Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 25 May 2020

(p. 439) Index

(p. 439) Index

“f” indicates material in figures. “n” indicates material in endnotes. “t” indicates material in tables.

Abolicionism (Nabuco), 40
Abu Ghraib, 406–407
Acheson, Dean, 58
active thinking, 85n8
Ad Age, 271, 273
Adler, Alfred, 265, 267
Adorno, Theodore, 262–263, 266, 278, 280–282, 295, 373
advertising
agitation and, 69
art and, 181
Brazilian abolitionist movement and, 32
by Bush administration, 323n70
CPI and, 304, 307
education and, 231n2
electricity in, 271
Ellul on, 352
German films on, 245
informationalism and, 180
on Internet, 241
in The Manchurian Candidate, 124
menticide and, 115
modernity and, 240
Nazi propaganda and, 14, 261–262, 274
news and, 399
propaganda and, 7, 219, 241
public relations and, 304
rhetoric in, 336
role in democracy, 110
in schools, 164
subliminal, 262, 271–274
on television, 255
U.S. radio broadcasting and, 206
aesthetic education, 9, 366, 368, 370
aesthetic emotion, 287
aesthetic pleasure, 279, 282–283, 287, 295n4
aesthetics, 53, 70, 72–73, 282–283, 330, 366–371, 373
Aesthetic Theory (Adorno), 295
Affirmative Action Empire (Martin), 87n23
Afghanistan, 140, 197, 313, 323n68, 403, 409
African Americans
in abolitionist movement, 30–31, 33, 38–39
in Civil War and Reconstruction, 59
CPI and, 306, 320n23
depiction of slaves, in print satire, 35–39
Sartre on, 372
Southside Writers Group “blueprint” for, 55
Soviet “Black Belt” thesis on, 54
writings from, racial propaganda and, 49–64
Agarens, 21, 25–26
agency, 72, 73, 86, 354
agitation
advertising and, 69
in communist societies, 147
education and, 85n4
Lenin on, 68, 82
Nazis on Jewish, 98, 102
propaganda and, 231n4, 232n8
“protest” fiction and, 54–55
sociological propaganda and, 353
in Soviet Union, 68–69, 82, 219–220
agitational propaganda, 351–354
Agostini, Angelo, 31, 35, 36, 39–46, 48n20
Ai Wei Wei, 149
Akazu group, 380, 385
Aksel’rod, Pavel, 232n6
al-Assad regime, 422–425, 427–430
Alawite sect, 422
Alcott, Louisa May, 192
Aleijadihho, 29
Alexander III (tsar), 232n9
Algeria, 355, 360
Alhurra, 215
al-Khateeb, Hamza, 427–429
Allegories of Reading (de Man), 370
Allen, Frederick Lewis, 192
“All in the Family,” 370
Almeida Júnior, José Ferraz de, 41
Al-Qaeda, 399–400, 405
Alrifai, Oula, 424
Al Sawa radio, 215
Alves, Castro, 32, 33
Amanpour, Christiane, 313, 399, 412n9
America Houses, 135
American Alliance of Labor and Democracy, 320n28
American Book Publishers Council (ABPC), 190–191
American Federation of Labor, 320n28
American Forces Radio Network, 205
American in England, An, 210–211
American Institute of Planners, 254
American Library Association (ALA), 190–191
American Marketing Association (AMA), 266
American Revolution, 9, 35–36, 50, 132
American Writers’ Congress, 327, 330–335, 338, 340–344, 344n1, 344–345n3, 345n5, 345n9
Américo, Pedro, 41
“Analysis of Consumer Actions, The” (Lazarsfeld & Kornhauser), 266
anarchists, “propaganda of the deed,” 58, 62
Anarchy of Empire in the Making of U.S. Empire, The (Kaplan), 60–61, 63
Andén-Papadopoulos, K., 406
Anderson, Benedict, 50
Anderson, Dana, 331
Andrade, Antônio Manoel Bueno de, 28
Animal Farm (Orwell), 401
Anstey, Edgar, 250, 251, 259n29
Appeal (Walker), 50, 54
“Appeal to Progressives, An” (Wilson), 327
Apple, Michael, 174, 177
“April 6 movement,” 423
“Arab Awakening,” 15, 418–435, 435n9
Arabic, 3, 191, 208
Arabs, 21, 25–26, 94, 96
“Arab Spring,” 397, 403
Arac, Jonathan, 331
archives, 83
Arendt, Hannah, 69–70, 72, 94, 414n24
Argentina, 132, 144n6
Aristophanes, 401
Aristotle, 233n14, 270, 336–337, 345n6
Armed Services Editions, 182, 183f
army, in regime vs. state, 422
Arndt, Richard, 145n26
Aronsfeld, Caesar, 105n12
art
Adorno on, 295, 373, 376n21
advertising and, 181
African American prose as, 51, 53–57
avant-garde, 67, 111, 221
Bell on, 287
Benjamin on, 85n6, 283
Bogdanov on, 221
Brazilian slavery and, 29
Burke on, 329–330
vs. commercial modernism, 248
communism and, 283
in culturalist tradition, 180
Eliot on Joyce and, 286
ideology and, 221
Kant and, 283
Kracauer on, 282
Luso Brazilian Baroque, 29
religious, 221
secularization and, 294–295
socialist realism and, 70
Soviet propaganda and, 69, 84, 221
subversion in, 88n30
thought and, 84
war and, 283
Wilde on, 286
Art (Bell), 287, 291
“Artistic Calling Card” (Vertov), 235n26
“Art of Asking Why in Marketing Research, The” (Lazarsfeld), 267, 269
Asia, 186, 187, 212. See also specific countries in
Asia Foundation, 188, 198n6, 199n8
Assange, Julian, 408, 409–410, 414n24
(Astro) Turf Wars, 353
Atahyde e Souza, Antonio de, 44–46
atheism, 224, 226
Atlanta University, 55
Atlantic, 408–409
Atoms for Peace, 138
“attraction” vs. “intellectual montage,” 220, 232n7
Auden, W. H., 251
Australia, 204, 207, 273
Austria, 135, 264–266, 269
(p. 441) authenticity, 72
authoritarian regimes, 72, 263, 420–422, 434
Autobiography, The (Du Bois), 58–59, 61
avant-garde art, 67, 111, 221
avant-garde films, 83, 240, 243–245
Ayers, William C., 179n41
Azerbaijan, 76
Baker, Newton, 308
Baldwin, James, 55–56
Balibar, Etienne, 51
ballad and broadside literature, 8–9, 31–32
Bangladesh, 191
Bank Julius Baer, 409
Bank of America, 409
Bara, Theda, 307
Baraka, Amiri, 57–58
Barmby, John Goodwyn, 231n3
Barnhisel, Greg, 186
Barnow, Eric, 255
Barrett, Oliver Boyd, 413n16
Barthes, Roland, 279, 287–288, 293–294, 295n9, 354–355
Bartlett, Vernon, 209
Basse, Wilfried, 245
Bauer, Raymond A., 274
Bauhaus school, 244, 247
Bazin, André, 252
Belgium, 355
Belik, Maria, 81
Bell, Clive, 287, 291
Belsey, Catherine, 287
Ben Ali, Zine El Abidine, 10
Benjamin, Curtis G., 198n1
Benjamin, Walter, 70, 85n6, 95, 243, 283, 368
Bennett, Beth, 376n13
Bentham, Jeremy, 279, 295n3
Bento, Antonio, 28–31
Benton, William, 187
Berlin Symphony of a Big City, 250
Bernays, Edward
Biography of an Idea, 301
CCP and, 152
CPI and, 303
Crystallizing Public Opinion, 262
“The Engineering of Consent,” 112–113, 272
Freud and, 11, 109, 261–263
Lippmann and, 262, 304
The Manchurian Candidate and, 124, 127
Nazi propaganda and, 14, 263
Propaganda, 109–110, 112, 262–263, 319n10
Between the Wars (Farocki), 242
Beyond the Pleasure Principle (Freud), 285
biased assimilation, 382
Bible, 1, 23, 25–26, 26n4, 292–293, 295
Big Change, The (Allen), 192
Billionaires’ Tea Party, The, 353
Biography of an Idea (Bernays), 301
Birth of a Nation (Griffiths), 7, 58
Bitomsky, Hartmut, 242–243, 255–257, 258n11
Bixler, Paul, 188
Black, Theodore, 54
“Black Arts” (Baraka), 57–58
Black Arts Movement (BAM), 57–58
“Black Arts Movement, The” (Neal), 57
“Black Boys and Native Sons” (Howe), 56
black propaganda, 134
Black Reconstruction (Du Bois), 49, 59–62
Black World, 55
Blix, Hans, 411–412n3
blood libel, 93, 104n8
Bloomsbury modernism, 287
Blossfeld, Karl, 242
“Blueprint for Black Criticism” (Gayle), 55, 57
“Blueprint for Negro Authors, A” (Ford), 55
“Blueprint for Negro Writing,” 54
Blume, Peter, 339–341
Blumenberg, Hans, 230, 236n34
Bode, Boyd H., 169–173
Body Snatchers, The, 115–116
Bogart, Leo, 190
Bogdanov, Aleksandr, 221, 233n12
Boler, Megan, 400, 412n10, 413n21
Bolton, Sara Knowles, 191
“book hunger,” 183–185, 192
books, 32, 84, 164, 181–198, 198n2, 198n6, 199nn78, 283
Books in Translation programs, 186
Bordello, Pinheiro, 40
“Boring from Within” (Burke), 327–330, 332–333, 338, 344n2
Bourke-White, Margaret, 254
Bowen, Carroll, 196
Boym, Svetlana, 72, 73, 84, 85–86n11, 86n14
Brady, Anne-Marie, 150–152, 157, 157nn12
Brady, Mathew, 124f
brainwashing, 113–117, 120, 122, 126–128, 129n6, 270, 274
(p. 442) Brainwashing (Hunter), 113
Brameld, Theodore, 171–173, 179n23
Brazil, 13, 28–35, 38–46
Brecht, Bertolt, 246, 251
Bridge of San Luis Rey, The (Wilder), 192
Bridson, D. G., 210–211
Briggs, Frederico Guilherme, 41
Britain Speaks, 201, 209
Britain to America, 210
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
American Forces Radio Network and, 205
Chinese censorship of, 155
Egyptian activist photos and video on, 425
Empire Service, 14, 202, 206, 207–208
50-Cents Party report by, 158n15
foreign language broadcasting by, 208
formation of, 204
Harvest of Shame and, 215
history documentaries for, 252
nationalism and, 205, 216n8
Nazi propaganda analysis by, 93
Overseas Service, 5, 208–210, 213
Post Office and, 205
radio programming of, 202–211, 213, 215
recorded programs on, 207
World Service, 143, 215
WRUL and, 202, 203
British Council, 132, 143, 157n4
British documentary movement, 254
British Information Service (BIS), 208, 213
British Security Coordination (BSC), 212–213, 217nn2425
Britten, Benjamin, 210, 252
Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), 215
Brown, Henry “Box,” 30, 38–39
Brown, John (abolitionist), 38
Brown, John (cultural officer), 145n26
Brown, Tina, 399
Brown, William Wells, 38–39
Buchanan, James, 27
Buhler, Karl & Charlotte, 268
Bukharin, Nikolai, 58
Bullard, Arthur, 309, 321n44
Bureau of Applied Social Research, 266
Bürger, Peter, 295n7
Burke, Kenneth, 14, 233n14, 326–344, 370
Burma, 135
Bush (GHB) administration, 143
Bush (GWB) administration
advertising and public relations, spending on, 323n70
CNN and, 323n68, 412n9
Colbert on, 395–396, 400–402
Global Communications Office, 158n10
Iraq War and, 313, 399, 410
Suskind on, 411n2
Bush, George W., 141, 395–397, 405–406, 412n6
Bush, Laura, 412n6
Bush in 30 Seconds videos, 405–406
Bushnell, Ernest, 209–210
Business Week, 271
Butler, Nicholas Murray, 320n24
Cable News Network (CNN)
broadcast vs. online news from, 404
Chinese censorship of, 155, 158n12
Egyptian activist photos and video on, 425
First Gulf War coverage of, 396, 435n1
Iraq War coverage of, 313, 323n68, 399, 412n9
on Sites blog, 407
U.S. public diplomacy and, 141
Canada, 203–209, 212, 404
Canadian Broadcasting Commission (CBC), 206
Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), 206
Cantril, Hadley, 267
capitalism
brainwashing and, 113
Brazilian slavery and, 41
Burke on, 329–330, 339, 345n9
communicative, 407–408
Counts on, 168
democracy and, 318
Du Bois and, 59, 61, 63
horizontal propaganda and, 356
illiberal subjectivity and, 71
myths in, 351
Nazis on, 103
psychology and, 262
rationality and, 282
ugly feelings and, 278
Captain Retread (Hough), 182
Captive Mind, The (Milosz), 67–68
Carleton, Gregory, 88n30
Carlson, Richard, 143
Carlyle, Thomas, 11
Carnegie Endowment for World Peace, 182, 306
(p. 443) Carter administration, 140
Cary, Francine Curro, 321n42
Casement, Roger, 296n12
Cass, Lewis, 37
Castronovo, Russ, 332
Catholic Church
Brazilian abolitionist movement and, 28–29, 31
Burke on saints of, 333
CIA and, 137
Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, 1, 7, 19, 23–24, 26n1, 219, 220, 231n1
cordel literature tales and, 32
Corpus Mysticum, 25
Counter Reformation, 2, 23, 25, 84
Crusades, 24, 25
Ellul and, 284
Inscrutabili Divinae, 1, 12, 19–26, 26–27nn110
Joyce on, 289–290
role in genesis of propaganda, 1, 2, 23–26
shortwave radio broadcasts by, 206–207, 216n14
in Vietnam, 137
censorship
of blogs, 407
“book hunger” and, 183
Bush administration and, 313, 323n68, 399, 412n9
CMD catalogue on, 371
CPI and, 305, 307
Creel and, 305
Lippmann on, 309, 312, 316–318
in PRC, 155, 158n12
propaganda and, 291
in Russia, 86n14
after September 11 terrorist attacks, 407
in Soviet Union, 69, 74, 75
of textbooks, 164
Center for Media and Democracy (CMD), 371, 375
Center for Public Diplomacy, 131
Central America, 37f, 38, 141, 206, 212, 217n21, 321n42. See also specific countries in
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Cold War public diplomacy and, 135–139
Crewdson’s exposé on, 199n8
Encounter magazine and, 362
Franklin Book and, 194, 195, 199n8
Hunter and, 113
Ivy League and, 198n4
Melley on brainwashing and, 129n6
morale operations link, 144n12
OSS and, 212
Central Propaganda Department, 147–148, 157nn23, 158n13
Chagas, Francisco Xavier, 29
Challenge magazine, 54
Chambers, Whittaker, 120
Chancellor, John, 139
Chapaev (Vasiliev), 83
chapbooks, 32
Chaplin, Charlie, 307
“Characteristics of Propaganda, The” (Ellul), 399
Charivari, 42
Chatterjee, Choi, 68, 69, 71
Cheney, Dick, 412n6
Cherrington, Ben, 132–133
Chesterton, G. K., 357
chiasmus, 368, 374, 376n14
Childhood and Society (Erikson), 112, 117
Childs, John, 169–170, 171
China
Fulbright Scholarship and Fellowship programs with, 135
Japanese occupation of, 153
U.S. public diplomacy in, 144n5
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 147–157, 158n7, 355
Chinese Radio International, 215
Chomsky, Noam, 152, 359, 361, 398
Christ (Jesus), 339, 340f
Christie, Ian, 83
Churchill, Winston, 96–98, 100
Church of England, 7
Cicero, 24, 233n14, 370
cinema. See also films
of attractions, 220, 232n7
Ellul on, 285, 288
IPA and, 6
myth of, 230
narrative, 220
Rejsner on, 230
shortwave radio broadcasts and, 207
Soviet, 75–84, 86n15, 87n19, 87n28, 220, 221, 283
City of Tomorrow, The (Noldan), 247
(p. 444) civilian violence, 382–383, 390t, 392n8
Civilization and Its Discontents (Freud), 263
Civil War, 132
Clinton, William “Bill,” 141
closed-circuit television (CCTV), 157n2
Coalition for the Defence of the Republic (CDR), 381
Cobb, Frank, 318n3
Coffey, Fred, 144n6
cognitive pleasure, 279
Colbert, Stephen, 364n7, 395–396, 400–402
Colbert Report, 400–402
Cold War
book distribution during, 13–14
brainwashing in, 113
CIA and public diplomacy in, 135–139
culturalist tradition in, 181–182
Du Bois and, 61–63
education in, 67
Ellul on secularization in, 284
Encounter magazine and, 362
Franklin Books and, 197
Ivy League and, 198n4
The Manchurian Candidate and, 13, 111–112, 116–128, 129n6, 129n15, 130n20, 271
market research and, 270
McCarthy hearings, 125, 353, 399
nuclear family and, 111
public diplomacy in, 13, 135–141
research during, 319n15
Smith-Mundt Act and, 135
subliminal advertising and, 273
“collateral damage,” 358
Collateral Murder video, 408–409
collectivity, 282, 288, 363
Colored American Magazine, 51
Colored Co-operative Publishing Company, 51
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 205, 210–212, 215, 217n21, 217n27, 266, 268
Columbia University, 266–268, 320n24
Columbia Workshop, 210–211
Comedy Central, 401
“Commitment” (Adorno), 373, 376n21
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
activities of, 305–309
Bullard and, 309, 321n44
dissolution of, 14, 132, 303
Domestic section of, 306–307, 320n23, 320n28
international network of, 303
Lawrence and, 309, 321n42
Lippmann and, 14, 302, 304, 308–309, 312, 321n42
staff for, 303, 313, 318
Truman and, 185
universities and, 306, 320n24
WWII and, 185, 303
Common Sense (Paine), 9
Communications Act, 206
communism
Barmby on, 231n3
Benjamin on art and, 85n6
brainwashing and, 113
Burke on, 327–329, 332–333, 335, 345
Chambers on “sleepers,” 120
education and, 147, 164, 356, 359
Encounter magazine and, 362
Floodwood High School students on, 171
Franklin Books and, 196–197
German nonfiction (1920s-30s) films and, 247, 253
IIA book selection policies and, 187–188
marketization and Chinese, 151
myths in, 351
“totalitarian school” on, 67
Communist Chronicle & Communitarian Apostle, 231n3
Communist Party USA, 54, 61
computer games, 158n16
Conant, James Bryant, 191
Condon, Richard, 13, 111–112, 116–128, 130n20, 271
Confucian Institutes, 149, 157n4
Congo, 355
Congress on Cultural Freedom (CCF), 136, 139
conscienticizao, 176
Constructivism (Gan), 232n8
“consubstantiality,” 233n14
consumerism, 266, 273–274
continuous propaganda, 434
Converse, Jean, 267
Cooper, John Milton, Jr., 318n5
Coordinator of Information (COI), 213
Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CIAA), 133, 185–186, 213, 217n27
Cornish, Samuel, 50
correspondence theory, 174
Corwin, Norman, 210–211, 217n20
(p. 445) Coser, Lewis A., 265
Council on Books in Wartime (CBW), 182–183, 185, 190
counterpublic cyberspace sphere of influence, 15
Counter Reformation, 2, 23, 25, 84
Counts, George, 168–169, 171
Cousins, Norman, 272–273
Cowley, Malcolm, 342
Craft, Ellen & William, 38–39
Creel, George, 303–305, 307–310, 318, 319n7, 320n19, 321–322n45
Crewdson, John, 199n8
Crisis, The, 58, 61
“Criteria of Negro Art” (Du Bois), 51–53, 56, 57, 61, 62
critical thinking, 72, 85n8
Critical Writings (Ford), 285–287
crowd psychology, 9
Crucible, The (Miller), 111
Cruikshank etchings, 35
Crusades, 24, 25
Crystallizing Public Opinion (Bernays), 262
C-Span, 412n6
Cuba, 37f, 38, 138, 141, 158n9, 215
Cuban Missile Crisis, 139
Cull, Nicholas, 144n4
cultural diplomacy, 132–134, 137, 139, 141, 187
culturalist tradition, 180–185, 187, 188, 190–191, 197–198
“cultural literacy,” 165
Cürlis, Hans, 245
“cyberactivism,” 421
cyberwar, 424–431
Czechoslovakia, 213, 214, 244, 245
Daily Show, The, 400–403
“Damascus Spring,” 422
Darby, Joe, 406
Dare the School Build a New Social Order (Counts), 168–169
Darkwater (Du Bois), 60–61, 63
Dassine oult Yemma, 127
Daumier, Honoré, 35
Davis, Frank Marshall, 54
Dean, Jodi, 407–408
de Antonio, Emile, 125
Debray, Régis, 74, 75
Debret, Jean Baptiste, 36
defamiliarization, 67, 72, 83, 84, 85–86n11, 242
dehumanization, 113, 381, 434
de Klerk, Frederik Willem, 141
de Leon, Daniel, 344n2
de Man, Paul, 15, 366–372, 374–375, 376n8, 376n14
democracy
advertising and, 110
BBG and, 215
Bernays on, 109–110, 112–113
Bode on, 169–171
books on, 184
capitalism and, 318
Carlyle on, 11
Colored American on, 51
de Man and, 375
Derrida on literature and, 374–375
Dewey on, 11, 166
Du Bois on, 49, 59, 62, 64
Educational Radio Project on, 201
efficacy studies in, 8, 14–15
Ellul on, 349, 360–361
Floodwood High School students on, 171
Franklin Book translations and, 191
Havel on, 86
Hurston on, 53
Lippmann on, 302, 313–318, 361
literary, 375
Locke on, 53
market fundamentalism and, 318
media control and, 361
Sartre on writing and, 372–375
social media and, 399, 405, 407–408, 411
Sproule on “discursive dilemma,” 432
technology, transportation, and, 11
WikiLeaks and, 408
Democratic Republican Movement (MDR), 381
Deng Xiaoping, 150
Denning, Michael, 331, 342
Derrida, Jacques, 371, 374–375
Descartes, René, 360
Design for America program, 171–172, 179n23
Deutschlandbilder (Bitomsky), 242–243, 255, 256, 258n11
Dewey, John, 11, 13, 110, 166, 304
“dialectical images,” 243
Dialectic of Enlightenment, The (Adorno & Horkheimer), 278, 281–282
Dichter, Ernest, 262, 265, 268–270, 276n29, 276n31, 276n34
(p. 446) Dietrich, Otto, 92, 94, 98, 101, 102, 107n67
Diggins, John Patrick, 317
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 409
direct propaganda, 433
Disarming Iraq (Blix), 412n3
Disney, 141
Disparates (Goya), 44
Division of Cultural Relations, 132–133, 137
Dixon, Thomas, 7–8
Dobrenko, Evgeny, 70, 73, 75, 83
documentaries
classifying, 244
dramatized format for British/U.S., 209–211
“exposure-of-saints’-relics” films as, 14, 221–230
funding for, 253–254
German urban (1920s-30s), 14, 237–257
Grierson’s definition of, 238, 249
legible modernity images in, 87n24
McCarthy hearings on, 125
media network concept for, 243–245
nationalism in, 208
propaganda and, 240
reenactments in, 255
socioeconomics of, 255–256
soundtrack for, 210, 250–252
of Soviet gulag survivor stories, 72
Spanish Civil War, 252–253
technical constraints on, 248–250
Three Songs of Lenin as, 76–77, 81–84
USIA and export of U.S., 215
voice-over narration for, 251
Donovan, William “Wild Bill,” 212–214
Doob, Leonard, 326, 335–338
Douglas, Stephen, 37
Douglass, Frederick, 38
Douglass’s Monthly, 50
dreams, 73, 86n12, 118, 120, 127
Drift and Mastery (Lippmann), 323n87
Drifters (Grierson), 255–256
Dubliners, The (Joyce), 292
Du Bois, W. E. B., 13, 49, 51–53, 55–64
Duffey, Joseph D., 140
Durant, Will, 191–192
Dusk of Dawn (Du Bois), 58, 61
Dutch, 198n2
Dutch East Indies, 207
Earl, Jennifer, 403
Ecuador, 410
education
advertising and, 231n2
aesthetic, 9, 366, 368, 370
agitation and, 85n4
Brameld reconstructionism on, 172–173
in Cold War, 67
commercialization of, 164
communism and, 147, 164, 356, 359
in communist societies, 147
critical pedagogy on, 176–177
critical theorists on, 174–176
culture and, 172
curriculum for, 163, 165–167, 170–171, 174–177, 179n23
“defensible partiality” in, 173
in democracies, 110, 164, 166, 169–171
Ellul on, 359–360
factory-oriented, 167
at Floodwood High School, 171–172, 179n23
horizontal propaganda as, 356
identity and, 177
ideology and, 165, 378–379, 382
imposition of values in, 13, 164–175
Lippmann on, 317
Meerloo on, 115
official knowledge in, 175, 176
political beliefs and, 378–379, 391n4
Progressives on, 13, 164, 166–171
propaganda and, 7, 15, 163–166, 203, 219
Russian Orthodox Church and, 232n9
Rwandan violence and, 378–379, 381–391
Smith on, 325n109
for social justice, 174, 176–177, 179n41
social reconstructionism in, 168–171, 173
Soviet enlightment and, 74, 84
Soviet propaganda and, 68–69, 85n2, 85n4, 219–220
Soviet reform of, 236n36
Taylor on, 85n2
thought and, 68, 115
Tiananmen Square events and, 150
totalitarianism and, 8
truth and, 221
violence and, 387, 392n11
Egypt, 10, 148, 191, 194, 418–435, 435n2, 435n8
Eight-Year Study, 167, 170, 171
Eikhenbaum, Boris, 83
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 134, 136, 138, 187
Eisenhower administration, 136–138
Eisenstein, Sergei, 220, 221, 247, 248, 283
(p. 447) Eisler, Hanns, 250, 252
Eliot, T. S., 286, 287
Ellison, Ralph, 55–57
Ellmann, Richard, 291–292
Ellul, Jacques
about, 348–364, 369
on acquiescent populace, 398, 399
Adorno and, 281
African American periodicals and, 50
Barthes and, 288, 354–355
Catholic Church and, 284
“The Characteristics of Propaganda,” 399
on cinema, 285, 288
CMD catalogue and, 371
on Cold War, 284
on creditability, 434
on enslaving effects, 432
“Ethics of Propaganda, The,” 362–363
Ford and, 285
Freud and, 284
Hurston and, 53
on identification, 285, 288
on information, 11, 284–285, 357
Internet and, 284, 353
Islam and, 284
Joyce and, 288
Lippmann and, 11, 361
on modernism, 283–286, 288
on nationalism, 50
on pleasure, 279, 284–286
pre-propaganda concept of, 50, 350–351, 433
on print culture, 50, 348, 359
Propaganda, 59, 348, 357, 432–434
on religion, 284
on technological society, 50, 283–284, 361
The Technological Society, 398
totalitarianism and, 432–433
in WWII, 350, 361
Elton, Arthur, 250, 251, 259n29
e-mail, 158n8
Empire Service, 14, 202, 206, 207–208
enclosure movement, 318
Encounter magazine, 362
Engels, Friedrich, 59
“Engineering of Consent, The” (Bernays), 112–113, 272
England
abolitionist movement in, 30, 35
blood libel in, 104n8
Church of England, 7
Nazi Reich and, 96
print satire in, 35–36, 39, 42
tabloids in, 284
Enlightenment, 68, 85n8, 180, 184, 282
enlightenment, Soviet, 68, 74–75, 77–82, 84
Enthusiasm (Vertov), 76
enthymeme, 337–338, 345nn67
Epicurus, 280
Erikson, Erik, 112, 114, 116, 117, 120, 127, 129n12
Ertl, Hans, 248
Escape From Freedom (Fromm), 116
essay-film, 241–242, 258n8
Esso, 270, 276n31
Eternal City, The (Blume), 339–341, 343
Eternal Jew, The (Hippler), 247
Ethan Frome (Wharton), 192
“ethically-neutral process,” 418
ethics
Burke on, 330
Ellul on, 362–363
historical documentaries and, 257
psychological warfare and, 134
Soviet aesthetics and, 72, 73
Sproule on, 418
VOA and U.S. journalistic, 133, 138
“Ethics of Propaganda, The” (Ellul), 362–363
Etkind, Alexander, 71–72, 73, 85n10
eugenics, 242
euphemism, 94, 105n11, 141, 148, 380
euthanasia, 242
Evans, Walter, 254
“Everybody’s Protest Novel” (Baldwin), 55
existentialism, 270
experimental films, 220, 243
explicit curriculum, 165
Exposure of the Relics of Mikhail of Tver’ (Vertov), 233n16
Exposure of the Relics of Sergius of Radonezh, 223–229, 234nn1920, 234–235nn2627
Exposure of the Relics of Tikhon of Zadonsk (Novitskij), 222, 223f, 234nn1718
Fairbanks, Douglas, 307
Faisca (The Spark), 33, 34f
(p. 448) Fallada, Hans, 376n1
Fallows, James, 408–409
Falun Gong, 152
family
Chinese propaganda and, 356
Ellul on, 284, 348
Foucault on governance and, 129n11
nuclear, 111, 114, 116, 117, 127–128
in post-WWII fiction, 111
psychology of marketing to, 264, 270
in St. Sebastian in Reality, 42–43
unconscious mind and, 111, 129n11
Farocki, Harun, 242
fax machine, 154
Federal Bureau of Investigation, 212
Federal Radio Commission, 204, 206
Federal Radio Education Commission, 216n12
Federal Theatre Project, 216n12
Feldman, Seth, 235n27
Feminine Mystique, The (Friedan), 129n14
50-Cents Party, 158n15
Filene, Edward, 319n15
Filmkritik, 258n11
films. See also cinema
agitational-educational, 232n6
“attraction” vs. “intellectual montage” in, 220, 232n7
avant-garde, 83, 240, 243–245
classifying nonfiction, 244
CPI and, 307
documentaries (see documentaries)
essay, 241–242, 258n8
experimental, 220, 243
“exposure-of-saints’-relics,” 14, 221–230
inner vs. outer speech in, 83, 84
on Marshall Aid, 135
media network concept for, 243–245
Nazi, 208
nonfiction, agenda of, 238
as political vs. sociological propaganda, 352
in post-WWII occupied territories, 184
psychoanalysis and, 111
Rejsner on religion and, 224
soundtrack for, 76, 82, 83, 210, 250–252
specificity approach to, 244
subliminal advertising and, 272
technical constraints on, 248–250
from U.S. Information Service field posts, 133
utopian vision of, 216n4
Vertov on, 230
First Amendment, 206, 320n19
First Gulf War, 141, 435n1
Flaherty, Robert, 249–250, 252–256
Fleming, Thomas, 306
Forcing Slavery Down the Throat of a Freesoiler (Magee), 37–38
Ford, Ford Madox, 285–287, 293, 294
Ford, John, 254
Ford, Nick Aaron, 55
Ford administration of, 140
Foreign Agency Registry Act (FARA), 319n14
Foreign Information Service (FIS), 133, 213, 217n27
formalism, 287
Fort Bragg, 137, 146n39
Foucault, Michel, 129n11, 408
Four-Minute men, 306
Fox News, 313, 314, 400–402, 412n9
Frankenheimer, John, 13, 111–112, 117–128, 129n6, 129n15
Franklin Book Programs, 190–198, 199nn78
free association, 118, 267, 269
Freedberg, David, 235n29
Freedom House Bookshelf, 188, 189f, 198n6
Freedom’s Journal (Russworm & Cornish), 50
free indirect speech, 84
free market, 351
Freire, Paulo, 176
French language, 198n2
French Revolution, 2–3, 348
Frentz, Walter, 250–251
Freud, Sigmund
Adorno on, 262–263, 278, 280–281, 284
Bernays and, 11, 109, 261–263
Beyond the Pleasure Principle, 285
Civilization and Its Discontents, 263
Ellul and, 284
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, 262–263, 280
on incest, 122, 129n16
Le Bon and, 263
The Manchurian Candidate and, 118, 121, 122
Meerloo and, 114, 116
Nazis and, 262–264
patent for psychoanalysis, 272
on pleasure, 280–281, 285
post-WWI era on ideas of, 110–111
radio and theories of, 267
(p. 449) Totem and Taboo, 129n16
unconscious, theories on the, 110, 113
on WWI, 281
“Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda” (Adorno), 262–263, 278, 280–281, 284
Freyre, Gilberto, 39
Friedan, Betty, 129n14
Friendly, Fred W., 215
Friends of Reconciliation (FOR), 53
Fromm, Erich, 116, 266
Front Line Family, 209
Frye, Northrup, 319n5
Fugitive Slave Law, 31
Fulbright, William, 134–135, 137, 139, 140
Fulbright-Hays Act, 138
Fulbright Scholarship and Fellowship programs, 135, 215
Furmanov, Dmitry, 83
Future Shock (Toffler), 279
Gama, Luis, 30, 31
Gan, Aleksei, 220, 232n8
Gardin, Vladimir, 234n26
Garella, Rich, 405–406
Gary, Brett, 274, 319n15
Gasanova, Aishat, 82
Gayden, Fern, 54
Gayle, Addison, 55, 57
Gelb, Bruce, 143
Gellner, Ernest, 50
General Electric, 204, 212, 217n27
Generation of Vipers (Wylie), 119–120
George, Ann, 327, 331, 335, 344n1, 345n4
George III (king), 231n3
German-Americans, 306
German language, 133, 198n2, 208, 306
German Places of Work (Noldan), 247
Germany
industrialization of, 240
Nazi (see Nazi Reich)
nonfiction films and documentaries in (1920s-30s), 14, 237–257
post-WWI era crises in, 95
post-WWII films of, 241
public diplomacy in, 143
shortwave radio broadcasts by, 206
Telefunken, 204
U.S. information initiatives in Cold War in, 135
VOA in, 133
Weimar Republic, 14, 237–257
Gielgud, Val, 209
GI Joe (Pyle), 182
Gilliam, Lawrence, 210
Gillray, James, 35, 42
Giroux, Robert, 62
Giuliani, Rudy, 412n6
Gladwell, Malcolm, 268, 407
Global Communications Office, 158n10
Gloucester, Hugh, 55, 56
“Glue of the Enemy Coalition” (Goebbels), 103
Godard, Jean Luc, 242, 251
Goebbels, Joseph
anti-Jewish essays and speeches by, 92–94, 96–103
Bernays and, 263
on Bolshevism/Soviets, 97–98, 103, 106n36
on Churchill and the English, 96–98
credibility of, 357–358
“Degenerate Art” exhibit, 370
de Man on, 15
on Die Geissel der Welt, 253
education of, 366
Eisenstein and, 248
film, radio, press, and, 208
Freudian theories and, 263
media network concept and, 244
Michael, 366, 372–373, 376n1
on objectivity, 92
Schiller and, 15, 366–369, 371, 375
on Zielke’s Das Stahltier, 248
Gombrich, E. H., 93
Gompers, Samuel, 320n28
Google, 9
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 158n12
Gorgias (Plato), 2
Gorham, Maurice, 216n18
Gosende, Robert, 146n37
“Governmentality” (Foucault), 129n11
Goya, Francisco, 42, 44
Granger causality, 392n9
Grapes of Wrath (Ford), 254
“graphosphere” period, 74, 75
Graves, Cecil, 207
Great Britian
England (see England)
external radio broadcasts to, 205
(p. 450) Foreign Office, 96, 143, 213
in Mers-el-Kébir battle, 358
Ministry of Information (MOI), 208–209, 211, 216n17
Nazi Reich and, 93, 96–98, 100–103
Northern Ireland, 205
Post Office, 205
public diplomacy in, 143
Scotland, 205
subliminal advertising in, 273
W1XAL broadcasts to, 212
Wales, 205
WWII policy on European Jews, 96
Great Depression, 55
Great War, The (Noldan), 246, 259n21
Greenaway, Peter, 251
Greene, Felix, 216n16
Greene, Hugh Carleton, 216n16
Gregory XII (pope), 23
Gregory XV (pope), 1, 2, 12, 23, 27n9, 219, 290
grey propaganda, 134, 136
Grierson, John, 208, 238, 255–256, 259n29
Griffiths, D. W., 7
Gromov, E., 235n26
Gronostay, Walter, 250
Gross, George, 246
group dynamics, 356
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (Freud), 262–263, 280
Groys, Boris, 67, 85–86n11
Guatemala, 136, 137
Gullion, Edmund, 131–132, 139, 143
Gulliver’s Travels (Swift), 37–38
Gunning, Tom, 220, 232n7
Halfin, Igal, 71–72
Hammid, Alexander, 245
Hands at Work (Frentz), 250–251
Hansen, Miriam, 282
Hardt, Hanno, 312, 322n64
Harris, Michael, 196
Hart, Henry, 335
Harvard, 212
Harvard Business Review, 269
Harvest of Shame, 215
Havel, Vacláv, 70, 85n7, 86n11, 141
Haywood, “Big Bill,” 306
Hearst, William Randolph, 305
Heartfield, John, 246
Heart of Spain, 253
Heilbut, Anthony, 265–266, 268
Hellbeck, Jochen, 71–72
Helms, Jesse, 141
Hemingway, Ernest, 252, 253
Herman, Edward, 361, 398
Herzog, Herta, 266, 269
Hezbollah, 392n11
hidden curriculum, 165, 175
Hippler, Fritz, 247
Hirota, Janice N., 319n6
Hirsh, E. D., 165
history
Du Bois and, 60
hate-fest narratives, 354
ICTs and, 396
Russian rewriting of, 86n14
socialist realism and, 73
History Channel, 257, 260n35
Hitchcokian effect, 227
Hitler, Adolf, 91–97, 99–101, 103, 105n17, 105n20, 263, 341–344, 357
hive mind, 113
H. J. Heinz Company, 130n19
Hoggart, Richard, 279
Holocaust, 63, 91–94, 101, 103, 372, 380
Holocaust Memorial Museum, 258n6
Hong Kong, 158n8
Hoover, J. Edgar, 212, 271
Hopkins, Pauline, 51
horizontal propaganda, 9–10, 155, 352, 356, 432–433
Horkheimer, Max, 278, 281–282
horticulture, 1–2, 239
Hough, Donald, 182
House, Edward “Colonel,” 302–303, 308–309, 318n3
Houseman, John, 213
Housing Problems (Elton & Anstey), 250, 251, 259n29
Howard, Leslie, 201, 210
Howe, Irving, 55, 56
“How It Feels to Be Colored Me” (Hurston), 53
How We Advertised America (Creel), 303
Hu Jintao, 150, 158n9
hujum, 77, 81, 87n22
“human engineering,” 352
humanism, 57, 180–181, 268, 315
(p. 451) Hungary, 138, 234n17
Hunter, Edward, 113
Hurston, Zora Neale, 53
Hussein, Saddam, 8, 399–400, 405
Hutchens, John K., 210
Huyssen, Andreas, 281
“Hymn to the Peoples, A” (Du Bois), 60, 63
hypnosis, 115
Idealism, 236n34
identification
attitude and, 336–337
Ellul on, 285, 288
Joyce and, 288–289, 294–295
in Russian exposure-of-saints films, 227
in World Politics, 345
identity
Arac on Burke and, 331
education and, 177
Ellul on need for, 348
myth and, 363
propaganda’s conceptual, 201, 396
in Russian exposure-of-saints films, 229
Sartre on writing and, 372
socialist realism and, 71
ideological critique, 8, 370
ideology
art and, 221
Chinese propaganda and, 149, 151, 153
concentration camps and, 86n13
critical theorists on, 175
“defensible partiality” on, 173
definition of, 91
Du Bois on, 58–59
education and, 165, 378–379, 382
Ellul on, 352, 355, 359–360
IIA book selection policies and, 187–188
infiltration of, 70
informationalist, 181, 190, 197
Marx and Engels on, 59
perception and, 230
propaganda and, 68, 201, 239
Žižek on, 10
Ikindi, 381
Illich, Ivan, 318
imagination, 72
implemented curriculum, 165
Impuruza, 392n7
Independent, The, 405
Indiana University, 274
individualism, 120, 128, 168, 221
indoctrination, 13, 84, 164–177, 378–379
Indonesia, 191, 194, 388
information
BBG and, 215
biased assimilation of, 382
CCP control of, 147–152, 154–155
combining new with old, 381, 391n6
democratic fragility and control of, 110
Ellul on, 11, 284–285, 357
Lippmann on, 11, 110
market fundamentalism and, 318
overload, 279, 286, 295n2, 412n5
propaganda and, 5–6, 203
Truman on, 185
informationalism, 180–181, 185–191, 197–198
Informational Media Guaranty (IMG) program, 186
Information Center Service Libraries, 185
information communications technologies (ICTs), 396–398
information war, 397, 399, 410, 412n8
“inner speech,” 83
The Inquiry group, 302, 308
Inscrutabili Divinae, 1, 12, 19–26, 26–27nn110
Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA), 6, 319n15, 339, 342, 370–371, 375
institutionalization, 83, 110, 244
integration propaganda, 352, 354–355
intelligence testing, 322n64
Inter-Allied Information Committee (IAIC), 213
Inter-Allied Propaganda Board, 308
Interim Information Service (IIS), 185–186, 190
interiority, 72, 75, 82
International Broadcasting Board, 139
International Communication Agency (ICA), 140
International Information Administration (IIA), 186, 187–188, 194
internationalism, 13, 54, 57–58, 60–61, 63, 181, 197
International Telecommunications Union, 204
International Women’s Day, 69
International Workers of the World, 321n28
(p. 452) Internet
advertising on, 241
agitators on, 353
antiwar movement and, 397, 404
in “Arab Awakening,” 419–421
blogs (see blogs)
CCP and, 148, 150, 151, 154–156
cyberwar using, 424–431, 433
in Egypt, 423, 425–428, 430–431
Ellul and, 284, 353
fact checking by bloggers, 404
information distribution on, 155, 157
Iraq invasion coverage on, 15
as news source, 403–404
Olympic Games on, 158n11
political activities on, 413n19
propaganda and, 7, 11–12
SARS messages on, 158n8
“slacktivism” on, 407
Smith-Mundt Act and, 203, 215
in Syria, 424–427, 435n4
utopian vision of, 216n4
whistle-blowing websites on, 408–409
Internet Affairs Bureau, 157n2
Iran, 136, 137, 191, 194, 197, 215
Iraq, 8, 191
Iraq War
blogs on, 403, 405
Bush administration on, 313, 399–400, 412n4, 412n9
CNN coverage of, 313, 399, 412n9
corporate/traditional news coverage of, 397, 399–400, 406–407
Fox News coverage of, 400
images from, 3–4, 406–409
Internet coverage of, 15, 397, 405
New York Times coverage of, 312
protests against, 397, 404
Washington Post coverage of, 312
WikiLeaks on, 408–409
Ireland, 288–291, 306
Irish-Americans, 306, 320n23
Irish language, 291–292, 295n10
irrational propaganda, 352, 356
Isaacson, Walter, 323n68
Isabel (princess), 33
Isibo, 381
Iskander, Adel, 430
Islam, 21, 25–26, 143, 284, 304, 399
isolationism, 132, 185, 187, 202, 208, 214
Italian language, 198n2, 208
Italy, 100, 132, 133, 208
Ivens, Joris, 245, 252–253, 256, 259n31
Jackall, Robert, 319n6
Jackson, C. D., 136
Jackson, Philip W., 175
Jamaica, 23
James, William, 324n101
Japan, 99, 100, 135, 156
Jefferson, Thomas, 49, 325n108
“Jews Are Guilty, The” (Goebbels), 98–99
Jiang Zemin, 149, 150
João VI (king), 35
John Paul II (pope), 219, 231n1
John Reed Clubs, 54
Johnson, Abby & Ronald, 50, 53
Johnson, Charles, 53
Johnson, Harper S., 50–51
Johnson, Lyndon, 139
Johnson, Malcolm, 193–195
Johnson, Mark S., 145n35
Johnson, Walter Alexander, 51
Johnson administration, 139
Jordan, 424
Jowett, Garth, 239, 262, 289
Joyce, James, 14, 279, 283, 286–295
judgment, 72, 73, 358
Julius Pinschewer film company, 245
Junghans, Carl, 253
Kaganovich, Lazar, 98
Kahn, Sally, 325n109
Kambanda, Jean, 381
Kamenev, Lev, 87n21
Kangura, 380, 381
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 31, 37
Kant, Immanuel, 15, 279, 282–283, 366–369, 374–375
“Kant and Schiller” (de Man), 366–369, 371–372, 374–375
Kaplan, Amy, 60–61, 63
Kazin, Albert, 182
“Keeping America Scared,” 412n6
Kennedy, David M., 320n19
Kennedy, John, 138
Kennedy administration, 131, 138–139, 195
Kenya, 391n2
(p. 453) Kerr, Chester, 182
Khrushchev, Nikita, 138
Kilpatrick, William H., 167
Kim Jong-un, 8
King, Erika, 326
Kino-Eye (Vertov), 85n4, 230
Kino-Nedelia (Vertov), 234n26, 235n27
Kino-Pravda (Vertov), 76, 230–231
Kipling, Rudyard, 63–64
Kissinger, Henry, 140
Kleiman, Naum, 235n30
Klemperer, Viktor, 92–93
Kluge, Alexander, 251
Korean War, 113, 117, 187
Kornhauser, Arthur, 266
Kracauer, Siegfried, 246–247, 259n21, 278, 281
Kraft durch Freude, 254, 258n10
Kreimeier, Klaus, 246
Kringelbach, Morton, 280
Krupskaia, Nadezhda, 87n21
Kuhle Wampe, 250
Kuhn, Thomas, 174
Ku Klux Klan, 7, 49
Kuleshov, Lev, 223, 226–229, 234–235nn2627, 235n30
Kuleshov Effect, 226, 227f, 228, 235n27, 235n30
Kulturfilme, 243–244, 251, 254, 256
Kundera, Milan, 73
Kurs, Aleksandr, 230
Kyle, John, 196
Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe, 368
Lacy, Dan, 190–191
Laird, Donald, 267
Lammert, Oliver, 246
Land, The (Flaherty), 249–250, 254, 255
Lange, Dorothea, 254
Lansdale, Ed, 137
Lansing, Robert, 305, 308
Larrikan Films, 353
Larson, Arthur, 138
Larson, Cedric, 303
Lasswell, Harold
Burke and, 333, 335–336, 338, 345n8
(p. 454) CCP and, 152
on function of propaganda, 59
Lippmann and, 304
Politics: Who Gets What, When, How? 338
Propaganda: Who Gets What and How? 335–336
subliminal advertising and, 274
on war, 399
World Politics and Personal Insecurity, 338, 345n8
Latin America. See also Central America; South America
BBC programming in, 208
Books in Translation programs in, 186
cohesion campaigns in, 144n5
cultural diplomacy in, 132–133
democracy in, 141
Franklin Books in, 195–196
Information Center Service Libraries in, 185
Kennedy administration and, 195
Nazi outreach in, 132, 208
Soviet books in, 187
U.S. shortwave broadcasts for, 212, 213, 217n21
Lawrence, David, 309, 321n42
Lazarsfeld, Paul, 264–269, 379
League of Nations, 307, 318n3
Lebanon, 191, 194, 392n11
Le Bon, Gustave, 9, 263
Le Corbusier, 74, 86n16
Lee, Ivy, 319n14
Lei Feng, 158n16
Leiser, Erwin, 239
Lemmon, Walter, 212, 213
Lenin, Vladimir, 68–69, 74–84, 86n16, 220, 224, 232n6, 233n12
Lenoe, Matthew, 69, 85n4, 220
Lentricchia, Frank, 331
Letter from Siberia (Marker), 241–242
Letter to Jane (Godard), 242
libertarians, 171
Liberty and the News (Lippmann), 301, 310, 313–318, 321n38
Library of Congress, 47n12, 199n7
Li Changchun, 150
Life in Classrooms (Jackson), 175
Light Service, 210
Likert, Rensis, 267
Lincoln, Abraham, 122–123, 124f, 125, 133
Lippmann, Walter
on advertising, 304
Atlantic Monthly essays, 310, 324n98
Bernays and, 262, 304
CCP and, 152
CPI and, 14, 302, 304, 308–309, 312, 321n42
Creel and, 309–310, 321–322n45
on democracy, 302, 313–318, 361
Dewey and, 11, 110, 304
Drift and Mastery, 323n87
Ellul and, 11, 361
Filene and, 319n15
on intelligence testing, 322n64
Lasswell and, 304
Liberty and the News, 301, 310, 313–318, 321n38
The New Republic, 302, 308–310, 321–322n45
on New York Times Russian Revolution coverage, 310–312
Peirce and, 316, 324n101
The Phantom Public, 262, 315–317, 324n98
The Political Scene, 309
A Preface to Politics, 316
Public Opinion, 262, 304, 310, 315–317, 413n11
Roosevelt (TR) on, 308
Santayana and, 324n101
U.S. Foreign Policy and U.S. War Aims, 182
Wilson administration and, 302, 308–309, 318n3
in WWI, 302, 308–309, 321n40, 321n42
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 267
Li Pu, 155
Li Rui, 155
Listov, Viktor, 234n16
literacy
American Revolution and, 9
in Brazil, 31
Cold War information and, 135
Ellul on, 359
political violence and, 392n11
Rwandan violence and, 15, 378–379, 382–387, 389–391
social media and, 422
in Soviet Union, 62, 69, 73–75, 77–82, 84, 85n4
violence and, 387
literary democracy, 375
literary modernism, 279
“Literature” (Du Bois), 53
lithographs, 33, 35–36, 39–41, 44
Little Women (Alcott), 192
Litvinov, Maxim, 98
Lives of Girls Who Became Famous (Bolton), 191
Lives of Poor Boys Who Became Famous (Bolton), 191
Lloyd George, David, 318n5
Locke, Alain, 53
Loiperdinger, Martin, 240, 248
Lomax, Alan, 211, 217n20
London Symphony Orchestra, 210
Loomis, Henry, 139
Lorentz, Pare, 251–252, 253
Lowenthal, Leo, 281
Ludovisi, Allessandro, 23. See also Gregory XV
Ludovisi, Ludovico, 26n8
Lukács, Georg, 3, 4
Lullaby (Vertov), 76, 88n28
Lumumba, Patrice, 355
Luso Brazilian Baroque art, 29
Luxembourg, 205
Luxemburg, Rosa, 82
Lynd, Robert & Helen, 266
Lysistrata (Aristophanes), 401
MacKay, John, 81–82, 87nn2122, 87n24, 88n29, 232n7
MacLeish, Archibald, 134, 180, 330
MacPherson, J., 231n3
Magee, John L., 37f
Magnitogorsk, 69, 81
Maison Française, 157n4
Malaysia, 191
Malevich, Kazimir, 221
Man, What Rubbish, 251
Man Called Intrepid, A (Stevenson), 217n24
Manchurian Candidate, The (Condon), 13, 111–112, 116–128, 130n20, 271
Manchurian Candidate, The (Frankenheimer), 13, 111–112, 117–128, 129n6, 129n15
Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, The (Wilson), 111
Mannheim, Karl, 315, 323n90
Manning, Bradley, 409, 414n24
manufacture of consent, 11, 313, 314, 317, 397, 413n11. See also “Engineering of Consent, The”
Manufacturing Consent (Herman & Chomsky), 361, 398, 400, 413n11
Man with a Movie Camera (Vertov), 76, 229
Mao Zedong, 149, 158n13, 158n16, 355
Marconi, Guglielmo, 206–207
Marconi Company, 204
Marie Antoinette (queen), 9–10
(p. 455) Marker, Chris, 241–242, 251
market fundamentalism, 318, 351
market research, 265–270
“market segmentation,” 268
Marks, Leonard, 139
Marshall Plan, 135, 137, 186
Martin, Courtney, 401, 413n18
Martin, Terry, 87n23
Martov, Julius, 232n6
Marx, Karl, 59
Marxism
agitation and, 68
atheism and, 224
Christian images/ideals and, 221, 233nn1112
defamiliarization and, 72
historical development timeline of, 79
Lazarsfeld and, 266, 268
nationalism and, 153
Mason, W., 402–403
“Mass Ornament, The” (Kracauer), 278, 281–283
Mastercard, 409
Masters of Deceit (Hoover), 271
May, Elaine Tyler, 128
Mayakovky, Vladimir, 54
McCabe, Colin, 294
McCarthy, Joseph, 116, 124–125, 187–188
McCarthy hearings, 125, 353, 399
McClure, Robert, 144n11
Mead, Margaret, 111
media network, 243–245
“mediapolis,” 397
Meerloo, Joost, 113–116, 122, 130n17
Mein Kampf (Hitler), 341–344
Melley, Timothy, 129n6
menticide, 114–115
O Mequetrefe, 40, 42–45
Merriam, Charles, 310, 322n64
Merz, Charles, 304, 310–312
Metall des Himmels (Ruttmann), 249
Metallious, Grace, 111
metaphor, 84
Mexico, 23, 204–206
Miami News, 113, 129n6
Michael (Goebbels), 366, 372–373, 376n1
Middle East. See also specific countries in
BBC programming in, 208
BBG broadcasting services in, 215
Books in Translation programs in, 186
Franklin Books in, 191, 193, 195–197
Nazis on, 94, 104–105n10
Radio Free Europe broadcasts for, 214
U.S. cultural diplomacy in, 133
U.S. military in, 353
Middletown (Lynd), 266
Military Information Support Operations (MISO), 142, 146n39
Mill, John Stuart, 279, 280, 282–283, 315
Miller, Arthur, 111
Miller, Clyde, 370
Miller, Hillis, 293
Milosz, Czeslaw, 67–68
Milton, John, 315
“Mimicry” (Goebbels), 93, 97–98
Mireiles, Vito, 41
Mirror of Liberty, 50
Mobilising America (Bullard), 309
Mock, James, 303
modernism
art vs. commercial, 248
avant-garde and, 295n7
Bloomsbury, 287
Du Bois and, 61
Ellison and, 56
Ellul on, 285–286, 288
German (1920s-30s) films and, 240, 247, 248
information and, 286
Joyce and, 14, 279, 287, 294–295
Kant and, 283
liberal thought and, 269
literary, 279
“peripheral realisms” and, 296n14
Soviet films and, 283
Trilling on, 285
Wollaeger on, 295n7
Modleski, Tania, 295n9
Mol, J. C., 245
“momism,” 119, 121
montage
in Eisenstein’s films, 283
in German (1920s-30s) films, 247, 249–252
“inner speech” and, 83
Kuleshov Effect, 226, 227f, 228, 235n27, 235n30
technical reasons for, 249–250
in Vertov’s films, 249
Moreno, Jacob, 276n29
Morozov, Evgeny, 407
Moses, Wilson, 52
Moss, Eakin, 87–88n28
Mossadegh, Mohammad, 197
(p. 456) motion pictures, 6, 321n42, 352. See also cinema; films
motivation research, 262, 264–271, 273, 274
Moyers, Bill, 403
Mozzhukhin, Ivan, 226, 228
Mrs. Miniver, 352
MSNBC, 402
Mubarak, Hosni, 422–423, 427–430, 434
Murdock, George, 116
Murdock, Rupert, 314
Murrow, Edward R., 131, 138–139, 191, 210, 215
museums, 83
Muslim Brotherhood, 422, 430, 432
Mussolini, Benito, 340–341
Must we believe in God? (Rejsner), 224–226
Mutual radio network, 209, 216n10
“My Satirical Self” (Mason), 402–403
myths
African American, 52, 57
Blumenberg on, 236n34
in capitalism, 351
of cinema, 230
in communism, 351
Ellul and, 50, 350–356, 360, 363–364, 399
identity and, 363
of Iraq War, 400
journalistic, 396
Kracauer on, 282
in Nazi Reich, 93, 351
in socialism, 351
Soviet, 69, 83
Nabokov, Vladimir, 73
Nabuco, Joaquim, 31–33, 40, 43
Nanook of the North (Flaherty), 254–256
Napoléon I (emperor), 357
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 421–422
Nation, The, 329–330
“national aestheticism,” 373, 376n17
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 58, 61, 306
National Association of Broadcasters, 267–268
National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), 205, 210, 212, 216n1, 217n21, 217n27, 404
National Committee for a Free Europe, 136
National Defense Communications Board, 213
National Film and Photo League, 254
nationalism
Black, 50–55, 57, 58, 63
Chinese propaganda and, 149, 153–154, 156–157
cultural, 293
Du Bois and, 63
ethnicity and, 51, 54
Franklin Books and, 197
games and, 290–291
print culture and, 50
radio and, 202–205, 216n6
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 396
television and, 203–204
values and, 353
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 6
National Reformer, 50
National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND), 381
National Security Council, 135, 145n18, 186–187
Nation magazine, 273
Native Son (Wright), 54–56
“Nature of Art Under Capitalism, The” (Burke), 329–330
Nazi propaganda
Adorno on, 262–263, 278, 280–281, 284
advertising and, 14, 261–262, 274
analysis of, 112–113, 239–240, 258nn56
anti-Jewish, 13, 91–103, 247, 434
on Britain, 209, 358
Calvin College’s online archive of, 104n1, 258n6
factual material in, 357–358
in France, 358
Freudian theories and, 262–264
Kracauer on Noldan’s films, 246–247
media network concept of, 243–245
Meerloo on, 113
nonreporting/silence aspect of, 101, 358
orchestration of, 349–350
purpose of, 2, 91
from Schönheit der Arbeit, 258n10
Taylor on, 68
“thereness” of, 256
unconscious mind and, 264
Wald on, 110
Nazi Reich
concentration camps of, 86n13, 101
cultural indoctrination by, 13
dreams and, 86n12
FARA and, 319n14
(p. 457) internal resistance to, 103
Latin America and, 132–133
military casualties (1945), 103
myths in, 351
nonfiction films of, 14, 237–257
press, control of, 101
radio broadcasts by, 91, 93, 95–96, 99, 101–103, 105n20, 207–208
Thompson on, 216n1
trade unions in, 250, 258n10
Neal, Larry, 57
Nelson, Richard Allan, 239
neoliberalism, 318
the Netherlands, 207, 213
Network Nations (Hilmes), 216n6
Neumann, Franz, 104n2
New Challenge magazine, 54, 57
New Deal, 266
New Negro, The (Locke), 53
New Republic, The, 302, 308–310, 321–322n45, 326–328, 336, 339
newspapers
advice columns in, 111
African American, 50
agenda-setting by, 411
cartoons in, 7–8, 307
Chinese, 151, 156
content analysis of, 322n64
CPI and, 307
Du Bois’ writings in international, 61
editorials and news in, 311–312
Egyptian, 422
Ford on, 285
IPA and, 6
Lippmann on, 313–317, 324n98
Nazi press directives for German, 94, 101, 102
in post-WWII occupied territories, 135
Rwandan violence and, 380–382, 386, 390, 392n7
slave narratives in, 38
Spanish-American War and, 305
Thompson on, 208
Ulysses “Aeolus” episode on, 291
WikiLeaks and, 409
newsreels, 92, 95, 137, 234n26, 238, 244
Newton, Robert, 35
“New Vehicle of Nationalism, The” (Thompson), 201, 216n1
New York Times, The
on Assange, 409
on Bush administration “reality,” 411n2
on Columbia University dismissals in WWI, 320n24
Crewdson’s exposé of CIA in, 199n8
on Goebbels’ essays, 107n66
on Hitler’s speeches, 97
Hutchens on Britain to America program, 210
on Iraq War coverage, 312–313
“A Test of the News” on, 310–312
WikiLeaks and, 413n23
New York Times Magazine, The, 402–403
New Zealand, 207
Ngai, Sianne, 278
Niagara Movement, 61
Nicholas II (tsar), 232n9
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 293, 294, 330
Nigger Heaven (Van Vechten), 53
Night Mail (Watts & Wright), 251
Nineteen Eighty-Four (Orwell), 354, 361
Ninkovich, Frank, 180–181, 187, 190, 197–198
Nixon, Richard, 140
Nixon administration, 140
Nobel Prize, 149
Noldan, Svend, 245–249, 259n21
None Dare Call It Torture (Bennett et al.), 406–407
North America
abolitionist movement in, 29–39
BBC NAS, 202, 208–211
Canada, 203–209, 212, 404
ICT and news sources in, 397
Mexico, 23, 204–206
print satire in, 34–39
radio frequencies in, 205–206
shortwave radio broadcasts to, 206
U.S. (see United States)
WRUL broadcasts to, 212
North American Service (NAS), 202, 208–211
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 156
Northern Ireland, 205
North Korea, 8, 158n9, 203
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 49
“Novel as Social Criticism, The” (Petry), 55, 56
Novitskij, Petr, 222
nuclear family, 111, 114, 116, 117, 127–128
null curriculum, 165
Nye, Joseph, 142
(p. 458) Obama administration, 142
“objective correlative,” 287
objective/objectivity, 316, 396
Occupy Movement, 397, 403
O’Donnell, Victoria, 239, 262, 289
Oertel, Curt, 245
Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs (OIC), 186
Office of Public Information, 185–186
Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 113, 134, 212
Office of the Coordinator of Information, 133
Office of War Information (OWI), 133–135, 144n9, 182–183, 185–186, 213, 214
Official Bulletin, The, 307
Olken, B., 388, 392n15
Olympia (Riefenstahl), 243, 248
Olympics, 153–154
omitted variable bias, 388
ONA newswire service, 217n25
One Sixth of the World (Vertov), 220
On Native Grounds (Kazin), 182
Open Skies, 138
“opinion leaders,” 268
opinion polls, 356–357
O’Reilly, Bill, 395, 401
“Organization Man,” 111
Origins of Totalitarianism, The (Arendt), 94
O’Rourke, Sean Patrick, 376n13
Orwell, George, 5, 15n4, 94, 354, 361, 401
O’Shaugnessy, Nicholas, 396
overdraft protection, 270
Overseas Editions (OE) of books, 182–183, 185, 198n2
Overseas Libraries, 186, 187–188
Overseas Service, 5, 208–210, 213
Paine, Tom, 9
Painlevé, Jean, 245
painting, oil, 41, 283
Pakistan, 191, 194
Pal, George, 245
Palestine, 96
Paley, William S., 205
Paperno, Irina, 73, 86n12
Paris Match, 354–355
Parker, Emily, 155
passive thinking, 85n8
Patrocinio, Jose do, 29–30
Patterson, Jack, 271
Pavlov, Ivan, 110, 113, 114
PayPal, 409
Peace Information Center, 58, 61
Peirce, C. S., 324n101
People’s Capitalism, 138
People’s Daily, 151
People’s Republic of China (PRC)
CCP in, 147–157, 158n7, 355
Cultural Revolution in, 158n13
economic challenges in, 148–151, 154
“Jasmine revolution” in, 148
Olympic Games in, 153–154, 156, 158n11
propaganda of, 147–157, 157n1, 158n13, 158n15, 356
public diplomacy by, 13, 148–149, 152–154, 157
reeducation tactics of, 113
soft power and, 148–149, 152, 157
U.S. spy plane downing by, 156
periodicals
African American, 50–51, 53–54, 58
cartoons in, 307
CCF, 136
CPI and, 307
Eisenhower-Khrushchev treaty on, 138
Nazi, 94, 98, 102
post-WWII European, 184
USIA, 137
USIS, 133
Persian Gulf War (PGW), 396, 404. See also First Gulf War
Persian language, 191
Persians, 94
personality, 351
Petrov, Petre, 70–71, 83, 85n10
Petry, Ann, 55, 56
Peyton Place (Metallious), 111
Phantom Public, The (Lippmann), 262, 315–317, 324n98
Philips Corporation, 207, 245
photography, 39, 44, 226
Phylon, 55–56, 61
Pickford, Mary, 307
Picture of Dorian Gray, The (Wilde), 286
Pierce, Franklin, 37
Piscator, Erwin, 246
Plato, 2, 270, 279, 360
pleasure
about propaganda and, 278–294
aesthetic, 279, 282–283, 287, 295n4
Barthes on, 279, 287–288, 295n9
(p. 459) Bernays on desire and, 11
in Deutschlandbilder, 242
jouissance and, 287–288, 295n9
Joyce on, 14, 279
Lazarsfeld on Austrian workers,’ 265
neurobiology of, 280, 295n5
simple, 279, 295n3
from spectacle, 232n7, 278
Pleasure of the Text, The (Barthes), 279, 287
Pleasures of Philosophy, The (Durant), 191–192
Plekhanov, Georgii, 68, 232n6
Pobedonostsev, Konstantin, 232n9
Point of Order (de Antonio), 125
Poland, 96, 213
Polish Campaign, The (Noldan), 246
political propaganda, 351–353, 355
Political Scene, The (Lippmann), 309
Politics: Who Gets What, When, How? (Lasswell), 338
“Polygraph” (Garella), 405–406
Porter, Allen, 335
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Joyce), 279, 287, 289–291, 293–294
positivism, 363
posters, 9, 69, 85n4, 92, 94–95, 105n16, 135, 283
postmodernism, 92, 104n4, 164, 288, 317, 411, 414n26
post-structuralism, 294
“post-totalitarianism,” 85n7, 86n11
Potter, Simon, 207
powerful effects media models, 432
pragmatism, 315, 316, 324n101
Prechtl, Gerd, 269
Preface to Politics, A (Lippmann), 316
pre-propaganda, 50, 350–351, 433
Priestley, J. B., 209
Primeiras Trovas Burlescas (Gama), 31
Princeton University, 266–268
Princeton University Press, 191
print culture
African American, 50, 51, 57
beliefs of, selective reading and, 412n5
“book hunger,” 192
“book hunger” in, 183–185
books (see books)
Brazilian abolitionist movement and, 31–32, 38
CPI and, 307
democracy and, 372–375
Ellul on, 50, 348, 359
in “graphosphere” period, 74
informationalism and, 194
nationalism and, 50
newspapers (see newspapers)
periodicals (see periodicals)
political economy of, 197
proletarian, 330
psychoanalysis and, 111
role of, in racial ideas, 55
of Russian Orthodox Church, 220, 232n9
Soviet, 69, 73–75, 77–81, 84
Spivak on, 288–289
in “technological society,” 50
Progressive Education Association (PEA), 166–172
Progressives, 13, 164, 166–171, 216n11
“proletarian” culture, 55
propaganda
agitational, 351–354
analysis of, 8–9
assessment of, 5
black, 134
causal treatment effects of, 385–389, 392n9
characteristics of, 351–352, 364n4
CMD catalogue of techniques, 371
contextual factors on impact of, 7, 380
continuous, 434
counterfactual outcomes of, 386
culture and, 2
definition of, 2, 6, 68, 117, 239, 349, 391n1, 418
detection of, 6, 370–371
direct, 433
elite use of, 92
epistemology of, 221
etymology of, 1–3, 24, 219, 239
by exclusion/inclusion, 334
explicit, 338
factual material in, 357–359
function of, 59, 117, 274
goal of, 275
grassroots, 432–434
grey, 134, 136
horizontal, 9–10, 155, 352, 356, 432–433
implicit, 332–333, 337–338
integration, 352, 354–355
internal vs. external, 154, 202–203
irrational, 352, 356
morality of, 363
political, 351–353, 355
propositions about, 4–12
rhetoric and, 5–7, 221
satire, parody, and, 400–403
sociological, 351–354
targeted, 379, 385
usage of the word in books, 295n8
vertical, 9, 155, 352, 355–356, 432–433
white, 134
Propaganda (Bernays), 109, 112, 262, 263, 319n10
“Propaganda and World War” (Du Bois), 58
Propaganda: Its Psychology and Technique (Doob), 335–338
Propaganda Model (PM), 400, 413n16
“Propaganda of History, The” (Du Bois), 59–60
“propaganda of the deed,” 58, 62
Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes (Ellul), 59, 348, 357, 432–434
Propaganda: Who Gets What and How? (Lasswell), 335–336
Protestantism, 19–21, 23–26
“protest” fiction, 54–55, 57
psychoanalysis
Adorno and, 281
Bernays’ public relations and, 261–262
The Body Snatchers and, 116
by Dichter, 276n31
Erikson on “moral idea” behind, 112
Freud’s patent on, 272
Jews and, 269
The Manchurian Candidate and, 118
market research and, 265–267, 269
motivation research and, 262, 264–265, 267, 269–270
Nazi propaganda and, 261
nuclear family in, 111
pleasure research and, 280
post-WWI era on uses of, 111
propaganda and, 274
The Rape of the Mind and, 116
psychodrama, 269, 276n29
Psychological Strategy Board, 194
psychological warfare, 134–136, 138–139, 144n11, 144n13, 187, 301–302, 350
Psychology of Everyday Living, The (Dichter), 269
Public Broadcasting Act, 216n7
public diplomacy
BBC and, 203
BIS and, 213
China and, 144n5
CPI and, 305
development of U.S., 13, 131–142
JFK and, 138
lessons learned, 142–143
Murrow on, 138
outsourcing of U.S., 318
Reagan administration and, 140–141
Smith-Mundt Act and, 135
Public Opinion (Lippmann), 262, 304, 310, 315–317, 413n11
public relations
advertising and, 304
agitation and, 69
Bernays and, 109, 112, 262, 319n10
by Bush administration, 323n70
CPI and, 302–303, 313, 318
Ellison on, 56–57
Ellul on, 352
FARA and, 319n14
goals of, 303
informationalism and, 180
news and, 304
outsourcing of U.S., 313
OWI officers from, 133
practitioners of, 303
in PRC, 152
Pudovkin, V. I., 247
Punch, 42
Punin, Nikolai, 221
puppet show, 135
Pyle, Ernie, 182
Qatar, 427
Quetzalcoatl, 126
Quiet Canadian, The (Troy), 217n24
“Race and the Negro Writer” (Gloucester), 55–56
radio
amateur operations, 204
Chinese, 157
CIA stations, 136
colonial, 207
control of, 7, 204–205
development of, 204–206
educational, 206, 212, 216n7
(p. 461) frequency allocation for, 204–206
Freudian theories and, 267
IPA and, 6
Italian, 208
Lazarsfeld research on, 265–267
licenses for, 204
nationalism and, 202–205, 216n6
OSS broadcasts on, 134
political beliefs and, 378–379, 391n4
in post-WWII occupied territories, 135, 184
public service programming on, 216n7
reception of signals, 8, 203–204, 383–385, 389–391
Rwandan, 2, 15, 378–391, 391n4, 392n12
shortwave (see shortwave radio)
Smith-Mundt Act, 135, 203, 214, 215
soap operas on, 209–210
Soviet, 79, 80f, 187, 204, 206
talk, 284
Thompson on, 201, 208, 216n1
on Tiananmen Square events, 154
utopian vision of, 202, 216n4
Vatican, 206–207, 216n14
Radio Act, 206
Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 204, 205
Radio Free Asia, 215
Radio Free Europe, 136, 139, 141, 145n22, 181, 203, 214
Radio Liberation/Liberty, 136, 139, 141, 181, 214
Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM), 378–391
Raft, The (Trumbull), 192
Rally to Restore Sanity, 401, 403
Ramparts, 139, 362
Rancière, Jacques, 86n15
Rank, J. Arthur, 352
Rape of the Mind, The (Meerloo), 114–116
Rather, Dan, 396
rationalism, 92, 126, 180
rational propaganda, 352, 356–357
“Reading While You Run” (Burke), 339, 343
Reagan, Ronald, 140, 325n109
Reagan administration, 140–141
realism, 294, 314–315, 324n101
Rebel at Large (Creel), 320n19
Rebouças, Andre, 31, 32
“Recessional” (Kipling), 63
Red Nightmare, 352
reflexive conditioning, 113, 115, 355
Reformation, 1
Reik, Theodore, 269
Reith, John, 205
Rejsner, Mikhail, 224–226, 230, 234n22
“Relation Between Literature and Science, The” (Burke), 345n9
relativism, 170
religion, 284
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 242
Resettlement Administration, 254
Reuters, 408–409
“Revelation of St. Orgne the Damned, The” (Du Bois), 49, 59
revisionism, 174
Revista Illustrada, 42–43
“Revolutionary Symbolism in America” (Burke), 327, 330, 331–335, 344, 344–345n3
rhetoric
Bennett & O’Rourke and, 376n13
de Man on, 369–371, 375
epistemology and, 221
Greek origins of, 2, 337
“inner speech” and, 83
IPA and, 370–371
propaganda and, 5–7, 221
socialist realism and, 72
Rhetoric (Aristotle), 337
“Rhetoric of Hitler’s ‘Battle’” (Burke), 327, 340, 341–344
Ribbentrop-Molotov nonaggression pact, 96
Riefenstahl, Leni, 240, 242–243, 247–248, 252
Rikli, Martin, 245
Robinson Family, The, 210
Rockefeller, Nelson, 133, 136, 213, 214
Rockefeller Foundation, 212, 213, 217n23, 266
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholic Church
Roosevelt (FDR) administration, 132–133, 214, 216n12
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (FDR), 98–100, 107nn4647, 133, 212, 216n12, 216n17, 266
Roosevelt, Theodore (TR), 308
Rosenberg, Ethel & Julius, 111
Rotha, Paul, 259n29
Rowlandson, Thomas, 35
(p. 462) Royal Air Force (RAF) orchestra, 210
Rubin’s causality model, 385, 392n9
Rumsfeld, Donald, 412n6
Russell, Bertrand, 315
Russia. See also Soviet Union
Civil War of, 221, 302
Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith in, 23
CPI and, 303
“exposure-of-saints’-relics” films in, 14, 221–230, 233n16
monarchy of, 232n9
New York Times Revolution coverage, 310–312
October Revolution in, 69
(p. 463) social and educational policies of, 232n9
subjectivity in, 86n14
U.S. military in, 302
in WWI, 311
Russia and America (Du Bois), 61–63
Russian Orthodox Church
Bolsheviks and, 14, 220, 233n10
canonization of saints by, 232n9, 233n10
casualties, of Civil War, 234n24
“exposure-of-saints’-relics” films and, 14, 221–230
festive events by, 232n9
icons in, 235n29
monarchy and, 232n9
print culture of, 220, 232n9
“propaganda of the faith” by, 220
on saints’ remains, 232n9, 233n15
social and educational policies and, 232n9
Russian television service (RT), 215
Russworm, John, 50
Ruttmann, Walter, 240, 245–246, 249, 253
Rwanda, 2, 15, 378–391
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), 380, 385, 387
Sadat, Anwar, 422
Said, Khalid, 427–428
St. Sebastian in Reality (Agostini), 42–43
Salter, Andrew, 118
samizdat, 69
San Francisco (van Dyke), 252
Santayana, George, 324n101
Sarnoff, David, 205
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 359, 360, 371–375
Saturday Evening Post, 120, 216n1
Scarborough, Joe, 402
Scheer, Peter, 269
Scheer, Robert, 139
Schierholz, Patrick, 269
Schiller, Friedrich, 9, 15, 366–369, 371, 373–375
Schlick, Moritz, 268
Schönheit der Arbeit, 242, 249, 254, 258n10
Schoots, Hans, 259n31
Schulz, Ulrich, 245
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 412n6
science, 356–357
Science and Common Sense (Conant), 191
science fiction, 113, 115, 271
scientism, 323n87
Scotland, 205
Scott, James C., 67, 74, 77, 82, 86n16
Scourge of the World, The (Junghans), 253
Seaver, Edwin, 345n5
secularization, 284
Sedition Act, 306
Seeing Like a State (Scott), 74
selection bias, 386–389
selection-on-observables approach, 388
Selzer, Jack, 327, 331, 335, 344n1, 345n4
Sen, Amartya, 325n109
September 11 terrorist attacks, 142, 286, 304, 323n68, 353, 396–397, 399, 400
Serbia, 421
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), 151, 158n8
Shalamov, Varlam, 72, 73, 86n14
Sharaf, Essam, 431
Shklovsky, Victor, 72
Short Message Service (SMS), 151, 420–421
shortwave radio, 14, 202–203, 206–208, 212–214, 216n14, 217n23, 217n25, 217n27
Shulman, Holly Cowan, 211, 214
Shumyatsky, Boris, 82
Sicily, 135
Simpson, Christopher, 319n15
Sites, Kevin, 407
skepticism, 360, 364, 397, 400–401, 411
Skype, 424
“slacktivism,” 407
Smart Power, 142
Smith, Adam, 318, 325n109
Smith, Datus, 191, 193–196, 199n8
Smith-Mundt Act, 135, 203, 214, 215
social capital, 388, 392n15
Social Democratic Party (SDR), 381
Social Frontier, The, 169–171
socialism
belief and, 85n10
“building,” 229
Christian ethics and symbolism, 233n11
Du Bois on, 62
Floodwood High School students on, 171
Gompers and, 320n28
in “graphosphere” period, 74
illiberal subjectivity and, 71
myths in, 351
reality and, 70
Reconstruction after Civil War and, 62
vanguard party in, 82
socialist realism, 67, 70–75, 82–83, 86–87n17, 87n28, 241
social realism, 13
Social Science Research Council, 310, 322n64
Social Structure (Murdock), 111
Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries (VOKS), 132
sociological propaganda, 351–354
sociologists, 112, 265–267, 269, 319n15
Socrates, 2
“soft determinism,” 397
“soft power,” 142, 148–149, 152, 157
Sojourner Truth, 33, 38
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 71
Sontag, Susan, 75
Sophists, 2
Soros, George, 85n8
Souls of Black Folk (Du Bois), 61
South America, 133, 206, 212, 217n21, 321n42. See also specific countries in
Southside Writers Group, 55, 56
Soviet propaganda
agitation and, 68–69, 85n4, 219–220
Arendt on, 69–70
art and, 69, 84, 221
books, in post-WWII era, 186–187
budget for, 187
via cinema, 75
on collectivization, 77, 81
culture and, 67–68
distribution of, in post-WWII era, 187
education and, 68–69, 74, 85n2, 85n4, 219–220
exchange visitors on, 143
“exposure-of-saints’-relics” films as, 233n16
horizontal, 356
literacy and, 84
media network concept of, 244
perception and, 229
purpose of, 68–69
sacred language and, 236n35
Smith-Mundt Act and, 135
social-democratic tradition of, 219
(p. 464) socialist realism and, 70–71, 87n28
subjectivity and, 68–71
thought and, 84
Three Songs of Lenin as, 82
Soviet Union. See also Russia
Afghanistan, invasion of, 140
agitation in, 68–69, 82
anti-religious museums in, 234n20
“Black Belt” thesis of, 54
brainwashing in, 113
Cold War (see Cold War)
collectivization in, 77, 81
concentration camps of, 86n13
Constitution on religion, 232n9
convict labor in, 87n25
cultural exchange with U.S., 143
culture under Stalin, 13
Du Bois on, 61–63
education in, 68, 236n36
electricity in, 77–79
Ellul on, 359
Encounter magazine and, 362
evolutionism in, 79
FARA and, 319n14
forced labor in, 81, 87n25
gulag stories from, 72, 73, 85n5
hujum in, 77, 81, 87n22
legibility in, 75, 81, 84
literacy in, 69, 73–75, 77–82, 84
Meerloo on, 113
Nazi Reich and, 93, 96–98, 100–103
New York Times Revolution coverage, 310–312
propaganda of (see Soviet propaganda)
purges in, 87n19
radio broadcasts by, 79, 80f, 187, 204
shortwave radio broadcasts by, 206
socialist realism in, 67, 70–75, 82–83, 86–87n17, 87n28, 241
Sputnik launch, 138
“Stockholm Proposal” and, 58
subjectivity in, 68, 71–73, 75, 82, 84
technology vs. religion in, 226
“totalitarian school” on, 67, 85n1
trade unions in, 75
unveiling in, 76–82, 87n22
VOKS, 132
WWII coalition with Allies, 96–98, 100–103
Spain, 25, 42, 252–253
Spain in Flames, 253
Spanish-American War, 305
Spanish Earth (Ivens), 252–253, 256
Spanish language, 208, 219
Speier, Hans, 246
Spinoza, Benedict de, 114
Spivak, Gayatri, 288–289
Sproule, J. Michael, 319n15, 339, 370
Sputnik launch, 138
Stalin, Joseph, 75, 82, 84, 87n19
Stanton, Frank, 140, 266
State Administration of Radio, Film and Television (SARFT), 151
State and Revolution (Lenin), 86n16
statistics, 357
Steel, Ronald, 321n38
Steel Beast, The (Zielke), 247–248
Stephenson, William, 212
Stevenson, William, 217n24
Stewart, Jon, 400–403
Stoics, 279
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 33, 55
strategic communication, 142
Street, The (Petry), 56
subliminal advertising, 262, 271–274
sub-propaganda, 351. See also pre-propaganda
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), 431
surrealism, 340
Suskind, Ron, 411n2
Sweden, 23
Swift, Jonathan, 37–38
Symposium, 329
Syria, 418–435, 435n3, 435n4, 435n8
Syrian Electronic Army (SEA), 424
tableau vivant, 44, 45
Taiwan, 153
talk radio, 284
Tallents, Stephen, 208
Taylor, John F., 291–293, 295, 296n12
Taylor, Richard, 68, 85n2
Tea Party, 325n109, 353
Techniques of Marketing Research, The (AMA), 266
technological determinism, 7, 11, 397
Technological Society, The (Ellul), 398
Telefunken, 204
telegraph, 204
telephones
“Arab Awakening” and, 423–424, 430
The Body Snatchers narrator on, 115
CNN coverage of Gorbachev protests via, 158n12
Facebook app on, 423
Olympic Games coverage via, 158n11
SARS messages via, 158n8
subscriptions for cell/mobile, 398, 423
television
advertising on, 255
BBG and, 215
CCP and, 151, 155
closed-circuit, 157n2
control of, 7
documentaries shown on, 240
in Egypt, 429–430, 433
“graphosphere” period and, 74
Harvest of Shame on, 215
Iraq invasion coverage on, 313
logic of programming on, 255
McCarthy hearings on, 125
Meerloo on, 115
nationalism and, 203–204
reception of signals, 388–389
social capital and, 388, 392n15
subliminal advertising and, 272–274
in Syria, 429
utopian vision of, 216n4
Tertullian, 235n29
tested curriculum, 165
“Test of the News, A” (Lippmann & Merz), 304, 310–312, 316–317, 322n64
text messaging, 156, 158n8, 420, 430
Thailand, 132, 144n6
Thatcher, Margaret, 325n109
(p. 465) Thayer, V. T., 170, 171
theater, 29, 75, 235n29
“The Entreaty of the Slave Bernardo” (Agostini), 44–46
Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT), 269
“Third World” cultural politics, 58
This I Believe (Murrow), 191
Thomas, Norman, 53
Thompson, Dorothy, 201, 202, 208, 216n1
Thompson, Virgil, 252
thought work, 84, 147, 150, 157n1
Threepenny Opera (Brecht), 251
Three Songs of Lenin (Vertov), 13, 75–84, 87n21, 87n26, 87–88n28
Tibet, 153, 156
Tiffany, Daniel, 294
Tillman, Ben “Pitchfork,” 8
Time magazine, 212, 376n1, 403
Tipping Point, The (Gladwell), 268
HMS Titanic, 204
Todorov, Tzvetan, 73, 86n13
Toffler, Alvin, 279
To Have and Have Not (Hemingway), 183f
totalitarianism
Animal Farm on, 401
Arendt on, 69–70, 72, 94
brainwashing and, 113
censorship and, 155
cinema and, 75
culture and, 114
efficacy studies in, 8, 14–15
Ellul and, 432–433
Internet and, 434
Meerloo on, 114–116, 122, 130n17
“misprints” and, 73
Orwell on euphemism in, 94
post-WWII studies of, 113
public relations and, 110
Stalinist socialism and, 85n10
thought modes and, 85n8
Totem and Taboo (Freud), 129n16
Transatlantic Call, 211
Transatlantic Editions (TE) of books, 182–183, 184f, 185
Trilling, Lionel, 285
Trinity-Sergius Lavra Monastery, 223–227, 234n24, 234n26
Triumph of the Will (Riefenstahl), 243, 352
Trotsky, Leon, 87n21
Troy, Thomas F., 212, 217n24
Truman, Harry S., 134–135, 185, 187
Truman administration, 135, 187
Trumbull, Robert, 192
truth, 221, 357–359, 396, 399
“truthiness,” 357, 364n7, 395–397, 399, 400–402, 411
Tuareg women, 126–127
Tunisia, 148, 421, 423, 424
Turkestan, 76
Turkey, 424, 427
Ufa, 244, 246
Ukraine, 401
Ulysses (Joyce), 279, 286, 287, 289, 291–295, 296n13
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe), 55
Uncle Tom’s Children (Wright), 54
unconscious mind
Bernays on, 109, 113, 262
brainwashing and, 113, 118
of consumers, 269
dreams and, 118
(p. 466) Ellul on, 363
family and, 111, 129n11
Freudian theories on, 110, 113
market research and, 267
Meerloo on, 114, 116
Nazis and, 264
Pavlovian theories on, 110, 113
pleasure and, 280
Salter on, 118
social psychologists on, 111
subliminal advertising and, 262, 271–274
of teachers, 13
trauma and, 110
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). See Soviet Union
unions, 250, 258n10, 306, 320–321n28
United Kingdom (UK)
foot-and-mouth disease in, 151
Great Britian (see Great Britian)
New Labour “spin” tactics in, 151
United Nations, International Telecommunications Union, 204
United States (U.S.)
abolitionist movement in, 29–39, 59
Cold War (see Cold War)
Ellul on, 359
isolationism in, 132
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 99
Nazi Reich and, 93–94, 98–103
radio broadcasts in, 204, 206
Reconstruction after Civil War, 59, 62
Spanish Civil War and, 253
subliminal advertising in, 273
Word of the Week posters and Jews in, 95
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 196
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 216n12
United States Information Agency (USIA)
BBG and, 215
black list of, 146n37
Bogart’s study of, 190
Books in Translation programs, 186
CAOs in, 145n26
CIA and, 137, 139
creation of, 137, 145n25, 186, 187, 214–215
description of, 137–143
Eisenhower administration and, 137, 186
Franklin Book and, 194
Freedom House Bookshelf and, 188
Kennedy administration and, 195
libraries and cultural centers of, 136–137, 144n6, 197, 198n1
Marshall Plan and, 137
McCarthy and, 187–188
mission of, 215
OWI and, 136–137
post-WWII cultural relations and, 181
USIS and, 136–137
United States Information and Exchange Program, 186
United States Information Service (USIS), 133, 135–137
United States International Book Association (USIBA), 185, 190
universalism, 57, 359
universities, 306, 320n24, 359
University of Chicago, 166
Urdu, 191
U.S. Army, 3–4
user-generated content (UGC), 397, 403
U.S. Foreign Policy and U.S. War Aims (Lippmann), 182
Utilitarianism, 279, 282
utopianism, 57
van Dongen, Helen, 252
Van Vechten, Carl, 53
Vatican, 206–207, 216n14
veiling/unveiling, 76–82, 87n22
Verdery, Katherine, 69, 70
Versailles peace talks, 309
vertical propaganda, 9, 155, 352, 355–356, 433
Vertov, Dziga
agitation, propaganda, and, 220
“Artistic Calling Card,” 235n26
on “consciousness,” 230
Enthusiasm, 76
Exposure of the Relics of Mikhail of Tver,’ 233n16
Exposure of the Relics of Sergius of Radonezh, 223, 226–229, 234–235nn2627
inner speech and, 84
Kino-Eye, 85n4, 230
Kino-Nedelia, 234n26, 235n27
Kino-Pravda, 76, 230–231
legibility, literacy, and, 87n24
Lullaby, 76, 88n28
Man with a Movie Camera, 76, 229
Michelson on, 87n21
perception and films of, 229–230
at Petrograd Psychoneurological Institute, 234n22
populism and, 88n29
Three Songs of Lenin, 13, 75–84, 87n21, 87n26, 87–88n28
Vicary, James, 271–273
Victor Emmanuel III (king), 133
Victory in the West, The (Noldan), 246–247
video remix, 412n6
Vietnam, 136–140
violence, civilian, 382–383
Visa, 409
Vodafone, 430
Voice of America (VOA)
Bush administration and, 143
charter of, 138–140, 145n34
in Cold War, 135–141
domestic broadcasting of, 203
Letter from Siberia and, 241–242
(p. 467) origins of, 14, 213–214
in post-WWII occupied territories, 134–135
print culture and, 181
Radio Free Europe and, 136, 139
Smith-Mundt Act on, 214
WRUL and, 202, 213
in WWII, 133–134, 144n8
Voice of Iran, 215
von Barsy, Andor, 245
W1XAL, 212
Wales, 205
Walker, David, 50, 54
Walker, Margaret, 54
Wall, Melissa, 414n26
Wallace, Walter, 50–51
Wall Street Journal, 272
“War, Response, and Contradiction” (Burke), 329–330, 342
War and Media (Hoskins & O’Loughlin), 398, 412n8
“War and the Jews, The” (Goebbels), 101–102
Warner, Lloyd, 266
War That Will End War, The (Wells), 319n5
Washington, Booker T., 50, 53
Washington Post, The, 312, 403
Watkins, Jesse, 50–51
We (Zamyatin), 74
“weapons of mass destruction” (WMD), 399–400, 405, 412n9
weather forecasts, 5
Weaver, Pat, 213
Webb, Samantha, 295n4
Weimar Republic, 14, 237–257
Weiss, Edward, 271
Welch, David, 104n2
Welles, Sumner, 132–133
Wellington, Lindsay, 209
Wells, H. G., 319n5
Wesley, John, 1
West, Dorothy, 54
Westinghouse, 212, 217n27
Wharton, Edith, 192
What Have They Built You to Do? (Jacobson & González), 130n20
What You Inherit, 242
Wheatley, Phyllis, 50
whistle-blowing websites, 408
White, Hayden, 83
White Noise, 260n36
White Paper on Palestine, 96
white propaganda, 134
Whyte, William, 111
“Why Write?” (Sartre), 372–375, 376n19
Wick, Charles Z., 140–141
WikiLeaks, 408–410, 413n23, 414n24
Wilde, Oscar, 286–287
Wilder, Thornton, 192
Wilkinson, Elizabeth, 366–367
Williams, Raymond, 165, 174
Willoughby, L. A., 366–367
Will To Live, The, 242
Wilson, Edmund, 327
Wilson, Sloan, 111
Wilson, Woodrow, 58, 133, 302–303, 305–309, 318n5, 320n19, 321n39
Wilson administration, 6, 132, 302
Winston cigarettes, 130n18
Wireless File, 132
Wirtschafts Psycholisches Institut, 265
Wolf, Friedrich, 335
wood engravers, 41
Word of the Week wall posters, 94–95, 105n16
Works Progress Administration (WPA), 216n12, 307
World and Africa, The (Du Bois), 63–64
“World and the Jug, The” (Ellison), 55, 56
World at War, 252
World Politics and Personal Insecurity (Lasswell), 338, 345n8
World Radio University for Listeners (WRUL), 202, 203, 212–214, 217n23, 217n25, 217n27
World Service, 143, 215
World Tomorrow, The, 53
World Trade Organization, 403
World War I (WWI)
bonds for, 306, 307
British propaganda in, 278, 286–288, 290, 302, 318n5
Ford on, 286, 293
Freud on, 281
Hitler on, 95
impact of, 301
Lippmann on propaganda in, 11, 302
loyalty leagues in, 306
Noldan in, 246
propaganda use in, 2, 5, 201, 301–302
(p. 468) radio in, 204
“Red Peril” and, 304
trauma from, 110
U.S. in, 318n5
world opinion and, 132
World War II (WWII)
Allies in, 96–98, 100–103
American Forces Radio Network in, 205
bombings in, 358
books in, 182
Cold War and, 304
cosmopolitanism after, 54
Du Bois on, 60, 63
Ellul in, 350
FDR and, 98–100, 107n47
Holocaust, 63, 91–94, 101, 103, 372, 380
IPA and, 304
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 99, 133
Mers-el-Kébir battle in, 358
Nazis in (see Nazi Reich)
Nuremberg trials after, 107n67
Orwell in, 5
OSS in, 113, 114
preventive war thesis refutation, 106n36
VOA radio broadcasts in, 133, 202
WRUL in, 202
World War III, 63
Worldwide Broadcasting Foundation, 212
Wright, Elizabeth, 158n7
Wright, Richard, 54–56
WTTV, 274
Wylie, Philip, 119–120, 129n14, 129n15
Yahoo Messenger, 424
Yakovlev, Alexander N., 141
Yankee City (Warner), 266
Yeats, W. B., 370
Young, John, 303
YouTube
in “Arab Awakening,” 419–421, 423–424, 427–428, 431
as news source, 397
propagation via, 5
removal of videos on, 9
users of, 398
Zabazlaev, Sergej, 234n26
Zamyatin, Yevgeny, 74
Zhao Qizheng, 152–153
Zhou Houze, 155
Ziadeh, Radwan, 424, 426
Zielke, Willy, 246, 247–249
Žižek, Slavoj, 10