Abstract and Keywords
The conception of propaganda manifests itself in the field of education as the issue of indoctrination. Any act of selecting curricular experiences involves some form of the imposition of values, and educators examine "official knowledge" (information and beliefs that are intentionally included in schooling) and the "hidden curriculum" (embedded and unrecognized values that have become part of classroom life) to ascertain positive and negative influences upon students. Social reconstructionism, as developed during the 1930s–1950s, acknowledges that indoctrination is inherent in the act of learning and openly proposes that schools impose values that are willingly recognized and accepted by all. Contemporary critical theory directs attention to the struggle of combatting official knowledge and draws on critical pedagogy as a way to recognize and reconcile the forces of propaganda in education.
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