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date: 29 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses “stigmatized sites” located in urban areas in the United States and Europe and “brownfields” redevelopment programs aimed at removing the stigma and promoting sites’ remediation and reuse. The stigma originated as an unintended effect of environmental laws promoting hazardous waste site cleanups. Brownfield sites presented unknown levels of contamination, and attempting to evaluate them might lead to liability under these environmental laws. To lessen the stigma, the United States and other nations created national and state voluntary cleanup programs and other legal and financial incentives for site analysis, remediation, and redevelopment. This chapter examines these programs and incentives and concludes that they may be improved with continued oversight after remediation activities are complete, attention to redevelopment that meets smart growth and climate change goals, integration of effective public participation, and creation of metrics for evaluating sites to assess lifecycle impacts of remediation and reuse.

Keywords: brownfields, CERCLA, cleanup standards, environmental contamination, environmental law, public participation, remediation, smart growth, urban redevelopment, sustainability, voluntary cleanup programs

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