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date: 13 November 2019

(p. 347) Index

(p. 347) Index

A
acceptance by insiders, 100
organizational change and, by newcomers, 106
acculturation onboarding, 318
accumulation, in scientific process, 187
Adams, Douglas, 8, 20
adaptability. See dispositional adaptability
adjustment, of expatriates, 233–235
general, 233
HCN role in, 235
interaction, 233
knowledge transfers through, 234–235
as learning process, 233
with mentors, 235
models for, 233–235
socialization literature on, 234
stage of, 233
stressor-stress-strain framework for, 233, 234
work, 233
adjustment, socialization and, 13. See also adjustment, of expatriates; diversity, adjustment processes with
acceptance by insiders in, 100
antecedents of, 339–341
emotions during, 17
hangover effect with, 174
during honeymoon period, 174
individual/organizational facilitation in, 12–13
job turnover during, 86–87
needs of newcomers as influence on, 175
newcomer adjustment model for, 12, 35–36
for newcomers, to work environment, 80
organizational commitment level during, 86
perceived overqualification during, 107
perception of social integration during, 86
performance self-efficacy during, 101
proximal newcomer, 162
proximal outcomes for, 100–101
Pygmalion effect in, 16
role clarity in, 100–101
socialization tactics and, 35–36
social networking and, 86–87
stability versus instability and, as influence on, 173–175
stage models for, 175
theory of work adjustment and, 139
over time, 172–175
unpredictable role demands and, 174
voluntary turnover during, 86–87
affective experiences, of newcomers, 17–18
alternative methodologies for, 18
learning processes and, 17–18
positive framing for, 17
self-regulatory tactics after, 17
African American women, diversity anxiety for, 120
age, newcomer proactive behavior and, 67
American Society for Training and Development, 3
anticipated organizational tenure, 167
anticipatory customer socialization, 253–254
expectations of customers in, 253–254
anticipatory socialization, 9, 13, 47
socialization over time and, 166
anxiety
for African American women, diversity and, 120
during training programs, 33–34
in uncertainty reduction theory, 28
Apple Retail Stores, 257–258
customer training programs, 258
product design, 258
store design, 258
appraisal, of newcomers. See comparative appraisal
approachability improvement strategies, 256
articulation-based theory, for socialization, 9
Asia, expatriates from, 243
assignments. See job assignments
attitudes of insiders, towards organization, 218–220
of cultural values, 219–220
through external comparisons, 219
global perceptions, 219
during recruitment process, 219
through scanning, 219
through sensemaking of organization, 218–219
specific perceptions, 219
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) framework
conflict in, 141
in PO fit, 141
autonomy, as job characteristic, 38, 38
availability improvement strategies, 256
B
Bank of America, executive socialization practices, 305–311
challenge identification in, 307–308
check-in process for, 309–310
design focus of, 305
development history of, 305
entry phase, 307–309
final phase of, 310–311
integration sessions in, 309
midpoint phase of, 309–310
organizational culture for, 306
orientation forums in, 307
peer coaches, 307
selection phase of, 306–307
tools and processes in, 307
turnover rates, 305
behavioral proactive behaviors, 171 (p. 348)
Behaviors, Relationships, Attitudes, Values and work Environment (BRAVE), 318–319
behind-the-scenes networking, 321
bias
in cognitive experiences, 17
in qualitative method research, 201–202
Bleustein, Jeff, 259
blogs, for newcomers, 322
Blue Nile, 257
borrowed social capital, 90
boss relationship building, 61
branding, for comprehensive onboarding program, 292–293
brokers, 320
Bruininks, Robert, 289
buddy systems
for newcomers, 322
in onboarding guide activities, 274
C
career paths, structured mentoring and, 328–329
categorization-elaboration (CEM) model, 121
central connectors, 320
chain of socialization, 220–221
Chao et al. socialization scale, 101–102
check-in systems
for Bank of America, 309–310
for newcomers, 323
checklists, in onboarding literature, 276
Circles mentoring program, 326, 327–328, 332
citizenship behaviors
in customer role, 252
after diversity adjustment processes, 131
separation diversity and, 131
Clarke, Arthur C., 20
classification scheme, for socialization tactics, 35–37
clock time
definition of, 162
event time compared to, 162–165
cognitive diversity, 123
cognitive experiences, of newcomers, 17–18
alternative methodologies for, 18
heuristics and biases in, 17
learning processes and, 17–18
cognitive proactive behaviors, 171
cohesion. See group cohesion
cohort effects, 203
cohorts, for newcomers, 322
collective identity, manager strategies for, 133
collective role transitions, 168
collective socialization tactics, 35
commitment, to organizations
after diversity adjustment processes, 130
after socialization adjustment, 86
common method bias reduction, 197
comparative appraisal, 216
complementary fit, 139
computation models, for research, 202
computer-based orientation programs, 32
concealment, of social identity, 120–121
passing as part of majority, 121
social stigma as cause of, 121
confidence, uncertainty reduction theory and, 28
conflict. See also work-life conflict
in ASA framework, 141
from cognitive diversity, 123
from disparity diversity, 123
from diversity, socialization and, 122–123
from relationships, 122
from separation diversity, 122–123
task-based, 122
consensus. See symbolic consensus
Construal Level Theory, 142–143
construct validity, 189
contamination in, 190
deficiency in, 190
for experimental research design, 200
threats to, 190
treatment diffusion in, 190
contamination
in construct validity, 190
of research descriptions, 193
content dimension, of socialization tactics, 35, 145
learning in, 162
onboarding and, 281
context dimension, of socialization tactics, 35, 145
control, in socialization literature, 11–12
conversation. See disguising conversation
cooptation, of newcomers, 15
creativity, after diversity adjustment processes, 131–132
Cross, Rob, 320
cross-border socialization, 323
cross-functional projects, for newcomers, 321–322
cross-national job transitions, 221
cross-sectional designs. See passive observation methods
cultural climate, for diversity, 126–127. See also values, of organization
with expatriates, 240
at interpersonal level, 127
managerial strategies for, 132
positive, 127
signal indicators for, 126–127
cultural values. See values, of organization
curiosity, as personality trait, 149
current-focused individuals, 166
customer co-production of services, 251
levels of, 251–252
customer role
citizenship behaviors as part of, 252
customer identity in, 252
in customer socialization, 251–253
scripts in, 252
in service process and, 251
customer satisfaction, 251
customer socialization. See also new customers, socialization of
anticipatory, 253–254
benefits of, 251
customer satisfaction from, 251
product design and, 253
recruitment requirements for, 253
role in service process and, 251
as role-making process, 251–253
scripts in, 252–253
service economies as influence on, 250
servicescape design and, 254
technology and, 251
trends in, 250–251
D
deficiency, in construct validity, 190
demographic differences, adjustment to diversity and, 124–125
as situational moderator, 128
stereotyping and, 124–125
derailment minimization, for senior management, 304
description, in research, 192–193
contamination issues in, 193
limitations in, 192–193
measurement methodology for, 192–193
self-reports in, 192–193
taxonomy development for, 192
discrimination, perceived experiences with, 125
disguising conversation, 14
disjunctive socialization tactics, 35
disparity diversity, 116–117
conflict from, 123
elaboration processes for, 121–122
exclusion with, 123
newcomer proactivity and, 120
role innovation and, 119–120
social identification and, 119
social support for, 122
dispositional adaptability, 148
disruptive behavior, of newcomers, 224
hierarchical influences on, 224
idiosyncrasy credits and, 221–222
through intergroup power shifts, 224
performance goals and, 224
dissemination, in scientific process, 187
distal outcomes
for ethical behavior, 105
for job attitudes, 103
for job performance, 103–104
for job turnover, 104
for newcomers in organizations, 15, 102–105
for newcomer stress, 105
for organizational socialization practices, 30 (p. 349)
for person-job fit, 104
for PO fit, 104
in socialization over time, 169
diversity. See also disparity diversity; separation diversity; variety diversity
through disparity, 117, 119
gender, task performance and, 131
through separation, 116, 118
as social construct, 116–117
through variety, 116–119
diversity, adjustment processes with, 115–116, 118–139
citizenship behaviors after, 131
commitment to organization after, 130
creativity after, 131–132
cultural climate as influence on, 126–127, 132
demographic differences influences on, 124–125
extraversion and, 124
group cohesion from, 129–130
group demography and, 128
interdependence as influence on, 126
openness to experience and, 124
perceived discrimination experiences and, 125
personality variables for, 124
personal moderators for, 124–126
prior experience with diversity, 125
role innovation as result of, 132
routine task performance after, 130–131
self-confidence and, 124
signaling of outsiders, 125–126
similarity-attraction theory and, 130
situational moderators for, 128, 126–128
social acceptance as result of, 128–129
social identification and, 125–126
social isolation as result of, 129
socialization outcomes from, 128–132
stereotyping and, 124–125
team culture within organization, 127–128
trust through, 129
withdrawal from organization after, 130
diversity, socialization and, 117–123. See also disparity diversity; elaboration processes, for diversity; separation diversity; variety diversity
adjustment strategies with, 115–116
African American women and, 120
capability assessment for, by managers, 132–133
collective identity promotion and, by managers, 133
concealment and, 120–121
conflict from, 122–123
cultural climate as influence on, 126–127, 132
exclusion with, 123
identity formation and, 117–119
individual processes for, 117–121
interpersonal processes for, 121–123
managerial strategies for, 132–134
newcomer proactivity and, 120
problem solving for, by managers, 134
role innovation and, 119–120
social support for, 122, 133
stigma and, 121
unique identity support and, by managers, 133–134
divestiture socialization tactics, 35
for PO fit, 146
domestic job transitions, 221
dynamic interactionism, 166
E
early events, 164
failure spirals from, 164
initial impression confirmation from, 164
negative feedback as, 164
as self-fulfilling prophecies, 164
specific learning in, 164
success spirals from, 164
effectiveness research, 191
efficacy research, 191
efficiency research, 191
ego networks, 81. See also personal networks
elaboration processes, for diversity, 121–122
CEM model, 121
disparity diversity and, 121–122
information-sharing with, 121
separation diversity and, 121
variety diversity and, 121
emotions. See also affective experiences, of newcomers
positive framing and, 17
social adjustment influenced by, 17
emotional labor, of insiders, 218
emplotment, 164–165
employee rewards, recognition, and appreciation (ERRA) report, 299–300
encounter stage, of socialization, 13
learning during, 14
engagement failure, 316
entry-socialization experience, 28
uncertainty reduction theory in, 28
environmental embeddedness, of social networks, 80–81
ethical behavior, 105
self-perception of insiders and, 218
social learning theory and, 105
event time. See also early events
clock time compared to, 162–165
definition of, 162–163
reference points in, 162–163
sequencing for, 163–165
socialization research and, 163
stories and, 164–165
survey methodology for, 163
evidence-based practice, 207
exclusion
with disparity diversity, 123
with diversity, socialization and, 123
with separation diversity, 123
with variety diversity, 123
executive management. See senior management, socialization for
expatriates, socialization of, 343. See also adjustment, of expatriates; adjustment, socialization and; failure, of expatriates; social categorization
alternative types of, 242–243
from Asia, 243
assignments for, as time-limited, 230
corporate context as influence on, 243
costs of, 231
cultural climate for, 240
definition of, 230
employment of, globalization as influence on, 230
expanding models of, 241–242
failure of, 231–232
future research for, 241–244
general adjustment for, 233
HCN perspectives on socialization of, 235–236
in host units, 232
as information exchange process, 243–244
information sharing with, by HCNs, 236–240
as inpatriates, 230, 242–243
interaction adjustment for, 233
knowledge transfers from, to HCNs, 241
knowledge transfers to, by HCNs, 234–235
mentoring for, 235
as parent country nationals, 230
proactive behaviors by, towards HCNs, 240
procedural justice and, 238–239
as repatriates, 242–243
social identity theory and, 237–238
socialization of, 230–231
social support for, by HCNs, 236
social tie strength for, 241
strategic management perspectives on, 242
as third country nationals, 230
work adjustment for, 233
(p. 350)
experimental design, for research, 198–201
applications for, 200–201
construct validity issues with, 200
inference in, 198–199
with manipulated variables, 199
randomized assignment in, 199–200
external validity, 188
conceptual component of, 188
functional component of, 188
structural component of, 188
threats to, 189
extraversion, adjustment to diversity and, 124
F
failure, of expatriates, 231–232
in adaptation, 232–233
as contextual, within organizational strategy, 232
definition of, 231–232
in host units, 232
knowledge transfers and, 232
stress of unfamiliar environment and, 232
failure spirals, from early events, 164
feedback
consistency of, for insiders, 221
in inform-resources practices, 272
on job characteristics, 37–38
negative, as early event, 164
in onboarding literature, 278
positive outcomes from, 60
for self change, as proactive behavior, 60
socialization and, 79–80
through social networks, 87
in SRT, 50
in uncertainty reduction theory, 28
females
African American, diversity anxiety for, 120
newcomer proactive behavior by, 67
fixed socialization tactics, 35
focal persons, in social networking, 83
follow-up strategies, in SRT, 51
formal assistance strategy, in SRT, 47–48
formal orientation, in SRT, 47
formal socialization tactics, 35
framing. See positive framing
future-focused individuals, 166
G
gender. See also diversity; diversity, adjustment processes with; diversity, socialization and; females; males
diversity anxiety by, for African American women, 120
newcomer proactive behavior and, 67
task performance and, after diversity adjustment processes, 131
general adjustment, for expatriates, 233
globalization, expatriate employment and, 230
goal alignment, 72
group cohesion, 129–130
group mentoring, 332
guide activities, for onboarding, 270, 273–274,
buddy systems, 274
through mentors, 274
through supervisors, 274
Guthrie, Myron, 292
H
hangover effect
newcomer learning and, 174
with PO fit, 144
of socialization adjustment, 174
Harley Davidson, 258–259
brand community building by, 259
socialization tactics of, 259
helpfulness
improvement strategies, for new customers, 256
of mentors, 29
of organizational socialization practices, 29
of supervisors, 29
of training programs, 34
Heward, Lyn, 318
high breadth experiences, 163
high depth experiences, 163
high magnitude role transitions, 168
history effects, 204
The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy (Adams), 8, 11, 20
Homophily principle, 89–90
honest behavior, self-perception of insiders and, 218
honeymoon period, 16–17
newcomer learning during, 174
PO fit during, 143
for socialization adjustment, 174
host country nationals (HCNs). See also adjustment, of expatriates; expatriates, socialization of; failure, of expatriates; social categorization
assignment planning by, 240
on expatriate adjustment, 235
information sharing by, to expatriates, 236–240
as insiders, 236
knowledge gains by, through expatriate socialization, 241
knowledge transfers from, to expatriates, 234–235
long-term effects of socialization, 242
perspectives on expatriate socialization, 235–236
proactive behaviors by, towards expatriates, 240
procedural justice and, 238–239
reward systems for, 240
social identity theory and, 237–238
as socialization agents, 236–237
social support by, 236
three ways of knowing for, 241
training for, 239–240
host units, expatriates in, 232
human resources (HR), 300
Hybels, Bill, 260
I
identity. See also social identification; social identity theory
collective, 133
customer, 252
formation of, 117–119
for newcomers, formation of, 118
professional, 12
situated, 11–12
unique, managerial support for, 133–134
idiosyncrasy credits
in implementation of newcomer ideas, 221–222
for newcomers, 224
implementation of newcomer ideas, insider response to, 221–222
hierarchical influences on, 221–222
idiosyncrasy credits and, 221–222
incoming cohort size and, 222
joint tenure of insiders and, 222
perceived psychological contract breaches and, 222
impression management, by insiders, 218
inclusionary boundary, for social networking, 90
individual adaptation theories, 12
individual differences
in diversity adjustments, 117–121
individualized socialization and, 146
in newcomer proactive behaviors, 18–19
between newcomers in organizations, 18–19, 322–323
for onboarding applications, 283
in organizational commitment, 86, 130
in organizational facilitation, 12–13
in PO fit, 150
within socialization literature, of socialization processes, 10
in temporal focus, 166
in temporal influences on socialization, 165–167
individual differences approach, to research, 194
individualized socialization, 146
in onboarding literature, 278
over time, 170
individual role transitions, 168
inference, in scientific process, 187
construct validity and, 189
in experimental research design, 198–199 (p. 351)
internal validity and, 188–189
statistical conclusion validity and, 189
informal socialization tactics, 35
information activities, with onboarding, 269–273. See also inform-resources practices
inform-communication practices for, 269–271
inform-training practices for, 272–273
information-seeking, by newcomers. See also learning, for newcomers
patterns of change for, over time, 69
as proactive behavior, 12–13, 59–60, 99–100
for self-change, 59–60
in uncertainty reduction theory, 28
information-seeking, by new customers, 255–256
approachability improvement strategies, 256
availability improvement strategies, 256
company strategies for, 256
factors for, 255–256
helpfulness improvement strategies, 256
through media sources, 256
through mentors, 256
social costs of, 255
information sharing, trust and, 72
through adjustments to diversity, 129
elaboration processes for diversity and, 121
facilitation of, by organizations, 239–240
by HCNs, to expatriates, 236–239
with interpersonal disclosures, 129
procedural justice and, 238–239
social categorization as influence on, 238–239
social identity theory for, 237–238
inform-communication practices, 269–271
RJPs in, 271
with socialization agents, 271
inform-resources practices, 271–272
feedback in, 272
information source characteristics and, 272
organizational context for, 272
personality variables for, 271–272
proactivity and, 272
social costs of, 272
inform-training practices, 272–273
orientation programs and, 272–273
inpatriates, 230
socialization of, 242–243
inquiry, learning for newcomers through, 14
social costs, 14
insiders, socialization and. See also attitudes of insiders, towards organization; disruptive behavior, of newcomers; receptivity to change, for insiders; self-perceptions, of insiders
acceptance by, in newcomer adjustment, 100
attributes of, newcomer similarity, 66
dislodging process for, 218
emotional labor of, 218
HCNs as, 236
implementation of newcomer ideas by, 221–222
impression management by, 218
newcomer proactive behaviors and, reaction to, 65–67, 220–222
position power of, 223
quality of newcomer interactions for, 222–223
reciprocal influence loop for, 215
research history for, 216
self-esteem of, 218
socialization as stressor for, 223–224
socialization tactics for, 222–223
instantaneous socialization, 177
institutionalized socialization, 35
of new customers, 254
PO fit and, 146
over time, 170–171
integration. See social integration
interaction adjustment, for expatriates, 233
interactional zone, in social networking, 80
interactionist approach, to research, 194–195
interdependence, adjustment to diversity influenced by, 126
internal validity, 188–189
of interventions, 203
for longitudinal design, 197
passive observation methods and, 195
threats to, 189–190
interrupted time series design, 205
RDDs and, 206
interventions, in socialization research, 202–206
academic inertia towards, 207–208
cohort effects in, 203
evaluation of, 207
evidence-based practice and, 207
internal validity of, 203
as manipulation, 203
mentoring programs, 203
open-door policies as, 203
for senior management, 304–305
intimidation, in new customer socialization, 252–253
investiture socialization tactics, 35
PO fit and, 147
involuntary role transitions, 168
irreversible role transitions, 168
Irvine, Diane, 257
J
job assignments
social networking and, 87–88
in SRT, 50
job attitudes, 103
job change negotiation, 62
job characteristics, 37–39
autonomy and, 38
feedback on, 37–38
MPS and, 38
research study for, 38–39
task significance and, 38
job demands, 46
Job Demands-Resource (JD-R) Model, 46
job demands under, 46
job resources under, 46
outcome prediction in, 46
principles of, 46
job performance
disruptive newcomer behavior and, 224
distal outcomes for, 103–104
organizational socialization’s influence on, 4
self-efficacy with, during adjustment stage, 101
for senior management, acceleration of, 304–305
social networking and, 82–83
with structured mentoring, 331
job resources, 46, 49–50
Jobs, Steve, 258
job-seeking period, perceptions of PO fit during, 142–144
job transitions, 221
cross-national, 221
domestic, 221
school-to-work, 221
work-to-work, 221
job turnover
during adjustment stage, 86–87
at Bank of America, 305
distal outcomes for, 104
organizational socialization’s influence on, 4
under similarity-attraction theory, 130
social networking and, 86–87
K
knowledge sources. See also inquiry, learning for newcomers through
information-seeking by newcomers, as proactive behavior, 12–13
socialization agents as, 40
in SRT, 50
uncertainty reduction theory and, 28
knowledge transfers
through expatriate adjustment, 234–235 (p. 352)
failure of expatriates through, 232
by HCNs, to expatriates, 234–235
to HCNs, from expatriate socialization, 241
L
Lantz, Caryn, 292
leader-member exchanges (LMXs), 40
learning, for newcomers, 14
as affective experience, 17–18
as cognitive experience, 17–18
through disguising conversation, 14
duration of effects, over time, 172–173
during encounter stage, 14
as goal orientation, 166–167
hangover effect with, 174
during honeymoon period, 174
through inquiry, 13–14
needs of newcomers as influence on, 175
through network-building, 14
through proactive behaviors, 14
through self-monitoring, 14
sensemaking compared to, 84
through social networking, 14, 82–83, 88
sources of, 14
specific, in early events, 164
stability versus instability and, as influence on, 173–175
stage models for, 175
success spirals for, 173
over time, 172–175
time lags for, 172–173
unpredictable role demands and, 174
learning goal orientation, priming of, 166–167
liability of newness, 89
life satisfaction, 107
longitudinal design, for research, 197–198
common method bias reduction with, 197
internal validity for, 197
multiple data waves in, 197–198
temporal elements of, 197, 198
low reliability, in statistical conclusion validity, 190
M
males, newcomer proactive behavior by, 67
managers. See also senior management, socialization for
capability assessment by, 132–133
collective identity promotion by, 133
cultural climate influenced by, 132
problem solving by, 134
socialization with diversity, strategies for, 132–134
social networking with, 84
social support strategies by, 133
unique identity support by, 133–134
marketability, self-perceptions of, 217–218
maturation-by-selection effects, 205
meditational analysis, 196–197
limitations of, 196–197
mentors. See also Menttium Corporation, mentoring practices; Menttor program; role models; structured mentoring
assignment of, 322
Circles mentoring program, 326–328, 332
for expatriates, 235
in guide activities, for onboarding, 274
for information-seeking, by new customers, 256
in intervention programs, 203
newcomer proactive behaviors and, 66–67
in organizational socialization practices, 29
PO fit and, 146
as socialization agents, 41
toxic, 223–224
in Toyota management socialization practices, 311–312
Menttium Corporation, mentoring practices, 331–334
accelerated job performance and, 331
for business objectives, 331–332
with Circles program, 332
cultural competence for, 325
in groups, 332
information retention with, 331–332
through interviews, 332
through match criteria, 332
measurement methodology for, 332–333
one-to-one, 332
transitional support with, 331
Menttor program, 325–326
monitoring. See self-monitoring
morale, of organization, 279
motivating potential score (MPS), 38
multinational organizations. See expatriates; host country nationals
N
narratives, in social identity theory, 12
needs, of newcomers
socialization influenced by, 175
threshold effects with, 175
negative feedback
from early events, 164
socialization over time and, 179
networking. See social networking
newcomers, to organizations. See also adjustment, socialization and; disruptive behavior, of newcomers; diversity, adjustment processes with; diversity, socialization and; expatriates, socialization of; implementation of newcomer ideas, insider response to; information-seeking, by newcomers; insiders, socialization and; learning, for newcomers; mentors; organizational socialization practices; person-organization fit; proactive behaviors, of newcomers; receptivity to change, for insiders; role models; self-perceptions, of insiders; socialization resources theory; social networking
acceptance by insiders, 100, 106
access to resources for, through socialization, 80
adjustment facilitation, 12–13
adjustment to work for, 80
affective experiences of, 17–18
anticipatory socialization for, 9, 13, 47
assimilation factors for, 320–322
autonomy for, 38, 38
behind-the-scenes networking for, 321
blogs for, 322
borrowed social capital for, 90
buddy system for, 322
check-in system for, 323
cognitive experiences of, 17–18
cohorts for, 322
comparative appraisal of, 216
cooptation of, socialization as, 15
cross-functional projects or, 321–322
distal outcomes for, 15, 102–105
during encounter stage, 14
encounter stage for, 14
ethical behavior by, 105
goal differences between, 18
honeymoon period for, 17
identity formation for, 118
idiosyncrasy credits for, 224
impression management of, 218
individualization of, 18–19, 322–323
insiders and, attribute similarities to, 66
involvement within socialization process, in literature, 10
job skill learning for, 79
knowledge for, 14
as liability, 89
in meetings, invitations to, 322
needs of, 175
newcomer socialization questionnaire, 102
onboarding literature for, 277 (p. 353)
organizational changes influenced by, 105–106
organizational socialization for, perspective of, 4
perceived psychological contract breaches by, 222
person-job fit for, 104
PO fit for, 104
position power over, 223
proximal adjustment for, 162
proximal outcomes for, 15, 100–101
Pygmalion effect on, 16
quality of insider interactions for, 222–223
role clarity for, 100–101, 106
role modeling for, 16
self-efficacy of, organizational change by, 106
in senior management, 304
social acceptance for, 128–129
social isolation for, 129
socialization of, as stressor for insiders, 223–224
socialization tactics for, 222–223
sponsorship of, 90
stabilization stage for, 13
staff directories for, 322
stakeholders and, 320–321
stress for, 105
successful socialization for, parameters for, 15–16
technology assistance for, 323
as term, 9, 16
timing issues with, 15–16
newcomer adjustment model
in socialization literature, 12
socialization tactics and, 35–36
newcomer proactive behavior. See proactive behaviors, of newcomers
newcomer socialization questionnaire, 102
new customers, socialization of, 252–253. See also information-seeking, by new customers
by Apple Retail Stores, 257–258
by Blue Nile, 257
through classifications, 255
future research for, 260–261
by Harley Davidson, 258–259
as individuals, 255
institutionalized structures for, 254
intimidation in, 252–253
through orientation programs, 254–255
passive behaviors by, 255
proactivity of, 255–256
script failures for, 252
through servicescape design, 254–260
social cost of failure for, 252–253
socialization tactics and, 254–255
stress for, 252–253
by Willow Creek Community Church, 260
New Employee Orientation (NEO) program, 290–291
design recommendations for, 290–291
improvement opportunities for, 290
O
objective PO fit, 141
observation methods. See also passive observation methods
systematic, 188–191
offsite residential training programs, 33
onboarding, 99. See also inform-resources practices; onboarding, practitioner literature for; structured mentoring; total onboarding program
acculturation, 318
best practices for, 99
buddy systems with, 274
current practices, 279–282
definition of, 4, 268–269
differentiated focus for, 282–283
differentiation of dimensions with, 269
employment trends influencing, 267–268
future research study for, 282–283
goal setting with, 283
guide activities as part of, 270, 273–274
individual differences among newcomers and, 283
information activities as part of, 269–273
inform-communication practices for, 269–271
inform-training practices for, 272–273
by mentors, 274
newcomer proactive behavior with, 268
organizational culture as influence on, 283
organizational socialization compared to, 3, 268
orientation compared to, 268
in orientation programs, 99
purpose of, 4, 268
SHRM surveys on, 279–282
social interactions and, 273
socialization content management with, 281
in socialization literature, 99
socialization tactics compared to, 269
structured, 329–330
by supervisors, 274
time frame for, 268, 274–275
transactional, 318
welcome activities as part of, 270, 273
onboarding, comprehensive program development for. See also Total Onboarding Program
appendix for, 301–302
branding as part of, 292–293
effectiveness measures for, 298–299
employee engagement within, 299–300
ERRA report, 299–300
full-time positions within, 291–292
groundwork for, 289–290
HR input for, 300
informational sessions in, 294–297
integration strategies in, 297–298
NEO program within, 290–291
online information sources for, 297
program partnerships as part of, 293
smile sheets, 298–299
supervisor training for, 297
task forces for, 289
tool kits for, 298
as top-down structure, 291
onboarding, practitioner literature for, 275–279
categorization of, 275
checklists in, 276
economic benefits of, 275
feedback in, 278
individualization of, 278
to instill purpose in newcomers, 277
organizational culture reinforcement through, 276
organizational morale influenced by, 279
orientation program analysis, 278
as process-oriented, 276
as team-oriented, 276
technological information, 276–277
one-to-one mentoring, 332
open-door policies, 203
openness to experience, adjustment to diversity and, 124
organizations. See also insiders, socialization and; newcomers, to organizations; veterans, in organizations
citizenship behaviors within, 131
global perceptions of, by insiders, 219
individual commitment to, 86, 130
morale of, 279
newcomer adjustments within, 12–13
perceived psychological contract breaches within, 222
scanning of, by insiders, 219
sensemaking of, by insiders, 218–219
specific perceptions of, by insiders, 219
team culture within, 127–128
withdrawal from, 130
organizational behavior, boundaries of, 9
organizational cultural competence, 325, 330 (p. 354)
organizational socialization. See also adjustment, socialization and; diversity, adjustment processes with; diversity, socialization and; expatriates, socialization of; insiders, socialization and; newcomers, to organizations; person-environment fit theory; person-organization fit; proactive behaviors, of newcomers; research on socialization, methods of; social identity theory; socialization agents; socialization tactics; social networking; swift socialization; time, socialization over; veterans, in organizations
access to resources through, 80
adjustment to work and, 80
anticipatory, 9, 12, 47, 166
brokers for, 320
central connectors for, 320
as chain, 220–221
Chao et al. scale, 101–102
content scales for, 102
contexts for, 20
as cooptation, 15
cross-border, 323
as cultural adjustment, 318–319
definition of, 3–4
distal outcomes for, 15, 102–105
duration of, 9–10
dynamic interactionism and, 166
dynamics of, 342–343
encounter stage of, 13–14
engagement failure in, 316
of expatriates, 230–231
feedback and, 79–80
honeymoon period in, 16–17
importance of, 4
individualized, 146, 170, 278
by individual organization, 19
of inpatriates, 242–243
instantaneous, 177
institutionalized, 35, 146, 170–171, 254
job performance influenced by, 4
job turnover influenced by, 4
leader stress as influence on, 108
leader well-being as influence on, 108
learning processes for, 14
life satisfaction and, 107
local factors for, 16–17
newcomer knowledge in, 14
from newcomer perspective, 4
newcomer socialization questionnaire, 102
new forms of, 19–20
onboarding compared to, 3, 268
organizational changes and, newcomer influence on, 105–106
organizational socialization inventory for, 102
outcomes of, 9–10, 341–342
parameters of, 4
patterns for, 10
perceived overqualification and, 107
peripheral players for, 320
personal failure in, 316
person-job fit and, 104
practice implications for, 345–346
as predictor of success, 319–320
as process, 342–343
proximal outcomes for, 15, 100–101
reciprocal influence loop and, 215
relational aspects of, 319
relationship changes and, 108
relationship failure in, 316
of repatriates, 242–243
role failure in, 315–316
role modeling in, 16
role of networks in, 82–87
sensemaking and, 79
social networking and, 79–80, 87–91
stabilization stage of, 13
as stressor, for insiders, 223–224
success in, parameters for, 15–16
tacit knowledge, for newcomers, 14
theory development for, 52
over time, 161–162, 165–172
timing issues in, 15–16
as two-way process, 215–216
unemployment duration and, 107
work-life conflict and, 106–107
organizational socialization inventory, 102
organizational socialization practices. See also job characteristics; orientation programs; socialization agents; socialization tactics; training programs
availability and helpfulness of, 29
for critical incidents, 29
daily peer interaction in, 29
definition of, 28–29
distal outcomes for, 30
effectiveness criteria for, 30
to guide, 43
to inform, 43
mentor helpfulness in, 29
proximal outcomes for, 30
within PwC, 43–45
research on, 42–43
supervisor helpfulness in, 29
to welcome, 43
orientation programs, 30–33
for Bank of America, 307
computer-based, 32
design issues with, 33
formats for, 30–31
inform-training practices and, 272–273
for new customer socialization, 254–255
onboarding compared to, 268
onboarding in, 99
in onboarding literature, analysis of, 278
purpose of, 30
research studies on, 31–32
ROPES, 32–33
socialization compared to, 30
outgroup discrimination, 238
overqualification for job. See perceived overqualification
P
parent country nationals, 230
passing, as part of social majority, 121
passive behaviors, by new customers, 255
passive observation methods, 195–197
analysis with, 195–196
internal validity and, 195
meditational analysis and, 196–197
moderator variables in, 197
reverse causality issues with, 196
with SEM techniques, 196
simultaneity issues with, 196
variable distribution in, 195
past-focused individuals, 166
P-E behaviors. See person-environment behaviors
peer coaches, 307
people processing techniques. See socialization tactics
perceived organizational support (POS), 217
perceived overqualification, 107
during adjustment stage, 107
perceived psychological contract breaches, 222
performance. See job performance
performance goal orientation, 166–167
peripheral players, 320
personal failure, 316
personality
adjustment to diversity and, 124
curiosity as trait, 149
dispositional adaptability and, 148
extraversion and, 124
inform-resources practices and, 271–272
newcomer proactive behavior and, 67–68, 99
PO fit and, 145, 147–148
proactive, 148
self-confidence, 124
social integration influenced by, 88–89
personal networks, 81
density of, 81–82
personal planning, in SRT, 50
person-environment (P-E) behaviors, 57
person-environment fit theory
in socialization literature, 11
stress factors in, 11
person-job fit, 104
person-organization (PO) fit, 104
ASA framework for, 141
assessment of, 142–143
causes of misfit, 151–152 (p. 355)
changes in, 143–150
as complementary fit, 139
conceptual development of, 141–142
Construal Level Theory and, 142–143
curiosity and, 149
dispositional adaptability and, 148
divestiture socialization tactics for, 146
hangover effect with, 144
during honeymoon period, 143
individual factors for, 150
individualized socialization and, 146
institutionalized socialization and, 146
investiture socialization tactics and, 147
during job-seeking period, 142–144
measurement of, 141–142
mentoring and, 146
misfit compensation, 153–154
newcomer changes after, 152–153
newcomer characteristics and, 147–150
newcomer proactive behaviors for, 149
objective, 141
organization changes after, 152–153
perceptions of, 141–142, 153
personality influences on, 145, 147–148
proactive personality and, 148
reactions to, 151–152
research strategies for, 140, 150–154
retroactive pessimism and, 151
role models and, 153
self-monitoring and, 149
shared values and, 141, 145
situational factors for, 150
social identity theory and, 152–153
socialization tactics and, 145–147
subjective, 141
supplementary fit and, 139–140
temporal component of, 140
Theory of Multiple Fits and, 153–154
theory of work adjustment and, 139
in TOP, 318
position power, of insiders, 223
positive framing, 17
as proactive behavior, 61
PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), 43–45
PrimeGenesis, 315–316
proactive behaviors, of newcomers. See also implementation of newcomer ideas, insider response to
age and, 67
antecedents of, 63–69
behavioral, 171
benefits of, 56, 59
for boss relationship building, 61
categorization of, 57–78
cognitive, 171
communication of boundaries for, 72
consequences of, 59–63
contemporary workplace changes and, 56–57
for credibility, 58
disparity diversity and, 120
diversity of newcomers and, 120
environmental factors for, 63–65
environmental risks and, 65
for expatriates, to HCNs, 240
experimenting strategies with, 59
feedback-seeking as, 60
future research study for, 73–74
gender and, 67
goal alignment and, 72
individual approaches to, 18–19
information-seeking, 12–13, 59–60, 99–100
information sharing and trust with, 72
inform-resources practices and, 272
towards insiders and, 65–67
insiders’ reaction to, 65–67, 220–222
in job change negotiation, 62
job redefinition as, 58
job skill level and, 67
learning through, 14
as maladaptive, 70–73
mentoring influenced by, 66–67
for mutual development, 61–62
newcomer demographic variables, 67–69
with onboarding, 268
organizational risk from, 70–71
organization size as influence on, 65
outcomes for, moderating effects of, 62–63
parameters of, 99–100
patterns of change in, 69–70
P-E, 57
personality variables for, 67–68, 99
personal risks of, for newcomers, 71–72
for PO fit, 149
positive framing as, 61
pre-entry knowledge of organization, 12
previous work experience as influence on, 67
risk mitigation strategies for, 72
self change as, 58–60
self-efficacy levels as influence on, 59, 67–68, 73
self-monitoring as, 60–61
social costs of, 71–72
socialization over time and, 171–172
socialization tactics as influence on, 63–65, 70–71
social networking as, 58, 62
for social relationships, 62
sociodemographic variables for, 68–69
stress as result of, 72
tenure as influence on, 67, 69–70
training strategies for, 72–73
variety diversity and, 120
proactive behaviors, of new customers, 255–256
proactive encouragement, in SRT, 47
proactive personality, 148
procedural justice, 238–239
process understanding, 191
product design, 253
production machinery dynamics phase, 312
professional identity, 12
proximal newcomer adjustment, 162
proximal outcomes
acceptance by insiders as, 100
for newcomer adjustment, 100–101
for newcomers to organizations, 15
of organizational socialization practices, 30
performance self-efficacy as, 101
role clarity as, 100–101
for socialization, 15, 100–101
in socialization over time, 169
Pygmalion effect, 16
qualitative methods, 188, 201–202
biases in, 201–202
confirmatory purposes of, 201
exploratory purpose of, 201
supplementary purposes of, 201
quantitative methods, 188
R
random socialization tactics, 35
realistic job previews (RJPs), 271
Realistic Orientation Programs for New Employee Stress (ROPES), 32–33
principles of, 32
receptivity to change, for insiders, 220–221
through cognitive information, 221
for core organizational culture, 221
feedback consistency and, 221
by job transition type, 221
organizational performance and, 220
for relational demography, 220–221
reciprocal influence loop, 215
recognition and appreciation, in SRT, 50–51
recruitment
attitudes of insiders during, towards organization, 219
of customers for socialization, 253
for swift socialization, methods for, 176
regression discontinuity designs (RDDs), 205–206
assignment variables in, 205–206
interrupted time series designs and, 206
relational demography, insider reaction to, 220–221
relational embeddedness, of social networks, 81–82
relationship conflict, 122
relationship failure, 316 (p. 356)
repatriates, 242–243
repeated-measures design, 203–205
history effects in, 204
maturation-by-selection effects in, 205
maturation threats in, 205
testing effects in, 204–205
reputational endorsement, 83
research on socialization, methods of. See also experimental design, for research; longitudinal design, for research; passive observation methods; validity, in research
causal interpretations of, 206–207
comprehension of processes in, 193–202
with computation models, 202
description dimension, 192–193
design approaches, 197–201
evaluation criteria, 207–208
for event time, 163
for expatriates, 241–244
explanation of processes in, 193–202
individual differences approach to, 194
interactionist approach to, 194–195
interrupted time series design, 205–206
interventions for, 203
for job characteristics, 38–39
measurement analysis in, 206
for newcomer proactive behaviors, 73–74
for new customers, 260–261
for onboarding, 282–283
for organizational socialization practices, 42–43
for orientation programs, 31–32
for PO fit, 140, 150–154
as process, 343–345
qualitative, 188, 201–202
quantitative, 188
RDDs, 205–206
relevance of, 192–206
repeated-measures design, 203–205
self-reports in, 192–193
with simulation, 202
situational approach to, 194–195
for socialization agents, 41–42
for socialization over time, 177–180
for socialization tactics, 36, 37
for social networking, 91–92
for SRT, implications from, 51–52
through structured mentoring, 333–334
systematic observation methods in, 188–191
taxonomy development in, 192
treatments in, 202–206
research simulations. See simulations, in research
resources, 45. See also inform-resources practices; social capital resources; socialization resources theory
access to, through organizational socialization, 80
job, 46, 49–50
social networking and, 80
stakeholder, 313
retroactive pessimism, 151
reverse causality, 196
rites of passage, 168
for separation, 168
for transitions, 168
Roberts, Morgan, 12
role clarity, 100–101
organizational change and, by newcomers, 106
proximal newcomer adjustment and, 162
role crafting, proximal newcomer adjustment and, 162
role failure, 315–316
role innovation, 119–120
from adjustment to diversity, 132
disparity diversity and, 119–120
separation diversity and, 119
variety diversity and, 119
role models
for newcomers, 16
PO fit and, 153
self-monitoring and, 61
in social identity theory, 153
role transitions, 167–168
high magnitude, 168
individual, compared to collective, 168
involuntary, 168
irreversible, 168
as rite of passage, 168
of short duration, 168
socially undesirable, 168
unpredictable, 168
Ros, Chuck, 318
S
Schanus, Chris, 292
school-to-work transition, 221
scientific process, 187
accumulation in, 187
dissemination in, 187
inference in, 187–189
scripts, in customer socialization, 252
alignment with company scripts, 253
for new customers, 252
self change, as proactive behavior, 58
feedback seeking as, 60
information-seeking for, 59–60
self-confidence, adjustment to diversity and, 124
self-efficacy
in adjustment stage, for newcomers, 101
newcomer proactive behaviors and, 59, 67–68, 73
organizational change and, by newcomers, 106
from training programs, 34
self-esteem, of insiders, 218
self-monitoring, 14
PO fit and, 149
positive outcomes from, 61
as proactive behavior, 60–61
role modeling compared to, 61
social integration and, 88
stress from, 61
self-perceptions, of insiders, 216–218
on career success, 216–217
comparative appraisal in, 216
of embeddedness, 217–218
as ethical, 218
for honest behavior, 218
on inequitable treatment, 217
of marketability, 217–218
POS and, 217
psychological distancing from, 217
through salary comparisons, 217
as socialization agents, 217
tournament model for, 216
self-reports, in research, 192–193
senior management, socialization for. See also Bank of America, executive socialization practices; Toyota, plant management socialization practices
accountability and, higher standards of, 305
derailment minimization for, 304
design assumptions for, 313
development history for, 303–304
interventions for, 304–305
for newcomers, 304
performance acceleration in, 304–305
stakeholder resources for, 313
touchstones for, 322
during transitions, 304
sensemaking
by insiders, of organization, 218–219
learning compared to, 84
at relational level of social networks, 85
social comparison theory and, 85
socialization and, 79
within social networks, 84–86
strength of social ties and, 85–86
at structural level of social networks, 85–86
separation diversity, 116
citizenship behaviors and, 131
conflict from, 122–123 (p. 357)
elaboration processes for, 121
exclusion with, 123
role innovation and, 119
social identification and, 118
social support for, 122
sequential socialization tactics, 35
serial socialization tactics, 35
service economies, 250
customer co-production in, 251
servicescape design, 254
of physical environment, 254
for Willow Creek Community Church, 260
short duration role transitions, 168
signaling of outsiders, social identification and, 125–126
similarity-attraction theory, 130
simulations, in research, 202. See also computation models, for research
simultaneity, in passive observation methods, 196
situated identity, development of, 11–12
situational approach, to research, 194–195. See also socialization tactics
smile sheets, 298–299
social acceptance, 128–129
social capital resources, 48–49
borrowed, 90
relationship development, 49
social events, 49
socialization agents, 49
supervisor support, 49
social capital theory, social networking and, 82
social categorization
by cultural differences, 237
information sharing and, 238–239
intergroup conflict from, 238
maintenance of, 237–238
by organizational factors, 237
outgroup discrimination with, 238
procedural justice and, 238–239
in social identity theory, 237–238
social comparison theory, 85
social costs
of information-seeking, by new customers, 255
of inform-resources practices, 272
of learning for newcomers, 14
of new customer socialization failure, 252–253
social dimension, of socialization tactics, 145–146
social events, as social capital resource, 49
social identification
adjustment to diversity and, 125–126
concealment of, 120–121
disparity diversity and, 119
separation diversity and, 118
signaling of outsiders as, 125–126
variety diversity and, 118–119
social identity theory
contextual influences for, 117
disparity diversity and, 119
in HCN-expatriate information sharing, 237–238
narratives in, 12
PO fit and, 152–153
role models in, 153
salience in, 237
situated identity development in, 11–12
social categorization in, 237–238
in socialization literature, 11
transitions in, 12
social integration. See also acceptance by insiders
during adjustment stage, perceptions of, 86
personality influences on, 88–89
proximal newcomer adjustment and, 162
self-monitoring and, 88
social networking and, 88
social isolation, 129, 129
socialization. See also adjustment, socialization and; diversity, adjustment processes with; diversity, socialization and; expatriates, socialization of; insiders, socialization and; newcomers, to organizations; organizational socialization; organizational socialization practices; person-environment fit theory; person-organization fit; proactive behaviors, of newcomers; research on socialization, methods of; social identity theory; socialization agents; socialization tactics; social networking; swift socialization; time, socialization over; veterans, in organizations
academic studies of, 14–15
access to resources through, 8
adjustment to work and, 80
anticipatory, 9, 13, 47, 166
articulation-based theory for, 9
brokers for, 320
as career-long process, 9
central connectors for, 320
as chain, 220–221
Chao et al. scale, 101–102
content scales for, 102
contexts for, 20
as cooptation, 15
cross-border, 323
as cultural adjustment, 318–319
definition of, 9, 27
distal outcomes for, 15, 102–105
duration of, 9–10
dynamic interactionism and, 166
dynamics of, 342–343
encounter stage of, 13–14
engagement failure in, 316
of expatriates, 230–231
feedback and, 79–80
honeymoon period in, 16–14
individualized, 146, 170, 278
by individual organization, 19
of inpatriates, 242–243
instantaneous, 177
institutionalized, 35, 146,170–171, 254
leader stress as influence on, 108
leader well-being as influence on, 108
learning processes for, 14
life satisfaction and, 107
local factors for, 16–17
newcomer knowledge in, 14
newcomer socialization questionnaire, 102
new forms of, 19–20
organizational socialization inventory for, 102
orientation compared to, 30
outcomes of, 9–10, 341–342
patterns for, 10
perceived overqualification and, 107
peripheral players for, 320
personal failure in, 316
person-job fit and, 104
practice implications for, 345–346
as predictor of success, 319–320
as process, 342–343
proximal outcomes for, 15, 100–101
reciprocal influence loop and, 215
relational aspects of, 319
relationship changes and, 108
relationship failure in, 316
of repatriates, 242–243
role failure in, 315–316
role modeling in, 16
role of networks in, 82–87
sensemaking and, 79
sequence of, 13
social networking and, 79–80, 87–91
stabilization stage of, 13
as stressor, for insiders, 223–224
success in, parameters for, 15–16
survey methodology for, 15
tacit knowledge, for newcomers, 14
theory development for, 52
over time, 161–162, 165–172
timing issues in, 15–16
as two-way process, 215–216
unemployment duration and, 107
work-life conflict and, 106–107
socialization agents, 39–42
HCNs as, 236–237
informality of, 39–40
informational networks and, 41
as information sources, 40
inform-communication practices with, 271
in LMXs, 40 (p. 358)
mentoring and, 41
organizational influence on, 41
purpose of, 39
relationship quality with, 40–41
research study on, 41–42
self-perceptions of insiders as, 217
as social capital resource, 49
social support from, 40
in TMXs, 40–41
socialization content scales, 102
socialization literature, 8–9, 13, 21
boundaries of, 9–10
cognitive perspectives in, 11
control as perspective in, 11
on expatriate adjustment, 234
individual adaptation theories within, 12
individual involvement within socialization process, 10
integration of tactics within, 10
newcomer adjustment model in, 12
onboarding in, 99
person-environment fit theory in, 11
social identity theory in, 11–12
theoretical perspectives within, 10–12
timeline of, 10
transitions in, theories for, 12
socialization resources theory (SRT), 45–52
anticipatory socialization dimension, 9, 13, 47
assignments in, 50
dimensions of, 48–56
feedback in, 50
flexibility of, 46–47
follow-up strategies in, 51
formal assistance strategy in, 47–48
formal orientation in, 47
information-sharing in, 50
JD-R Model and, 46
job resources in, 49–50
personal planning in, 50
premise of, 45–46
proactive encouragement dimension, 47
program evaluation under, 51
recognition and appreciation in, 50–51
relationship development in, 49
research implications from, 51–52
resources in, 45
social capital resources, 48–49
social events in, 49
socialization agents in, 49
supervisor support in, 49
temporal dimensions of, 53
training programs and, 50
work-related resources, 49–51
socialization tactics, 34–37, 98–99
classification scheme for, 35–37
collective, 35
content dimension of, 35, 145, 162, 281
context dimension of, 35, 145
definition of, 34–35
disjunctive, 35
divestiture, 35, 146
fixed, 35
formal, 35
of Harley Davidson, 259
informal, 35
for insider/newcomer interactions, 222–223
institutionalized socialization as, 35
investiture, 35, 147
limitations of, 37
newcomer adjustment and, 35–36
newcomer proactive behaviors influenced by, 63–65, 70–71
for new customers, 254–255
onboarding compared to, 269
PO fit and, 145–147
random, 35
research on, 36–37
sequential, 35
serial, 35
social dimension of, 145–146
socialization over time and, 170–171
variable, 35
social learning theory, ethical behavior and, 105
socially undesirable role transitions, 168
social networking
adjustment to work and, 86–87
behind-the-scenes, 321
borrowed social capital and, 90
closure of, 89
density of, 82
development of, through socialization, 80, 87–91
environmental embeddedness of, 80–81
ethnographic studies of, 78
feedback through, 87
focal persons in, 83
framework for, 79–80
future research applications for, 91–92
Homophily principle for, 89–90
inclusionary boundary for, 90
for information, 41
interactional zone in, 80
interactionist perspective for, 82
job assignments and, 87–88
job performance and, 82–83
with managers, 84
newcomer learning through, 14, 82–83, 88
as newcomer task, 79
organizational commitment level and, 86
organizational hierarchy and, 84, 87
organizational structure and, success influenced by, 83–84, 87
organizational success and, 83–84
perception of social integration and, 86
personal networks, 81–82
as proactive behavior, 58, 62
purpose of, 78–79
range of, 82
relational embeddedness of, 81–82
relational level of, 83, 85, 89–91
relationships as part of, 80–82
reputational endorsements with, 83
resource access from, 80
role of, in socialization, 82–87
sensemaking within, 84–86
social capital theory and, 82
social integration and, 88
socialization and, 79
sponsorship in, 90
structural embeddedness of, 81
structural equivalence in, 85
structural holes in, 82
structural level of, 82–83, 85–86, 89
with supervisors, 84
as theoretical approach, 78–79
tie strength in, 81–82, 85–86
transitive principle within, 89
voluntary turnover and, 86–87
whole networks, 81
within work groups, 90
social networks, sensemaking through, 84–86
social support
for Bank of America socialization program, 307
for disparity diversity, 122
for diversity, socialization and, 122
by HCNs, 236
from managers, 133
POS, 217
for separation diversity, 122
from socialization agents, 40
from supervisors, 49
uncertainty reduction theory and, 28
for variety diversity, 122
social tie strength, 81–82
between HCNs and expatriates, 241
sensemaking and, in social networks, 85–86
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 3
onboarding survey, 279–282
The Spark (Heward), 318
specific learning, for newcomers, 164
sponsorship, of newcomers, 90
stabilization stage, of socialization, 13
staff directories, 322
stage models, for newcomer learning and adjustment, 175
stakeholder
newcomers to organizations and, 320–321
resources, 313
statistical conclusion validity, 189
effect size and, 189
low reliability in, 190
SEM techniques and, 190
threats to, 190
stereotyping, 124–125 (p. 359)
stigma, 121
stories, 164–165
emplotment of, 164–165
stress
in expatriate failure, 232
for insiders, from newcomer socialization, 223–224
for leaders, 108
from newcomer proactive behavior, 72
for newcomers, distal outcomes for, 105
in new customer socialization, 252–253
self-monitoring behaviors and, 61
stressor-stress-strain framework, for expatriate adjustment, 233, 234
structural embeddedness, of social networks, 81
structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques
with passive observation methods, 196
structural conclusion validity and, 190
structural equivalence, 85
structural holes, in social networks, 82
structured mentoring, 326–331. See also Menttium Corporation, mentoring practices
accelerated job performance with, 331
career paths and, 328–329
future research on, 333–334
organizational cultural competence from, 330
transitions and, 328–329
structured onboarding, 329–330
subjective PO fit, 141
success spirals
from early events, 164
from newcomer learning, 173
supervisors
in comprehensive onboarding program development, 297
guide activities by, 274
social networking with, 84
support by, 49
supplementary fit, 139–140
swift socialization, 175–177
absence of structure in, 176
limitations of, 177
need for, 175–176
recruitment methods for, 176
situational constraints for, 176
through symbolic consensus, 176–177
time compression in, 176
symbolic consensus, 176–177
systematic observation methods, 188–191
T
tacit knowledge, for newcomers, 14
task-based conflict, 122
task mastery, proximal newcomer adjustment and, 162
task performance, after diversity adjustment processes, 130–131
gender diversity and, 131
taxonomy development, in research, 192
team culture, within organizations
adjustment to diversity and, 127–128
openness in, 127–128
team-member exchanges (TMXs), 40–41
technology
customer socialization and, 251
for newcomers, 323
in onboarding practitioner literature, sources of, 276–277
temporal focus, 166
current-focused individuals, 166
future-focused individuals, 166
past-focused individuals, 166
tenure
anticipated, 167
of insiders, response to newcomer ideas influenced by, 222
newcomer proactive behavior and, 67
patterns of change with, over time, 69–70
testing effects, 204–205
Theory of Multiple Fits, 153–154
theory of work adjustment, 139
third country nationals, 230
three ways of knowing, for HCNs, 241
threshold effects, 175
time, socialization over, 108, 161–162, 165–172, 342–343. See also clock time; event time; role transitions; swift socialization; individual differences
adjustment to, 172–175
anticipated organizational tenure and, 167
anticipatory socialization and, 166
complicating conditions for, 169
in Construal Level Theory, 142–143
distal influences on, 169
duration of effects, for newcomer learning, 172–173
entropic period for, 171
facilitating conditions for, 169
impediments to, 166
individual differences in, 165–167
individualized socialization and, 170
inhibiting conditions for, 169
as instantaneous, 177
institutionalized socialization and, 170–171
lags of, newcomer learning influenced by, 172–173
learning during, 172–175
learning goal orientation and, 167, 166–167
in longitudinal research design, 197–198
measurement of, future research for, 177–180
needs of newcomers as influence on, 175
negative feedback as influence on, 179
newcomer proactive behavior and, 171–172
through onboarding, 268, 274–275
performance goal orientation and, 166–167
PO fit and, 140
prior socialization experience, 166
proximal influences on, 169
rate of socialization, 165
rites of passage with, 168
simplifying conditions for, 169
situational factors for, 167–170
socialization over, 161–162, 165–172
socialization tactics and, 170–171
as SRT dimension, 53
temporal focus and, 166
work-related contexts for, 168–170
tool kits
for Bank of America socialization program, 307
for comprehensive onboarding program development, 298
Total Onboarding Program (TOP), 316–318
chronology for, 317
employee strengths in, 318
management requirements for, 317
organization mission in, 318
personal motivations in, 318
PO fit and, 318
vision in, 318
touchstones, for senior management, 322
tournament model, for career advancement, 216
toxic mentoring, 223–224
Toyota, plant management socialization practices, 311–313
development phase of, 311–313
mentors in, 311–312
observational phase of, 312
production machinery dynamics phase, 312
Toyota production system (TPS), 311
training fulfillment, 33
training programs, 33–34
anxiety reduction in, 33–34
helpfulness of, 34
for newcomer proactive behavior, 72–73
offsite residential, 33
purpose of, 33
self-efficacy from, 34
SRT and, 50
training fulfillment as result of, 33
transactional onboarding, 318
transitions. See also job transitions; role transitions
for senior management, 304
in social identity theory, 12
in socialization literature, theoretical perspectives on, 12
structured mentoring and, 328–329
transitive principle, within social networking, 89 (p. 360)
treatment diffusion, in construct validity, 190
trust, information sharing and, 72
through adjustments to diversity, 129
elaboration processes for diversity and, 121
facilitation of, by organizations, 239–240
by HCNs, to expatriates, 236–239
with interpersonal disclosures, 129
procedural justice and, 238–239
social categorization as influence on, 238–239
social identity theory for, 237–238
turnover. See job turnover
2001, A Space Odyssey (Clarke), 20
U
uncertainty reduction theory, 28
anxiety strategies in, 28
confidence and, 28
in entry-socialization experience, 28
feedback in, 28
information access in, 28
social support and, 28
unemployment, duration of, 107
unpredictable role transitions, 168
V
Vadon, Mark, 257
validity, in research, 188–191
construct, 189–190, 200
control issues in, 191
definition of, 188
effectiveness research for, 191
efficacy research for, 191
efficiency research for, 191
external, 188–189
internal, 188–190, 195, 197, 203
literature review for, 190–191
optimization of, 190–191
process understanding in, 191
research question description for, 191
by research stage, 190–191
statistical conclusion, 189–190
threats to, 189–190
triangulation design for, 190–191
types of, 188–189
values, of organization
conflicts over, 219–220
insider attitudes toward, 219–221
onboarding influenced by, 283
in onboarding literature, 276
PO fit and, 141, 145
Van Maanen, John, 19
variable socialization tactics, 35
variety diversity, 116–117
cognitive diversity and, 123
elaboration processes for, 121
exclusion with, 123
newcomer proactivity and, 120
role innovation and, 119
social identification and, 118–119
social support for, 122
veterans, in organizations
as role models, for newcomers, 16
as social construct, 16
W
welcome activities, for onboarding, 270, 273
social interactions in, 273
well-being, of leaders, 108
whole networks, 81
centrality in, 81
Williams, Doug, 257
Willow Creek Community Church, 260
servicescape design for, 260
withdrawal, from organizations, 130. See also job turnover
under similarity-attraction theory, 130
work adjustment, for expatriates, 233
work experiences, 163
high breadth, 163
high depth, 163
work groups, social networking within, 90
work-life conflict, 106–107
work-to-work transition, 221