chickasaw (p. 695) communal songs and dances, 313;
of Choctaw communal songs and dances, 306;
documentation and explication of, processes, 9, 67;
effects of, 394;
of English folk music, 506–7;
of Hawaiian traditions, 533;
inherent processes of, 63;
legitimization and, 4;
of primary folklore, 574;
of repertories, 301;
in revival, 4;
of South African jazz, 661;
transformation and, 15–19;
transmission and dissemination and, 24–25. See also decontextualization
recordings. See audio recordings
Red Clay Ramblers, 121, 122
Red Power Movement, 300–301
Red River Blues (Bastin), 104
Reed, Henry, 119, 124–27
re-enactment, 14, 17–18, 668–69
Reflections, 654
regalia: for Chickasaw communal dance, 315–16;
of Choctaw communal dance, 310;
hula, 536
Regional Dance Group, 364
regulated creativity, 454, 455
reissues, 103
Reizniece, Ilga, 470, 471, 481–82, 483
religion: application of “revival” in, 117;
and Iranian classical music, 293;
Iranian dance and, 624;
Ivana Kupala and, 514–15;
kathak dance and, 217
renaissance: of English folk arts, 489;
in fiddling, 128;
of Georgian polyphony, 574;
of Indian dance, 212;
in Iranian classical music, 291–94;
of klapa movement, 332;
process of cultural, 223;
of Qajar music, 281;
use of term, 76–78. See also Hawaiian Renaissance
repertory: Chickasaw, 315, 316, 318;
Choctaw, 302, 304, 307, 308–9, 311, 314;
discontinuation and renewal of, 301;
of English folk music, 490–91;
of Henry Reed, 126–27;
of Hollow Rock String Band, 122;
integration of cultural artifacts into, 119;
memory and, 662;
putting away and putting to sleep, 319n1;
recontextualization of, 301, 318;
of Southern oldtime fiddling, 116, 121, 122–23, 129;
of Taylor Kimball, 124
Repo, Teppo, 405, 408
representations: audio recordings as, 49–50, 103;
meaning and function of, 43
Resolution 5 of Eighth National Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party, 162
restoration: and antiquarian nostalgia, 73, 78–81, 90;
in Croatia, 331, 336;
of ethnic purity, 11;
following disasters, 372–73, 377–78;
of Georgian polyphony, 574, 577–78, 589–90;
as important cultural phenomenon, 4;
of integrity of present practices, 12;
and kathak dance revival, 207–11;
in Korea, 149–50;
revivals as, 8, 61, 63;
in South African jazz, 646, 660–61
resurgence: in English folk arts, 28–29, 489–90, 494–95, 499–500, 507;
and Garifuna cultural rescue, 352–55;
of interest in Southeastern Indian cultures, 313;
of Iranian national consciousness, 294;
of regionalism, 247;
versus revival, 493–94
reverse language shift, 669
revitalization: of Croatian tunes, 333;
Garifuna, 350–52, 355;
in Hawai‘i, 533;
of Irish music, 607;
of language, 669–70;
revival and, 566;
of Scottish traditional music, 560;
through formation and organizations, 557–58
revitalization movements: Harkin on, 350;
Internet and, 552;
Nevaquaya on, 449;
studies of, 229;
Wallace’s theory of, 6–7, 99, 288, 331, 393, 555–56, 566, 567, 593
revival: as activism, 10–12, 350–70, 393–414, 418–36;
authenticity, authority, and legitimacy and, 19–24;
characteristics of, 3–4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 222–23, 510–11;
contention regarding, as label, 4–5, 63, 302;
as current in creation and dissolution of musical movements, 421;
defined, 3, 61;
as fluid, 229;
meanings of, 116–19;
and mobilization of past and selective use of history, 12–15;
as paradigm, 101–2;
past and understanding of, 43–44;
processes and issues in, 3–4;
as process that stretches space, 246–48;
purpose of, 61;
recontextualization and transformation and, 15–19;
as response to social and cultural change, 562–66;
versus resurgence, 493–94;
scholarship on, 5–8;
separating, from other musical processes, 103–4;
transmission, dissemination, and promotion and, 24–27;
in twenty-first century, 9–10
(p. 696)
revivalists: core revivalists, 65, 525;
in Iranian dance context, 619–21;
legitimacy and authenticity and, 19, 274n1;
and recontextualization and transformation, 15–16;
as transmitters, 25
revival model of Tamara Livingston, 61–66, 660–61. See also Music Revivals: Towards a General Theory” (Livingston)
revival scholarship, 5–8
Reynolds, Simon, 668
Rezvani, Medjid, 629
Rhodes, Willard, 445
Ricardo, Sérgio, 429, 431
rice farming, 140, 242
Ritual to Confucius, 149
Ritual to Invoke Native Land Consciousness, 139, 148
Riverdance, 612–13
Roberston, James Stewart, 560
Robinson, Mary, 613
Robles, Alomia, 154n14
“Rocking the Babies to Sleep,” 126–27
romancero, 84–86
Romancero du Canada (Barbeau), 85–86
Romania, and ethnic-national identification of Hungarian dance house movement, 188–89
romantic nationalism: Finnish, 394–400, 409, 413;
Irish responses to, 604–5;
as motivator of scholar-revivalists, 6
Ronström, Owe: on authenticity, 24;
on early revivalists, 23;
on improvisation in European folk revivals, 452;
on mobilization of past, 13;
on revival, 5, 10, 283;
on shifts, 4, 15;
on tradition and modernity, 279, 297n24
Rosenberg, Neil: on invented traditions, 35n1;
on revival, 116–17;
on revival and antiquarian studies, 78;
on revival and class, 220, 291
Rose Revolution (2003), 581
Round Midnight at the Café Montmartre, 654
Royal Ancestral Shrine (Chongmyo), 149
Rubi, Mahrisal, 379
Ruguma, 364
runo-singing, 396–99, 400, 414n3
rural culture, pelimanni music and rejuvenation of, 400–404
Russian Empire, Georgian polyphony and revivalist trends under, 576, 577–78. See also Soviet Union
Saakashvili, Mikheil, 581, 582
Safvate, Dariouche, 281, 288–89
Saha, Hannu, 405, 409, 410
Said, Edward, 223–24n2, 644–46
Sakhioba, 580, 581fig.
salvage ethnography, 354
samba de morro, 424
samba-song, 423, 424
Sambola, Kensy, 361–62
Sambou, Saliou, 239, 240
Sampson, Adam, 307, 308, 309, 311
samullori, 146
SamulNori, 146–47, 148
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), 357–60
Sanskritization, of kathak dance, 216, 220
Sára, Ferenc, 198
Sarmast, Ahmed, 374, 383–84
scenarios, 646, 662
sceptic perspective of globalization, 473–74, 477–82
Schneider, Marius, 573
scholars: American instrumental folk music revival and, 122–29, 130;
authenticity and, 19–20, 22, 102, 394, 622;
Finnish, 399, 400, 405–6;
folklore, 23, 99–100;
Georgian, 574, 575, 580;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 192–94;
and identification of traditional musical elements, 4;
intellectual trends spurring, 6;
involvement of, in revival process, 5–8, 130–31;
legitimacy and, 19;
and meaning of revival, 619;
Ukrainian, 521. See also scholarship
scholarship: on British folk music between 1950s and 1970s, 492;
future directions for, 60–61, 68;
Georgian, 576, 578, 580;
increase in revival, 60;
on Ivana Kupala, 525–26;
and journey of Neil Rosenberg, 94–110;
legitimacy and, 19, 63–64;
of medieval antiquity, 74–81;
and postindustrial university, 81–83;
regarding runo-songs, 396–97;
revival, 5–8. See also scholars
Schools’ Folklore Scheme, 607 (p. 697)
Schools’ Manuscript Collection, 607
Scotland: Irish immigrants in, 600;
revival in, 467;
traditional music revival activities in, 559–60
Sebestyén, Márta, 197, 198
Sebő, Ferenc: education of, 193;
on founders of Heritage House, 195;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 184–86, 200;
and national character of Hungarian dance house movement, 187
Seck, Assane, 231
secondary ensembles, 575
second folk revival, English, 492–93
Sédar Senghor, Léopold, 228–29, 231–34
Segal, Lewis, 640
self-determination, Hawaiian, 535, 548n5
Senegalese National Ballet, 234–35
Senegalese National Theatre, 233, 235–37
Senegalese neo-traditional performance: development of, during colonial period, 230–33;
and emergence of Casamançais regionalism, 237–46;
as revival genre, 228–29;
role of, in cultural revival and nationalist politics, 233–37;
transnational mobility and, 246–48
set dancing, 606
Shah, Reza, 277–78, 279, 285
Shahnazi, Ali Akbar, 296n12
shaman rituals: and population migration, 153n4;
preservation of Korean, 147–49
Sharp, Cecil, 490–92
Shashmaqom, 273, 275n6
Shashmaqom vol. 1-6, 258–59
Shateri, 638
Shelemay, Kay Kaufman, 75
Shetland fiddlers, 54, 559
Shetlandising, 54
Shevardnadze, Eduard, 581
Sheyda Ensemble, 292
shifts: decontextualization and recontextualization as, 4;
revival processes as, 15–16, 45–46
Shimmen, Phil, 537, 538
Shklovsky, Viktor, 666
Shooting Roots, 502–3
Show Opinião, 246–47, 419, 420, 428
Shrewsbury Folk Festival, 498
Sibelius Academy, Folk Music Department, 395, 405–6, 410–11
Sidmouth International Festival, 500
Simon, Paul, 154n14
Singer of Tales (Lord), 406
Sinhala-Tamil ethnic conflict, 381
Sizaret, Frederic, 378
Skandinieki, 469, 470, 476
Skinner, J. Scott, 560
Škoro, Miroslav, 346n7
Sligo fiddlers, 609
Slobin, Mark: on affinity and belonging, 590;
on context, 447;
on kernel group in preservation and change, 450;
on klezmer music, 54;
on perspectives on globalization, 476;
on proliferation of traditional music styles, 568;
on revival, 4, 5, 285, 563–64;
Subcultural Sounds: Micromusics of the West, 7;
on term “revival,” 63, 446;
on transnational transmission, 594
Small, Christopher, 105, 483
Smith, Anthony D., 562, 564
Smith, Harry, 100
social class: and development of Uzbek arranged folk music, 257;
Iranian classical music revival and, 290–91;
and kathak dance revival, 219–20;
and origin of kathak dance, 214–15;
and protest bossa nova, 425;
relationship between revivals and, 64–65;
and Senegalese neo-traditional performance, 236–37;
in South Korea, 153n3
social networks: in artistic production, 421;
fiddling and traditional dance music communities and, 565;
and Irish music and dance revival, 614;
and musical movements, 434. See also Internet
Sodiqov, Faruq, 268, 270
Sofyan, Teungku, 377
Sog’diana Folk Orchestra, 268–69, 275n10
Sŏkchŏn taeje, 149–50
solace, music as, 329–30, 373, 386, 661
solo improvised dance, Iranian, 623, 624, 626
Sonar Senghor, Maurice: as director of Daniel Sorano Theatre, 233;
on L’Exile d’Alboury, 236;
and National Ballet, 234, 235;
supports Keita, 232
(p. 698)
Sonevytsky, Maria, 523
songmasters, 574, 582, 584, 586, 592–93
Sosiura, Volodymyr, 528n3
Sotsialistycha Kultura, 515, 516fig.
Soug, 639
South African jazz: of Chris McGregor and Blue Notes, 656–59;
cultural and historical context of, 647–50;
diaspora, transformation, and remembrance and, 652–54;
of Dollar Brand and Bea Benjamin, 654–56;
in Europe and United States, 650–52;
overview of, 644–47, 660–62
South Korea: court music, 149–52;
folk songs, 143–45;
as model for preservation and revival, 142;
percussion bands, 145–47;
preservation of intangible cultural heritage of, 136–42, 152–53;
shaman rituals, 147–49;
social class in, 153n3
Soviet Union: Georgian polyphony and revivalist trends under, 578–80;
and Latvian musical authenticity, 471;
revivals in post-Soviet spaces, 511–14. See also Ukraine; Uzbekistan
space, revival as process stretching, 246–48
special interest groups, 552–53, 554, 565, 589–93
Speed, John, 76
spelemannslag, 556–57
spiritual revival, Croatian, 236–38
Sprat, Thomas, 78
Sri Lanka, revival in, 381, 385–86
Stainer, C., 83
Stainer, J. F. R., 83
standardization: effects of, 45;
of Georgian polyphony, 579, 588;
of radif, 283;
of Uzbek traditional music, 258–59, 275n6
Stanton, Gary, 126
State Conservatory: Tbilisi State Conservatoire, 578, 579, 586;
Uzbek, 259–62
Stekert, Ellen, 16, 100–101
Stephenson, Ian, 504
stickball, 304–5
“Stony Point,” 123–24
Storey, John, 491
strategic inauthenticity, 24
strathspey and reel societies, 560
Stravinsky, Igor, 287, 290, 573
student demonstrations, Korean, 139, 147–48
student movement, American, 448–49
Study Group for Applied Ethnomusicology of the International Council for Traditional Music, 373–74
Study of Folklore (Dundes), 95
Study of Folk Music in the Modern World, The (Bohlman), 7
stylization, 335, 341, 343, 344
Subcultural Sounds: Micromusics of the West (Slobin), 7
Sufism, 638
Sunday Manoa, The, 533–34
Suny, Ronald Grigor, 258
Swanton, John R., 320n9
Swing, Pamela, 559
syncretism: Baumann’s model of purism versus, 16, 23, 277, 334, 449, 450–51, 476;
in colonial context, 222;
of Finnish contemporary folk music, 413. See also fusion and fusion processes; hybridity
synecdoche, 44
Szászcsávás Band, 198
Szék, Transylvania, 185, 186
Taech’wait’a, 150–51
Taegŭm chŏngak, 151
“Tajaga Damée” (Watch Over the Peace), 380
Taj Al-Saltana, 626–27
Talai, Dariush, 282, 284
Tālibān, 382–83
tamburitza, 332, 345n2, 346n9
Tamil-Sinhala ethnic conflict, 381
Tanabe Hisao, 150, 155n30
táncház movement, 128. See also Hungarian dance house movement
Táncháztalálkozó, 194
Taruskin, Richard, 287, 291, 406
Tashkent State Conservatory, 260
Tate, Jerod Impichchaachaaha’, 317
tavayafs, 208–10
Taylor, Diana, 646, 662
Taylor, Mary, 188, 194, 195
Taylor, Timothy, 24
Tbilisi State Conservatoire, 578, 579, 586
teceijas singing style, 471, 483
Temple Act (1911), 136
termination legislation, 303, 319n20 (p. 699)
“territories of difference,” 353
terrorism, South African laws against, 648
“Texas,” 124–25
Thái Hà Ensemble, 166fig.
Thanh Lâm, 175
Théâtre Africain. See Ballets Africains
“thick globalization,” 467–68, 483
“thin globalization,” 467
Thionck Essyl, Senegal, 239–41
Thomas, Judy, 313, 317
Thomas, William, 43
Thompson, Bobbie, 120–21
Thompson, Marko Perković, 332
Thompson, Tommy, 120–22, 126
Timár, Sándor, 184, 185
time: cultural transmission through, 119;
as cyclical, 301, 319n2;
enactment of cultural processes through, 130;
and geographical displacement, 19;
heritage and, 56;
history as change over, 104–5;
rebellion against modern idea of, 14;
revival as process stretching, 32;
revival’s change over, 246, 248;
tradition and, 52
Titon, Jeff, 105, 449–50
Topelius, Zacharis Sr., 397, 399
Topic Records, 493
torture, music as, 330
Touré, Sékou, 232–33, 249n7
traditional dance music communities: from eighteenth century on, 559–62;
emergence of, on Internet, 552–55;
in Europe, 556–57;
and grassroots revitalization of traditional music and dance, 557–58;
Internet, as real communities, 565
traditional music: Afghan, 384–85, 386;
and agents of revival, 46–47;
authenticity and, 17;
Brazilian, 419, 431;
creative process and, 23;
Croatian, 325–26, 327, 333, 334, 335–43, 345;
decline of, 29;
development of, theories, 27;
English, 503–4;
festivalization of, 50, 495;
fiddle, 552, 556, 557;
Finnish, 404, 411;
Hawaiian, 533;
heritage and, 52–53;
heritagization and, 53–54;
Hungarian, 187, 191, 192, 195;
Iranian, 279–80, 282, 283, 629;
Irish, 602, 609, 610;
Korean, 139, 146, 151, 152;
Latvian, 470, 472;
mindscape of, 51–52;
Native-American, 301, 311, 459;
Norwegian, 556;
organization of, revival activities from eighteenth century on, 559–62;
revival and, 43–44;
and shift from knowers to doers to marketers, 47–51;
shifts and, 45–46;
Slobin on revival of, 568;
social and cultural change and revivals of, 562–66;
South African, 652, 659, 660;
Ukrainian, 523;
Vietnamese, 164. See also folk music; Uzbek traditional music
tradition(s): alterations to Ukrainian, 521;
and “The Birth of Hawai‘i,” 544;
change to heritage from, 31, 51, 52–54;
continuity with, 17–18;
and Croatian revival, 326, 336, 341, 344–45;
defined, 443;
evolution of Croatian, 325;
Feintuch on, 24;
Hawaiian Renaissance and, 534–35;
Hobsbawm on, 12;
invented, 7–8, 35n1, 619;
in Iranian dance, 619;
Kanahele on revival of, 532–33;
legitimacy and, 19;
Livingston on, 446, 453;
manipulation of, 512;
modernity and, 55–56, 279, 284, 297nn14,24;
modernization of ancient Uzbek, 265–68;
nationalism and, 263–64;
ownership of, 21, 54;
parallel, 622;
preservation of, 327–28;
reinterpretation and reinvention of, 563–64;
and revival of Senegalese choreography, 228–29;
revival versus, 117–18;
as springboards for cultural change, 56, 297n24. See also custom(s)
Tran, Nhung Tuyet, 169–70
Transcription Center, 651, 664n5
transformation: of bluegrass music, 96;
in Brazilian popular music, 421–22, 429, 435–36;
ca trù and, 161;
and change to tradition, 28;
and Choctaw and Chickasaw music revivals, 302, 318;
in Croatia, 344;
in Finnish folk music, 393, 396–400, 412;
following revival, 5, 8;
and Georgian polyphony, 577, 578–80, 594;
globalization and, 466, 472;
and Hungarian dance house movement, 184, 189;
of kathak dance, 216, 222;
and Korean folk culture, 148–49;
and new steady state phase of cultural revitalization, 555;
recontextualization and, 4, 15–19, 574;
revivals as, 31, 44, 45, 532;
of Senegalese neo-traditional performance, 229;
and South African jazz, 652–54;
South African jazz and, 652–54
transformationalist perspective of globalization, 475–79, 480, 482, 483 (p. 700)
Transforming Tradition (Rosenberg), 8, 100–101
translation, revival as act of, 25, 44
transmission: authenticity and, 22–23;
of ca trù, 169, 173–74, 179n15;
changes in nature of, 24–27;
of Choctaw music, 309;
cross-cultural, 26–27;
of fiddle music, 554, 559;
following war and natural disasters, 374;
of Georgian polyphony, 578, 582, 594;
and “grandparent education,” 119;
of Hungarian dance house movement, 187, 193;
of instrumental folk music, 123–29;
of Iranian classical music, 285, 289;
Ivana Kupala and gendered networks of, 524, 525;
and Ivana Kupala revival, 524;
of kathak dance, 215;
of Latvian music, 470;
methods and infrastructure for, 4;
pelimanni revival and, 403;
Slobin on transnational, 594;
of South African jazz, 648, 662;
of Uzbek traditional music, 272
Trần Văn Khê, 170, 171
Tropicália, 437n13
Tropicália é proibido proibir, 437n13
Tropicália movement: albums sampling, 437n13;
emergence of, 430–32, 433;
evolution from bossa nova to, 422–25;
impetus for, 420
“True Picture of a Pict, A” (Hariot), 77fig.
Tsotigh, Terry, 462
tsunami: effects of 2004, on Aceh, 375–76;
effects of 2004, on Sri Lanka, 381;
revivals following, 385–86
Tsurtsumia, Rusudan, 580, 593–94
Tuđman, Franjo, 326, 327
Tupí, 76
Turino, Thomas, 64–65, 67, 473
Turkiston People’s Conservatory, 260
Turner, Rick, 660
Tymoshenko, Yulia, 513, 528n2
Ubiet, Nyak Ina Raseuki, 380
ubiquitous creativity, 454, 455
Új Pátria Final Hours series, 199
Ukraine: relationship to Soviet past in, 512–13;
Ukrainian language, 524
Umikashvili, Petre, 594
UNESCO: dissemination through, 27;
Garifuna cultural rescue and, 353;
and Georgian polyphony, 581–82, 583;
Hungarian dance house movement’s inscription into, 183;
as mechanism for revival, 162;
and music as heritage, 55;
and preservation of Korean cultural heritage, 142;
Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, 573;
and recognition of intangible cultural heritage, 177;
Urgent Safeguarding List, 160, 161, 173
United States: bossa nova in, 424;
Dollar Brand and Bea Benjamin in, 654–55;
fiddle revival in, 128;
Iranian dance in, 632, 633, 635–37;
and Irish diaspora, 608–9, 614–15;
and Native American relations, 303, 446;
old-time fiddling revival in, 68, 555, 556, 557, 566, 567;
“old-time” music in, 123;
postsecondary institutions in, 82;
revival dialogue in, 109;
South African jazz in, 650–52
universalism, and Uzbek arranged folk music, 267–69
Universal Silence, 655–56
university, early music and postindustrial, 81–83
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 534
University of Oklahoma, Native flute concert at, 461fig., 462
University of the Autonomous Regions of the Atlantic Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua (URACCAN), 361–62
Unsan pyŏlshindae, 147
UPE (record label), 475
Upland South, 123
urbanization: of Finland, 400, 413;
of Korea, 136, 153n3
Urgent Safeguarding List, 160, 161, 173
Uzbekistan: history of arranged folk versus traditional music in, 254–56;
post-Soviet situation in, 262–72;
sound of arranged folk versus traditional music in, 253–54;
state-revived traditions in, 252–53. See also arranged folk music (Uzbek); Uzbek traditional music
Uzbek State Conservatory, 259–62
Uzbek traditional music: codification and standardization of, 258–59;
commonalities (p. 701) of, with arranged folk music, 272–73;
history of, 254–56;
and maintenance of ethno-national identities, 275n6;
during post-Soviet era, 262–72;
promulgation of, in Uzbekistan, 252;
sound of, 253–54;
State Conservatory as flagship institution for, 259–62
Väisänen, Armas Otto, 405, 409
Varga, István “Kicsi Csipás,” 198
Varga, Zsuzsanna, 198
vaudeville, and Irish diaspora, 608–9
Vaziri, Ali Naqi, 278–80, 283, 296n4
Veloso, Caetano, 418–20, 428, 429, 431–32, 433, 437n12
vendors, at folk festivals, 496–97, 499
Very Urgent, 657
Vidal, Henri, 231
Vidyarthi, Reba, 217
Vietnam. See ca trù
Vietnamese Communist Party, 162, 164, 171
Village Harmony, 586
Villa-Lobos, Heitor, 423
Villanen, Juho, 405
“Virginians’ Manner of Dancing at their Religious Festivals, The” (Harriot), 79fig.
Vizeli, Balázs, 198
von Becker, Reinhold, 397
vučarenje, 338
Wade, Abdoulaye, 238, 246
wakes, Irish and American, 602
Wallace, Anthony: on importation, 15;
on purpose of revival, 393;
revitalization movement theory of, 6–7, 99, 288, 331, 393, 555–56, 563, 566, 567, 593;
and revival as activism, 10
Wapp, Edward, 445, 454, 455
war: baggage of, 332;
Watson, Cheryl, 363
Westerholm, Heidi, 415n9
Westerholm, Pekka, 411–12
Westernization: and Georgian polyphony, 579, 584;
of Iranian national dance, 627–28;
and Korean folk culture, 139;
and Latvian revival, 469–70;
of Western music, 561. See also globalization
Western music: availability of, 280;
and Iranian classical music, 278–79, 280, 285–86
White Deer, Gary, 313–14, 315, 318
Wilenz, Sean, 106
Wilgus, D. K., 98
William Ponty School, 228, 230–31
Williams, Raymond, 345
Wilson, Dorothy, 366
“wolf assembly,” 338
Wollenberg, Charles, 107–8
women: in Afghanistan, 382, 383;
in Casamançais performances, 242;
Chickasaw dance regalia for, 315–16;
in Choctaw communal dance songs, 309–10;
and classicization of kathak dance, 216–17;
disenfranchisement of hereditary, 210;
image of Ukrainian, 513;
and Iranian classical music, 293;
Ivana Kupala and reconceptualization of, 517;
and Native flute, 445, 452–53;
and origin of kathak dance, 213, 214;
and purity of Indian performing arts, 208–10;
and transmission of Ivana Kupala, 523, 524, 525;
and Uzbek traditional music, 261
Worcestre, William, 74
World of Music journal, 8
World’s Columbian Exposition (1893), 447
“Xẩm Huê Tình”, 173–74, 179n18
Ye Yonghae, 137–38, 152
Yi Pohyŏng, 138–39
Yi Sanggyu, 155n33
“Yongch’ŏn’gŏm,” 145
Youngblood, Mary, 452–53, 455
Young Folk Award, 505
Youth Folk Song Centers, 582
Yu Sangyun, 137
Zakrzhevskaya, X., 266
Zé, Tom, 437n13
Zemtsovsky, Izaly, 257, 267, 573
Zerkula, János, 198
Zerkula Emlék Zenekár, 198
Ziyeeva, Malika, 261, 263, 272
Zlatni dukati, 326