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date: 26 January 2020

(p. 387) Index

(p. 387) Index

Page numbers followed by f indicate figures; t indicate tables.

AAL, 58
Abstract concepts, 232
Acetylcholine (Ach), 96
Acetylcholinesterase (AchE), 96
Ach. See Acetylcholine
Achromatopsia, 242
Acoustic operations. See also Prosodic processes
language networks, 335–37
Acoustic processing, 331
Acquired neurological disorders
agnosia, 165–66
amnesia, 166
aphasia, 163–65
apraxia, 162–63
traumatic brain injury, 166–69
white matter connectivity and, 162–69
Action execution networks
complex, 305–9
neuroimaging of, 303–5
Action observation, 320, 321, 322
Action recognition, 320
networks of, 321–22
Activation, 4, 56–58
brain regions, 334–35
language tasks and, 255
types of, 43
Activation patterns, 5
action observation and, 321
averaging, 219
of complex purposeful tasks, 322
concept-specific, 224, 225
consciousness and, 222
in consolidation, 266, 267–68
derivation of, 50–51
function-specific, 7
hippocampal-neocortical, 267–68
intention and, 226
mnemonic traces and, 246
motor imagery and, 324
movement execution and, 321
stimulus-specific, 223
tokens and, 224
validity and reliability of observations of, 257
Activation studies, baseline state and, 72
Active shielding, 20
Activity patterns
feasibility of imaging, 8–9
psychiatric disorders and, 8
Adaptive beamforming, 32
Adaptive noise cancellation, 20
Addiction, 9
dopaminergic system changes in, 91–92
Adenosine receptors, 97
Affective expressions, 256
Affective states and pain
avoiding labels, 353
basic concepts, 351–54
methodological issues, 351–54
neuroimaging of, 364–67
basic negative, 354–59
basic positive, 353, 359–61
complex negative, 361–63
complex positive, 353, 363–64
stages of, 352
AG. See Angular gyri
Aggression, 357, 358–59
Aging
brain changes in, 75–76
RSN variability and, 206
Agnosia, 165–66
color, 242
object, 235
prosopagnosia, 235–36
token, 236
topographagnosia, 239
Akinesia, 302
Akinetopsia, 241–42
Alcoholism, 172
Alexia, 344
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 9, 72, 84, 92
amyloid imaging and, 98–99
white matter connectivity and, 154–57
American Sign Language (ASL), 322, 341–42
γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) receptors, 134
γ-Aminobutyric Acid system (GABA system), 96–97
Amnesia
topographic, 239
white matter connectivity and, 166
Amnestic MCI, 156
Amygdala, 73, 267
emotionally charged faces, 354–55
fear conditioning and, 354–55
Amyloid imaging, 98–99, 99f
β-amyloid plaques, 72
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 134
Analysis by synthesis theory, of speech perception, 333
Anarchic hand syndrome, 326
Anatomical connectivity, 197
Anger, 357–59
Angular gyri (AG), 332, 342
Animal literature, happiness and, 359–60
Anisotropic diffusion, 103
Anisotropy, 103, 105. See also Fractional anisotropy
Annihilating radiation, 62
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 302, 365–66
Anterior part of temporal lobes (ATL), 235, 242–43, 333
Anticorrelation, 197, 198f
Antidepressants, TMS safety and, 141
Antiepileptic drugs (AED), 99
TMS safety and, 141
Antipsychotic drugs, 91
Anxiety, 93–94
white matter connectivity studies and, 154
Aphasia, 163–65
conduction, 164
primary progressive, 157, 158
Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), 104, 108
in MS, 161
MSA and, 159
Apraxia, 162–63, 299, 301
Arterial blood sampling, 70
Artifacts
correction of, DTI reliability and, 116
DTI reliability and, 114–16
Asperger syndrome, 140
Atoms, 44
Attention, 274–76
Attentional network, 204, 275
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 140, 278, 284
Attention-focusing tasks, 73
Auditory association cortex, 241
Auditory network, 203, 204f
Auditory tasks, 203
Autism, 8, 140
Autobiographical memory, 267
Autobiographical retrieval, 208f, 209, 211, 212
Axial diffusivity (AD), 109
Axial gradiometers, 16, 17f, 18, 19f
B0 magnetic field, 45f, 46–48, 50f
Back-projection, 68
Basal ganglia, 87, 89, 298, 299, 324
Baseline activity, 4, 194, 195
Baseline brain state, 72
Baseline default mode, 57
Basic negative affective states, 353, 354–59
Basic positive affective states, 353, 359–61
Beamforming, 32–33
Behavioral fear conditioning, 354–55
Behavioral phenomena, 5
Benzodiazepine, 97
Berger, Hans, 192, 214n2
Binding potential (BP), 85, 94f
Biot-Savart law, 21, 22
Bipolar disorder (BD), 8, 171
Block design, 52, 53, 53f
Blood-brain barrier (BBB), 82, 83, 85
imaging of, 99–100
Blood flow PET, 4
temporal resolution of, 9
Blood flow rates, 3
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), 50, 52, 77, 193
anticorrelated, 197
connectivity measurement and, 197–98
electrochemical signaling and, 198
MVPA analysis of, 245
variation of, 198
Body language, 341
Body ownership, 325–27
Body part recognition, 237–38
Boundary element model (BEM), 24, 26f
Brain
correlation of regions of, 198f
mapping, 131
TMS interaction with, 129–31, 130f
voluntary action networks, 297–303
white matter connectivity in normal, 151–54
Brain activation, types of, 43
Brain activity, 4
conscious awareness and, 222
Brain changes, in normal development, 75f
Brain events
PET imaging of, 62
types for imaging, 3–4
Brain regions, activation, 334–35
Brani Map bank, 200
Brewer, 210
Broca’s area, 163–64, 211
language networks and, 333, 335, 337
Brodmann areas, 94f, 298
B-value, 106
Canonical hemodynamic response function, 55, 55f
Carbon-11, 62, 63t, 71, 72, 84f
Cardinal cells, 228
[11C] Carfentanil, 84f, 95
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), 87
Categories of objects, 245
Category-specific brain areas, 241
face area, 235–37
top-down activation of, 243–45
Caudate nucleus, 91
Cell assemblies, 232
Central and peripheral conduction times, 133–34
Central conduction time, 133–34
Central executive, 276
Cerebellum, 298
Cerebral blood flow (CBF), 61, 72, 81, 85
determination of regional, 69
regional, 306
Cerebral blood volume (CBV), 61
Cerebral infarct, apraxia and, 163
Cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlu), 61, 69–70, 72, 73f, 85
Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), 61, 69, 85
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 57
histogram analysis and, 111, 112f
Children
ADHD and, 140
motor mapping in healthy, 135
TMS safety and, 142
Choline, 72
Cholinergic system, 96
Chronic pain, 364
Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, 157
Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 160–61, 162
Coactivation, 57
Cocaine, 92
[11C] Cocaine, 87
Cognitive conjunction, 52
Cognitive flexibility, 284–85
Cognitive functions, 5
network association with, 199
Cognitive map, 256
Cognitive readiness, 213, 218, 221
Cognitive subtraction, 52, 52f
Cohen, David, 13
Coincidence detection, 64–65, 66f
Coincident events, 65, 68f
Color agnosia, 242
Color names, 244
Coma, 220
Compartmental models, 69–70, 70f, 85
Complex action execution networks, 305–9
Complex negative affective states, 353, 361–63
Complex positive affective states, 353, 363–64
Complex purposeful tasks, 322
Concept circuits, 232–33
lesion locations and, 234
Concept library, 227
Concepts, 223–25
abstract, 232
concrete, 232
distributed storage of, 245
grandmother cell doctrine and, 228
nonlinguistic features, 240–41
object, 240
types of, 232
Concept-specific activation patterns, 224, 225
Concept-specific networks, 223
Conceptual errors, 243
Concrete concepts, 232
Conditioned stimulus (CS), 354–55
Conduction aphasia, 164
Connectivity
anatomical, 197
functional, 55–56, 56f, 71, 196–99
inferring, 197–99
Connectivity patterns
age-related differences, 152–53
gender and, 152
(p. 389) handedness and, 153
personality traits and, 153–54
Conscious awareness, brain activity and, 222
Conscious experiences
concepts, 223–25
intentions, 225–26
transient, 226–27
Conscious functions, 208–9
Consciousness, 7–8
activation patterns and, 222
alternative conceptions of, 217–19
DMN and, 219–20
as function, 219–20
impaired, 220–23
networks of, 217–19
RSNs and, 219
stream of, 218, 226–29
unconsciousness, 220
Consolidation, 255–57, 266–67
neural replay and, 268
Contingent negative variation (CNV), 296
Continuous Performance Test (CPT), 274, 275, 278
Contralateral cortical silent period (CSP), 134
Coronal MR image, 379f, 380f
Corpus callosum (CC), 152, 153
in AD, 156
FA values, 156
in MCI, 156
MS and, 161–62
Correlational methods, inferring DMN with, 197–99
Cortical circuits, concepts and, 233
Cortical motor maps, 135
Cortical patterns, with ASL, 342f
Cortical sites stimulation, 338f
Cortical stimulation mapping (CSM), 125, 371, 372
functional suppression uncertainty of, 374
inability to identify memory-specific circuitry, 373
MEG compatibility with, 377
narrow time window of, 374
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS), 158
Corticobasilar degeneration syndrome (CBDS), 162
Corticomotor latency, 132
Corticospinal tract (CST), 152, 153, 297
Cost functions, 27
Craniotomy, 372
CRL International Picture-Naming Project, 376
Cross-talk function (CTF), 34
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 87
Cyclotrons, 63–64
D1 subtype receptors, 87, 88f, 89
D2 subtype receptors, 88f, 89
D3 subtype receptors, 88f
Data banks, 200
DAT antagonists, 87
Deactivation, 56–58
Dead time, 68
Decision-making, 279–81
moral, 208f, 210–12
when and what decisions, 309–10
will and, 294–95
Default mode network (DMN), 4, 56–58, 196, 206, 385
areas comprising, 195
attempts to understand, 192–93
consciousness and, 219–20
correlation of parts, 198, 198f
deriving, 197–99, 202
discovery of, 192, 214n2
encoding and, 254
functional significance of, 207–13
hubs of, 202f
hyperfrontal pattern and, 207, 207f
ICA and, 199
impaired consciousness and, 221
intention and, 226
meditation and, 210
mind-wandering and, 209–10
rest condition and, 196f, 209–10, 212
sentinel hypothesis, 213
studies of, 202
subtractive methods and, 191, 193–94
as task-negative network, 211
tasks activating, 208, 208f
unconscious functions, 209
vegetative state and, 221
Dementia, 76
dopaminergic system changes in, 92
frontotemporal, 157–58
Lewy body, 92, 159
Dementia studies, 332–33
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 92, 159
Deoxyhemoglobin, 44, 49
Depression, 93–94
TMS safety and, 141
white-matter connectivity and, 170–71
Design matrix, 54
Deterministic tractography, 109
Developmental disabilities, 140
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), 166–67
Diffusion ellipsoid, 119, 119f
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), 4, 103
analysis software for, 115f
applications, 104
histogram analysis, 111, 112f
instrumentation and recording, 106–8
MS studies with, 161–62
open source analysis software for, 115f
PGSE sequence for, 107, 108f
reliability, 113–17
analysis technique differences, 116
artifact correction differences, 116
artifacts, 114–16
operator-dependent analysis techniques and, 116–17
scanner and acquisition parameter differences, 114
subject factors, 117
ROI analysis, 110–11
session duration, 108
spatial resolution of, 10
tract-based spatial statistics, 112–13
tract integrity measures, 109–13
tractography, 109–10, 110f
validity, 117–18
voxel-based analyses, 111–12
white matter imaging with, 151, 283
Diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), 110
Diffusion tractography, 109
validity of, 117
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), 103
artifact sources, 115
inhibition studies with, 279
instrumentation for, 106
PD studies, 159
pulsed field gradient in, 107
Dipolar distribution, 16
Dipole approximation, for MEG signal, 22–24
Disappointment, 363
Discrete source models, 27–28, 28f
Discriminant analysis, 245
Disinhibition, 95
Distributed feature-specific circuits, 245–46
Distributed source models, 30
Divided attention, 274, 275
Dopamine, 86–92
Dopaminergic system, 86–88
addiction and, 91–92
dementia and, 92
neuropsychiatric disorders and, 89–92
Parkinson disease and, 89–90
schizophrenia, 90–91
Dopamine transporter (DAT), 87
Dynamic causal modeling (DCM), 56
Dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM), 31
(p. 390) Dyschromatopsia, 239
Dyslexia, 334, 343–45
Dysnomia, 163
ECD model, 27–28, 28f
Echo planar imaging (EPI), 114
distortions from, 116
Echo time (TE), 49
Eddy current correction, image-based registration for, 116
Eddy current distortion, 115
Eddy current shielding, 19–20
Electric field (E-field), 126
distributions of, 128f
generation of, 127
quantifying, 127–28
TMS theories and, 129
Electrochemical signaling, 15
BOLD and, 198
Electroconvulsive therapy, 126
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 13, 214n2, 385
forward problem, 24
resting activity and, 191
TMS targeting with, 131
Electromyogram (EMG), 130
Electronic implants, 141
Electrophysiology, 385
single-cell, 227–29
Elvis Love Questionnaire (ELQ), 364
Embarrassment, 362–63
Embodied cognition, 319
Emotion, 352
embarrassment, 362–63
fear, 355–57
guilt, 361–63
happiness, 359–60
stimuli provoking, 353
Emotional prosody, 340
Emotional responses, 73
Encoding, 253–54, 255–57
Enhanced blood flow, 43
Envisioning the future, 208f, 211, 212
EPIFOCUS, 31
Epilepsy, 96, 99
idiopathic generalized, 134
Epileptic brain activity, dipole modeling of, 29–32, 30f
Epileptiform spike-and-wave activity, 15
Episodic buffer, 276
Episodic memory, 209, 267
Episodic retrieval, 212
Equivalent current dipoles (ECD), 27–28, 29
Event Related Fields (ERFs), 375
Event-related potentials, 385
Evoked potentials (EPs), 13, 385
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), 21
Executive functions, 273
attention, 274–76
cognitive flexibility or shifting, 284–85
decision-making, 279–81
inhibition, 278–79
planning and organization, 281–82
processing speed, 282–84
working memory, 276–78
Executive tasks, 202
Experiences, 209
concepts, 223–25
intentions, 225–26
neuronal correlates of, 326
transient, 226–27
Experience-specific patterns, 8
Experimental accessibility, of functions, 7
Expressive language mapping, 376
Externally triggered actions, 305, 307–8
Extrapyramidal adverse effects, 91
Extrastriate body area (EBA), 235, 237–38
18F. See Fluorine-18
Face area, 235–37
Face-matching tasks, 236
Face recognition, 233, 235
Facial expressions, 357–58, 359
amygdala and, 355–56
happy, 361
Facial features, 236–37
Faculties, 210
Faculty psychology, 353
[18F]FDOPA, 82, 87, 88f, 90, 90f
Fear, emotional reaction of, 355–57
Fear conditioning, 354–55
Feature-specific circuits, distributed, 245–46
Filtered back-projection (FBP), 68
Filtering, for PET images, 74
Finite element models (FEMs), 25–26, 26f
First-episode schizophrenia, 171
Flumazenil (FMZ), 96–97
Fluorine-18 (18F), 62, 63, 63t, 71, 82
18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG), 63–65, 69–74, 74f
FMRIB library, 71
FMZ. See Flumazenil
Focal lesions, 371
circuits interfered with by, 234
memory and, 233
Focal slow-wave activity, 15
Focused episodic memory task, 209
FOCUSS, 31
Forward problem, 14
EEG, 24
MEG signal modeling, 20–26
Fractional anisotropy (FA), 109
Alzheimer’s disease studies, 154, 155
CC values, 156
color map, 107f, 111f
MCI and, 154
in MS, 161–62
TBSS and, 112
white matter evaluation and, 151–53
Free-associating, 209
Free induction decay, 47, 49f
Free-recall tasks, 262
Free will, 294–95
Fritsch, Gustav, 298
Frontal network, 202
Frontal-parietal networks, 204, 262
Frontal-posterior network, 204, 204f
Fronto-striato-thalamic network, 202
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 157–58
FSL, 111, 112
Functional brain mapping, 14
Functional connectivity, 55–56, 56f, 71, 196, 199
indications of, 197–98
Functional imaging
facts and axioms for, 5–6
image analysis, 53–55
image validity, 9
sensitivity of, 9–10
specificity of, 10–11
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 3, 193, 351, 376, 378
activation versus deactivation, 56–58
blood oxygenation and, 49
delay in signal, 44
experiment design, 51–53
functional connectivity analysis, 55–56, 56f
high-pass filtering, 55
image preprocessing, 53–54
image processing, 50–51, 51f
limitations, 374
movement correction, 53–54, 54f
multivariate methods in, 56
physiological processes underlying signal, 43–44
resting, 57
spatial resolution, 9–10
task-free, 57
task-specific activation patterns, 4
temporal resolution, 9, 15, 44
Wada compatibility with, 377
Functional maps, 3
Functional networks, 4, 5, 218f
feasibility of imaging, 6–8
identification, 351–52
Functional neuroimaging
(p. 391) contribution of, 371
language understanding enhanced by, 334
limitations of, 257
noninvasive procedures of, 371–72
Functions, 4–5
activation images showing, 10
conscious and nonconscious, 208–9
consciousness as, 219–20
cost, 27
executive, 273–85
experimental accessibility of, 7
motor, 304
Function-specific networks, 6–7
Fusiform color area, 241–42
Fusiform face area (FFA), 233, 235–37
Fusiform gyrus, 243, 244, 334
Gage, Phineas, 273
Gaussian diffusion model, 119
Gender, connectivity patterns and, 152
General linear models, 54
General-purpose retrieval, 211
Geodesic dome diffusion model, 119, 119f
Glasgow Coma Score, 168
Glutamate, 95
Go/no-go task, 278
Goodness of fit, 27
Gradiometers, 16, 17f, 19f, 20
Grammar, 211
Grandmother cell doctrine, 228
Grapheme-phoneme rule system, 343
Gray matter, age-related reduction in thickness of, 76
Ground state, 44, 45
Guilt, 361–63
Half-life, 63
Handedness, connectivity patterns and, 153
Happiness, 359–61
Happy faces, 361
Head models, 24–26
Hedonia, 359–61
Hemispheric dominance
for language and memory, 372
for verbal material processing, 257
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), 166
Heschl's gyrus (HG), 331
speech processing engaging, 336
High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), 118–19, 120f
High-pass filtering, 55
Hippocampal-neocortical activation patterns, 267–68
Hippocampus, 385
consolidation and, 255, 267
encoding and, 255
retrieval and, 256–57
Histogram analysis, 111, 112f
Hitzig, Edvard, 298
5-HT, 93, 94f
Huntington disease, 86, 90, 134
Hydrocephalus, 134
Hydrogen nuclei, 44, 45f
Hyperfrontal pattern, 191, 192f, 207, 207f, 385
Hypomanic episodes, 141
Ideomotor apraxia, 162, 301
Idiopathic generalized epilepsy, 134
Image analysis
DTI reliability and, 116
for PET, 71
Image construction, 5–6
for PET, 67–68
Image fidelity, 10
Image-guided TMS, 131
Image processing, for PET, 74
Image subtraction, 191, 194
Imaging. See also Neurotransmitter imaging; specific methods
ligand, 81
motor, 322–25
parallel, 107
Impaired consciousness, 220–23
Impressed current, 21, 23f
Impulsive aggression, 357
Independent component analysis (ICA), 56, 58, 199
Infants, metabolic rates, 75
Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), 262, 266, 332
Inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFQF), 153
Inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF)
AD and, 155
agnosia and, 165
FTD and, 157–58
Inferior parietal lobule (IPL), 262, 320
Inhibition, 278–79
Insults, 359
Intelligence, white matter and, 153
Intelligence quotient (IQ), 153
Intensity, 365–66
Intentions, 225–26
Interhemispheric conduction time (IHCT), 134–35
Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), 29, 30f
Internally-driven action, 303–4, 307–8
Internally triggered actions, 305
Internal rehearsal, 307
Intracarotid sodium amytal, 125–26, 371
Intracellular currents, 21, 23f
Intraparietal sulcus, 306
Invasive methods, of presurgical functional mapping
controlling for situational variables, 374
hemispheric dominance for language and memory, 372
inability to control cross flow, 374
localization of function and CSM procedure, 372–73
noninvasive methods compatibility of efficiency, 376–79
shortcomings of, 373–74
Wada method, 372
Inverse problem, 9, 14
MEG, 26–35
Ipsilateral cortical silent period (ISP), 134–35
Ischemic infarcts
agnosia and, 165
motor cortical, 134
Isotopes, 62
Isotropic diffusion, 104, 104f
Isotropy, 103
James, William, 294
Japanese Sign Language (JSL), 342
L1 minimum-norm, 32
L2 minimum-norm, 31
L-3, 4,-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), 82, 91
Labeled oxygen, 193
Language, 331–45
aphasia and, 163
bilateral activation and, 255
body, 341
brain areas in perception of, 137
hemispheric dominance for, 372
perception of, 334
tenses, 211
Language areas, 240
Language mapping, 132f
clinical applications, 138–39
expressive, 376
receptive, 376
with TMS, 137–40, 139f
Language networks
acoustic and phonological operations, 335–37
hypotheses about, 331–35
lesion studies of, 331–32
pragmatic processes, 340–41
prosody, 340–41
reading and dyslexia, 343–45
(p. 392) semantic operations, 337–39
sign language, 341–43
syntactic operations, 339–40
Language processing, 338f
Larmor frequency, 44
Late-life depression (LLD), 170
Laterality judgments, 324
Lateralization, 337
of semantic operations, 338–39
working memory and, 277–78
Lawrence, Ernest, 63
Lead-field normalization, 31, 31f
Left lateralized network, 204, 205f, 262
Lesion studies
of attentional networks, 275
category specificity, 234–35
of decision making, 280
hemispheric dominance and, 257
inhibition studied with, 278
of language networks, 331–32
of motor system, 299–301
of planning and organization, 281
Lewy body dementia (LBD), 92, 159
Lexico-semantic processing, 337
Libet, Benjamin, 294
Lie detection, 353
Ligand imaging, 81
Limbic structures, 73
Linear affine registration, 116
Line of response (LOR), 65, 66, 67f, 68
Linguistic analysis. See Language networks
Linguistic tasks, 202, 255
Local field potentials (LFPs), 21
Local sphere models, 25
Locked-in syndrome, 220, 221
Long-term depression (LTD), 131
Long-term potentiation (LTP), 131
Love, romantic, 363–64
Magnetically shielded room (MSR), 16, 19–20
Magnetic fields, 15–16, 15f
B0, 45f, 46–48, 50f
calculating external, 21, 23f
Larmor frequency and, 44
MEG signal and, 21
MRI scanner producing, 45f, 46
of protons, 46f
Magnetic flux, 16
Magnetic flux density, 16
Magnetic heart signal, 18
Magnetic induction, 16
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
FA color maps and axes of, 107f
low-frequency noise from, 55
MEG integration with, 38, 39f
MS lesions in, 161
principles and instrumentation, 44–50
Magnetic source imaging (MSI), 14
practical issues in, 35, 38
Magnetocardiogram (MCG), 18
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 3, 13, 39f, 44, 132f, 372, 375, 378
action observation studies, 321
clinical applications, 38
CSM compatibility with, 377
functional image validity in, 9
instrumentation and recording methods, 15–20
inverse problem and, 26–35
language and, 334
limitations, 374
neurogenesis of signal, 21, 22f
dipole approximation, 22–24
spherical model, 24–26, 24f
noise reduction techniques, 19–20
practical issues in, 35, 38
recording systems, 18–19
sensor design for, 16–18, 17f
signal modeling, 20–26
signals measured, 14–15
software packages for, 36t, 37t
source reconstruction approaches, 26
comparing, 34–35
dipole modeling of epileptic brain activity, 29–32, 30f
discrete source models, 27–28, 28f
minimum-variance beamformers, 32–33
multiple source models, 28–29
spatial filtering, 32–33
spatial resolution, 9
superposition problem, 14
task-specific activation patterns, 4
temporal resolution of, 9, 15
token-specific and concept-specific activation patterns and, 224
Wada method compatibility with, 376–77
whole-head systems for, 19f
Magnetometers, 16, 17f, 19f
reference, 20
Major depressive disorder (MDD), 93–94, 170
Maximum extremum, 16
Maximum-likelihood (ML), 68
Maxwell’s equations, 21
Maze test, 306–7
Mean diffusivity (MD), 109, 151
in AD, 154, 155
in MCI, 154
MSA and, 159
Medial temporal and orbitofrontal network, 205
Medial temporal lobes (MTL)
consolidation and, 256, 257
encoding and, 257
HSE damage to, 166
mnemonic operations and, 253–55
retrieval and, 256
Meditation, 210
Melodies, 335
Memory
autobiographical, 267
episodic, 209, 267
focal lesion effects on, 233
hemispheric dominance for, 372
implicit, 231
MTL and, 253–55
selective deficits in, 233
Wada method and, 377
working, 276–78
Metabolic activity, 3, 43
signaling rate and, 195
Metabolic PET, 4
temporal resolution of, 9
Metabolic rates
aging and, 76
CMRGlu, 61, 69–70, 72, 73f, 85
CMRO2, 61, 69, 85
in infants, 75
normal development and, 75–76
N-Methyl-3-piperydyl-acetate (MP3A), 96
[11C] Methylphenidate, 87
N-Methylpiperidin-4-yl-acetate (MP4A), 96, 97f
Microglia mapping, 98, 98f
Microstructural abnormalities, 160
Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), 332
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 154
Mild TBI (mTBI), 167–69
Mind-wandering, 209–10
Minimally conscious state, 220
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 155, 157
Minimum current estimate (MCE), 32
Minimum extremum, 16
Minimum-norm estimate (MNE), 30–31, 33
Minimum-variance beamforming, 33
Mirror neurons, 319–20
Mnemonic operations, MTL and, 253–55
(p. 393) Mnemonic traces, 231, 253
activation patterns and, 246
for body part recognition, 238
of cognitive maps, 240
consolidation and, 267
in FFA, 237
lesion data evidence, 232–35
for motion, 242
neural replay and, 268
of nonlinguistic concept features, 241
retrieval and, 266
for scenes, 239
ventral temporal cortex and, 244
Monoamine oxidase (MAO), 87
Moral decision making, 208f, 210–11, 212
Moral sensitivity, 210–11
Morbidity levels, of invasive methods of presurgical functional mapping, 373
Motion artifacts, 116
Motion correction, image-based registration for, 116
Motor cortex, 297
ischemic infarcts of, 134
TMS effects on, 133f
Motor evoked potential (MEP), 130–33, 321
Motor functions, 304
Motor ideation, 301
Motor imagery, 307
network of, 322–25
Motor mapping
clinical applications, 136–37
in healthy children and adults, 135
in neurological and psychiatric disorders, 140
with TMS, 132–35, 136f, 139–40
Motor network, 320–25
Motor production, 301
Motor system, 299–301
Movement
neuronal structures for, 297
perception of, 327
Movement correction, 53–54, 54f
Movement disorders, 96
MRI-PET, 77
mTBI. See Mild TBI
MT motion area, 241–42
Multicomponent tasks, 296
Multimodal surface-based morphometry (MSBM), 167
Multiple sclerosis (MS), 134
conventional MRI of, 161
processing speed and, 283
white matter connectivity and, 160–62
Multiple signal classification (MUSIC), 29, 33
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), 90, 158, 159
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), 237, 245
Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), 56, 324
Name area, 242–43
Name circuits, 232
focal lesions and, 234
variability in loci of, 234
Naming errors, 243
Naming networks, 199
Navigated TMS (nTMS), 131, 132f
Neonatal metabolic rates, 75
Net magnetization, 45
Networks. See also specific networks
concept-specific, 223
consciousness-specific, 217–19
execution
complex action, 305–9
neuroimaging of, 303–5
naming, 199
of voluntary actions, 297–303
Neural replay, 268
Neurodegenerative disorders, white matter connectivity and
Alzheimer’s disease, 154–57
Parkinson’s disease, 158–60
Neurological disorders, motor mapping in, 140
Neuronal networks, 331, 335, 337, 343, 345
Neurons
activated, 43
metabolic activity rates, 3
mirror, 319–20
signaling among, 3, 14–15, 43
regional metabolic activity and, 195
synaptic connections, 197
Neurophysiological events, 296
Neuropsychiatric disorders
dopaminergic system changes in, 89–92
opioid receptor changes in, 95–96
serotonergic system changes in, 93–94
Neuroticism, 154
Neurotransmitter imaging
γ-aminobutyric acid system, 96–97
applications of, 86–97
cholinergic system, 96
dopaminergic system, 86–92
opioid receptors, 94–96
serotonergic system, 92–94
Neurovascular decoupling, 43
Nicotinic receptors, 96
Nitrogen-13, 62, 63t
Nitrous oxide inhalation, 193
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 97
[11C]NNC, 88f
Nociception, 365
Noise cancellation, 20
Noise reduction, for MEG, 19–20
Noise shielding, active, 20
Nonconscious functions, 208–9
Non-goal directed movements, 322
Noninvasive mapping, protocols for, 374–76
Noninvasive methods, of presurgical functional mapping
invasive methods compatibility of efficiency, 376–79
limitations, 374
Nonlinguistic concept features, 240–41
Nonsignificant actions, 293
Non-speech sound, 335–36
Norepinephrine transporter (NET), 97
Normal development, brain changes in, 75–76, 75f
nTMS. See Navigated TMS
Nuclei, 44
15O. See Oxygen-15
Object agnosia, 235
Object categories, 245
Object concepts, 240
Object encoding, 232
Object recognition, focal lesions and, 234
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 278
white-matter connectivity and, 169–70
Occipital-temporal cortex, 236
Ojemann Stimulator, 373
Olfactory cortex, 241
Oligodendroglioma, 136, 136f
Operator-dependent analysis techniques, operator agreement within, 116–17
Opioid receptors, 94–96
Optic ataxia, 301
Optic neuritis, 160
Orbitofrontal network, 206
(p. 394) Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), 68
Organization, 281–82
Orientation probability density transform (OPDT), 119
Overlapping sphere models, 25
Oxygen-15 (15O), 62–64, 63t, 69, 69f, 71, 83
Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), 69, 195, 196
Oxygen supply-consumption ratio, 195
Oxyhemoglobin, 44, 49, 51
Pain, 95–96
chronic, 364
physical, 364–67
social, 364
Pain asymbolia, 365
Paired-pulse TMS, 130–31
Parahippocampal place area (PPA), 235, 238–40
Parallel diffusivity. See Axial diffusivity
Parallel imaging, 107
Parietal lobe lesions, 301
Parkinson disease (PD), 82, 86, 94, 299
dopaminergic system changes in, 89–90
white matter connectivity and, 158–60
Partial volume effect, 71
Passionate love, 364
Passive currents, 21, 23f
Passive viewing, 236
Patient discomfort, of invasive methods of presurgical functional mapping, 373
Pattern recognition methods, 245
PC. See Precuneus
Perception, 225
of language, 334
of movement, 334
of speech, 333
visual, 343
of written language, 334
Perforant pathway (PP), 155
Peripheral conduction time, 133–34
Perpendicular diffusivity. See Radial diffusivity
Personality traits, connectivity patterns and, 153–54
PET-CT, 76–77
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), 99
Phonemes, production of, 33
Phonological analysis, 332
Phonological loop, 276
Phonological operations, language networks, 335–37
Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), 64, 65f
Phrenology, 8, 210
Physical pain, 364–67
Physiological modeling, for PET, 68–71
Pitch, 335
Planar gradiometers, 16–17, 17f
Planning, 281–82
Planum temporale, 336
Pleasure, 359–61
Point-spread function (PSF), 34
Positive affective states, 353, 359–61, 363–64
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 358–59
Positron emission tomography (PET), 3, 57, 61, 65f, 81, 193, 351, 371
acquisition protocol considerations, 72
action observation studies, 321
applications, 71–74
brain event imaging, 62
image analysis, 71
image construction, 67–68
image processing, 74
instrumentation and recording procedures, 64–67
limitations, 374
metabolic, 4, 9
quantification studies, 69–70
radiation dose from, 74–75
radiotracers for, 63, 83t
recent advances in, 76–77
spatial resolution, 9, 66
task-specific activation patterns, 4
temporal resolution, 9, 15
3D mode, 65
time activity curves, 84f
tracer kinetics and physiological modeling, 68–71
2D mode, 65
whole-body, 84f
Positron-emitting radioisotopes, 62–63, 71
Positron-emitting radiotracers, 63
Positronium, 62
Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), 57, 58, 195
Posterior medial cortex (PMC), 254, 262
Posterior parietal cortex, 306
Postoperative language and memory deficits, Wada method and, 377
Postsynaptic terminal, 82
Pragmatic processes, 340–41
Precession, 44, 46f
Preclinical evaluations, of radioligand imaging, 84–86
Precuneus (PC), 57
Prefrontal cortex (PFC), 273, 277, 282
Premeditated aggression, 357
Premotor cortex (PMC), 300–301, 307, 309
Presley, Elvis, 364
Pre-SMA, 307–8
Presurgical functional mapping
clinical application of, 371
invasive methods, 372–74
protocols for noninvasive mapping, 374–76
Presynaptic terminal, 82
Primary current, 23f
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), 157, 158
Primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS), 162
Primary progressive MS (PPMS), 161
Primary visual area, 244
Primary visual cortex, 323
Probabilistic tractography, 109
Processing speed, 282–84
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 158, 162
Prosodic processes, 340–41, 343
Prosopagnosia, 235–36
Proton spin, 44, 45f
Pseudosigns, 343
Pseudowords, 52, 52f, 344
pSTG, 332, 333
Psychiatric disorders, 96
activity patterns and, 8
motor mapping in, 140
white matter connectivity and, 169–72
Psychic akinesia, 302
Psychological phenomena, 5
Psychomotor processing speed, 283
Psychophysiological control condition, 191, 194
Pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE), 107, 108f
Pure deletion, 52
Pure insertion, 52
Putamen, 91
Q-ball imaging (QBI), 119
Radial diffusivity (RD), 109
Radially oriented currents, 24–25
Radiation dosage
from PET studies, 74–75
from pharmaceuticals, 85f
Radioisotopes
positron-emitting, 62–63, 71
production of, 63
Radiolabeling, 82
(p. 395) Radioligands
preclinical evaluation, 84–86
recent advances, 98–100
selection of, 81–83
Radiologically isolated syndrome, 161
Radiopharmaceuticals, 72
radiation doses from, 85f
Radiotracers, 83t
administration of, 72
kinetics of, 68–71
positron-emitting, 63
production of, 63
Random coincidences, 68, 68f
Rapid-rate TMS, 138
Reading, 343–45
perception of, 334
Realistic head models, 25
Receptive language mapping, 376
Receptor activation, 82
Receptor distribution, 4
Receptor quantification, 86
Receptors, 81–83. See also specific receptors
Recording
DTI, 106–8
MEG systems for, 18–19
PET procedures, 65–67
Reference magnetometers, 20
Reference tissue method, 86
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), 306
Region of interest (ROI), 109
connectivity studies and, 153
DTI analysis of, 110–11
operator agreement and, 116, 117f
spherical, 57, 58
Regret, 363
Rehearsal, 226
Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 161
Reliability, in DTI, 113–17
Repetition deficits, 164
Resolution, 9–10, 15, 44
Resolution matrix, 34
Resonant signal, 48f, 49f
Rest condition
DMN and, 196f, 209–10, 212
network function and, 209
Resting activity, 4, 191
DMN and, 196f
Resting motor threshold (rMT), 128, 134
Resting state networks (RSNs), 57, 199–205
age variation in, 206
consciousness and, 219
functional significance of, 206–7
identified, 201t
naming, 199
replicability of, 206
studies exploring, 200t
Reticular activating system, 196, 213
Retrieval, 253–54, 257, 262
autobiographical, 208f, 209, 211, 212
episodic, 212
as fact, 266
general purpose, 211
MTL and, 255, 256
spontaneous, 209
Retrobulbar areas. See Substantia nigra
Retrogenesis hypothesis, 156
RF pulse, 46, 47f, 48f, 49f
Right-hand rule, 15–16, 15f
Right lateralized network, 204, 205, 205f
Romantic love, 363–64
Ropinirole, 90
rTMS, 130, 131, 138, 141, 308
Rubber hand illusion, 326
Rushton’s cosine principle, 129
Sagittal MR image, 378f
Sampling rate, 15
Scatter event, 68, 68f
Schizophrenia, 8, 86, 135
dopaminergic system changes in, 90–91
first-episode, 171
white matter connectivity and, 171–72
Scintillators, 64
[11C]Scopolamine, 96
Secondary progressive MS (SPMS), 161, 162
Seed-based voxel correlations, 57, 58
Seizures, TMS inducing, 141
Selective deficits, 233
Semantic circuits, 232, 233
variability in loci of, 234
Semantic operations, 333
in language networks, 337–39
Semantic processing, 332, 337
Sensor design, for MEG, 16–18, 17f
Sensory-driven action, 303–4
Sensory networks, unconsciousness and, 220
Sentence completion, 332
Sentence comprehension, 342
Sentiment, 352
Sentinel hypothesis, 213
Serotonergic system, 92–94
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 94
Signal averaging, 214n1
Signaling
metabolic activity rate and rate of, 195
among neurons, 3, 14–15, 43
Signal space separation (SSS), 20
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), 16, 18
DTI reliability and, 114
Significant actions, 293
Sign language, 341–43
Silence gap, 335
Simulation theory, 319–20
Single-cell electrophysiology, 227–29
Single compartment model, 69, 69f
Single-neuron discharge rate, 296
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 91
Single-pulse TMS, 130, 138
Singular value decomposition (SVD), 29
Sinograms, 65, 66, 67f
Slew rate, 19
Slow wave sleep (SWS), 220, 221, 268
Social pain, 364
Software, for DTI analysis, 115f
Somatic marker hypothesis, 279
Somatic reactions, 352
Somatosensory cortex, 195
Somatosensory evoked field (SEF), 28, 28f, 39f
Somatosensory-motor network, 202, 203, 203f
Source localization problem, 14
Source space, 30
Spatial filtering, 32–33
Spatial information, 239, 240
Spatial navigation, 256
Spatial normalization, 54
Spatial resolution, 9–10
positron energy and, 66
Spatial smoothing, 53, 54
Spatiotemporal dipole fit, 29
Speech. See also Language networks
comprehension of, 333
production of, 7
pSTG in, 333
Speech organ, 336
Spherical model, for MEG signal, 24–26, 24f
Spherical ROI, 57, 58
Split-brain experiments, 331–32
Spoken phrase, 335
Spontaneous retrieval, 209
Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), 31
Standardized uptake value, 71
States, activity pattern imaging for, 8–9
(p. 396) Statistical parametric mapping (SPM), 71
Stimulus-specific activation patterns, 223
Strategies, 5
Stream of consciousness, 218
reading, 227
single-cell electrophysiology and, 227–29
transient experiences in, 226–27
Striatum, 87
Stroke
agnosia and, 165
CSP and, 134
DWI applications to, 104
Structural MRI
fMRI co-registration to, 51f
spatial resolution, 10
Subcortical motor areas, 299
Subsequent memory paradigm, 254
Substance abuse, 86
Substantia nigra (SN), 86
PD and, 159
Superconductive quantum interference device (SQUID), 18, 19
Superior parietal lobule (SPL), 262
Superior temporal sulcus (STS), 327, 342
Superposition problem, 14
Supplementary motor area (SMA), 300–301, 303, 306–9, 325
Support vector machine (SVM), 159, 245
Supramarginal gyri (SMG), 332
Sustained attention, 274, 275
Synaptic cleft, 82
Synaptic connections, 197
Synaptic transmission, 81–83
Syncope, 141
Syntactic operations, in language networks, 339–40
Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM), 33
T1-weighted scans, MS in, 161
T 2*, 48, 49, 49f
T2 decay, 47, 48
T2-weighted scans, MS in, 161
Tardive dyskinesia, 86
Task-induced activation, 4, 5
Task-negative, 208, 208f, 211
TE. See Echo time
Temporal resolution, 9, 15, 44
Temporopolar cortex, 267
Theory of mind tasks, 208f, 211
Theta-burst stimulation, 131
Theta-rTMS, 131
Three-compartment model, 69–70, 70f
Time-of-flight (TOF), 61, 65
Timing window of coincidence circuit, 64
Token agnosia, 236
Tokens, 223–24
Tongue protrusions, 359–60
Topographagnosia, 239
Topographic amnesia, 239
Tourette syndrome, 278
Tracer kinetics, 68–71
Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), 109, 112–13
AD studies, 155
gender connectivity difference measurement and, 152
Tractography, 109–10, 110f
advanced diffusion imaging to resolve limitations, 118–19
limitations of conventional, 118
validity of, 117
Traits, activity pattern imaging for, 8–9
Transaxial MR image, 378f, 379f, 380f
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 3, 7, 334, 372, 375, 377, 378
action observation studies, 321
attention studies with, 276
brain interaction with, 129–31, 130f
brain mapping with, 131
coils for, 127, 128f
dosage, 128–29
E-field distributions, 128f
E-field quantification, 127–28
fidelity of images, 10
image-guided, 131, 132f
language mapping with, 137–40, 139f
motor cortex effects of, 133f
motor mapping with, 132–37, 136f, 139–40
motor region mapping with, 305
pulses for, 126–27
rise times, 126
safety, 140–42
spatial resolution of, 10
stimulators for, 126
theories of operation, 129
working memory studies with, 277
Transient experiences, 226–27
Translocator protein (TSPO), 98
Transmitter coils, 46
Transverse magnetization, 46, 47f, 48, 48f
Transverse relaxation, 48
Traumatic brain injury, white matter connectivity and, 166–69
Two-compartment model, 69, 70f
Uncinate fasciculus (UF), 152
Unconditioned stimulus (US), 354–55
Unconscious experiences, 209
Unconsciousness, 220
Uncoupling, 69
Unpleasantness, 365–66
Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, 220
Upregulation, 89
Utilization behavior, 302
V 1, 244
Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), 141
Validity
of DTI, 117–18
of functional images, 9
functional image specificity and, 10–11
of tractography, 117
Vegetative state, 220–22
Ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), 57
Ventral tegmental area (VTA), 86
Ventral temporal cortex, 243–45
[11C]Verapamil, 99
Verbal material, 257
Vesicular monoamine transporter type2 (VMAT2), 87
Vigilance, 274
Vigilant attention, 274
Visual areas, 227, 244
Visual imagery, 323, 324
Visual network, 200–201, 201f
Visual perception, 343
Visual word form system, 343–44
Visuo-spatial sketchpad, 276
Volume currents, 21, 23, 23f
distortion of, 25
Voluntary action, 319, 323
brain networks of, 297–303
complex actions, 305–9
execution networks, 303–5
will and, 293–97
Voxel-based analyses (VBA), 109, 113f. See also Multivoxel pattern analysis
asymmetry analysis with, 152
for DTI, 111–12
Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), 233, 238, 243
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM), 157
Voxels, 50
Wada, Juhn, 125
Wada test, 125–26, 255, 371, 372
MEG compatibility with, 376–77
morbidity levels of, 373
(p. 397) narrow time window of, 374
questionable efficiency of, 373–74
Wakefulness, 218, 221
Wakeful unawareness, 222
Wallerian degeneration hypothesis, 156
Wernicke’s area, 163–64
When and what decisions, 309–10
White matter connectivity
acquired neurological disorders
agnosia, 165–66
amnesia, 166
aphasia, 163–65
apraxia, 162–63
traumatic brain injury, 166–69
intelligence and, 153
neurodegenerative disorders and
Alzheimer’s disease, 154–57
Parkinson’s disease, 158–60
in normal brain, 151–54
personality traits and, 153–54
psychiatric disorders and
alcoholism, 172
bipolar disorder, 171
depression, 170–71
obsessive-compulsive disorder, 169–70
schizophrenia, 171–72
Will
decision-making studies of, 294–95
defining, 294
free, 294–95
voluntary action and, 293–97
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), 160, 204
Word comprehension, 333
Word form area, 334
Words, 52, 52f
Working memory, 276–78
Written language, perception of, 334
Xenon inhalation, 193
Zimmerman, James, 18
Zombies, 217–18
Zung Self-Rating Scale, 170