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date: 24 January 2020

(p. 957) Index

(p. 957) Index

Abell, J., 281
Abelson, Robert, 344
abortion, attitudes toward, 12, 72, 115–116, 184, 634
Achen, C., 73, 110, 114–115, 528
Achterberg, P., 598–599
Adams, G. S., 751
Adjective Check List, 29
Adler, Alfred, 464
adolescence:
cognitive development in, 67–68;
Erikson on, 471–472;
identity and, 471–472;
socialization and, 59–60, 62–70, 75–76, 81–82;
traits measured in, 36
Adorno, Theodor, 14, 28, 444, 609, 816–817
adulthood:
cognitive biases during, 10;
socialization and, 61–62, 81;
stability of political beliefs during, 71–72, 81, 85
advertising. See political advertising
affect:
behavioral decision theory (BDT) and, 148;
cognition and, 13–14, 173, 414, 822;
definitions of, 167;
demonstrations of, 171;
dual process mode of thinking and, 405;
implicit attitudes and, 13;
political behavior and, 13;
racial prejudice and, 13
affirmative action, 631, 641–642, 750–751, 833, 855, 911–912
Afghanistan, 348, 352
African Americans. See also discrimination;
prejudice: party identification and, 744, 826–827;
perceptions of discrimination and, 69–70;
political attitudes among, 70;
political participation and, 812;
racial identity and, 68–70;
stereotypes regarding, 12;
voting and, 829
age:
conservatism and, 79–80;
impact on attitudes and, 75–76, 78–80;
party identification and, 84–85;
personality and, 433–434;
political attitudes and, 75–76, 78–80;
political behavior and, 32;
racism and, 80
Agranat Commission (Israel), 311
Ahn, T. K., 153, 671
Al Ramiah, Anathi, 11, 13
Alexander, M. M., 343
Alford, J., 241, 247, 249–250, 634
Algeria, 78
Allison, Graham, 305–306, 326n48, 348, 402–403
Allport, Gordon, 428, 816, 821, 835, 892, 905, 907
Almond, Gabriel, 306, 790
Altemeyer, R. A., 37, 597, 606
Althaus, S., 107
Altmeyer, B., 248
altruism, 208–210
Alwin, D., 72, 75
American Apartheid (Massey and Denton), 893–894
American National Election Studies (ANES), 71, 75, 120, 150, 666, 693, 751, 754, 822–823, 827
American Political Science Association, 2
American Voter Revisited, The (Lewis-Beck et al.), 62
American Voter, The (Campbell et al.), 61, 71, 83, 149, 666, 739
Amodio, D. M., 244, 538, 543
Anatomy of Racial Attitudes (Glock), 819–820
Andersen, V. N., 709–710
Anderson, D. J., 115
Anderson, E., 815
Angola, 347
Annan Plan (Cyprus), 511
Ansolabehere, S., 578, 592–593
anti-Semitism, 14, 817
Arai, M., 225
Arceneaux, K., 150–151, 571
Arcuri, L., 537
Arguing and Thinking (Billig), 267–268
argument:
anti-logos and, 271–272, 284;
political rhetoric and, 267–276;
thinking and, 268–269
Aristotle, 264, 276, 287, 699
Armstrong, J. S., 139
Asch, S., 339–340, 715
Ashmore, R. D., 926
Ashton, M. C., 597
Asian Americans, 69, 83–84, 250, 876
Asian Indians, 84
Assad, Hafiz al-, 446
assimilation:
definitions of, 859;
historical context and, 853–854, 878;
segmented forms of, 861–862;
United States and, 853
Ataturk, Kemal, 482
Atkins, J., 278
attention:
emotions and, 184–185;
limits of, 9;
political communication and, 563–570
attitudes:
age’s impact on, 75–76, 78–80;
assortative mating and, 242;
change and, 72–74;
cohort replacement and, 74;
consistency and, 12, 35, 71–72, 75, 271;
contrasted with behavior, 892–893;
core political, 36–37;
definitions of, 27;
economic self-interest and, 74;
emotions and, 176, 183–184;
explicit, 11, 13, 193n3, 538, 540, 823, 892, 895, 900–901, 913;
gender’s impact on, 221;
genetic influence on, 248, 255–256;
heritability and, 26;
implicit, 9, 11, 13, 67, 193n4, 823–824, 892, 895, 913;
implicit association tests (IAT) and, 824, 891–892;
issue framing and, 117;
measurement of, 823–824;
origins of, 816;
personality and, 39;
political efficacy and, 42;
socialization and, 12, 59–71, 81, 85–86, 816;
values and, 603–604
Australia, 223, 866, 912
Austrian Freedom Party, 837
Authoritarian Personality, The (Adorno et al.), 531, 609, 617, 816–818
authoritarianism:
authoritarian personality and, 28–29, 37–38;
left-wing, 29;
personality and, 14, 28–29, 37–38, 443–444, 531, 840n11;
research questions regarding, 3;
right-wing, 29
aversion. See loss aversion
Axelrod, R., 209–210, 318–319
Azar, E. E., 929
Babbitt, E. F., 513
Bacci, C., 706
Bachmann, Michele, 577
Bacon, Francis, 268
Baker, L. A., 241
Baker, W., 650
balance theory, 349–350, 352–355, 497
Baldassarri, D., 600
Balkan Wars, 375
Ball, George, 402
Ban, R., 719
Banaji, M. R., 823
Bandura, A., 11, 42
Bar-Tal, D., 13, 15, 937
Barabas, J., 715
Baram, Amatzia, 479
Barber, J., 440
Bargh, John, 536
Barker, D. C., 608
Barnett, Ross, 833–834
Barrett-Howard, E., 637
Bartels, L., 9, 104, 107, 110–111, 114–116, 150
Barthes, R., 265
Bates, T. C., 617–618
Batson. C. D., 651
Baumeister, R., 893
Bayesian models, updating and, 310, 374–375
Begin, Menachem:
Camp David peace process and, 424–425, 469–470;
health of, 469–470;
Holocaust and, 478, 485;
Jerusalem and, 470;
psychobiography of, 460, 477–478, 485
behavioral decision theory (BDT):
accuracy goals and, 151–152;
affect and, 148;
affective intelligence and, 152, 154;
bounded rationality and, 136, 139, 155;
categorization and, 137;
comparable alternatives and, 144;
compensatory decision-making strategies and, 141–144, 146;
decision quality and, 152–153;
decision rules and, 141;
decision-making environment and, 139–140;
decomposition (p. 959) and, 137–138;
dynamic process-tracing environments (DPTE) and, 147–148, 150–151;
editing and, 137–138;
elites and, 131;
emotion and, 153–155;
experiments and, 147;
heuristics and, 137–139, 141–144, 148–151, 156;
individuals and, 130–131;
information boards, 140, 142, 144, 147–148;
information searches and, 142–146;
institutions and, 130–131;
memory and, 136, 148, 151;
motivated reasoning and, 148, 151–152;
noncomparable alternatives and, 144;
noncompensatory decision-making strategies and, 141–145;
online processing and, 151;
political campaigns, 147–148;
process tracing and, 140–141, 146–149, 151;
rational choice theory and, 131, 133, 137, 140, 152, 154–155;
sample surveys and, 146–147, 150;
semiautomatic rule following and, 155;
sequencing of information acquisition and, 143–144, 146;
task complexity and, 145;
time pressure and, 145;
updating information and, 149;
voting and, 148–149, 152, 154
behavioral genetics:
5HTT gene and, 252;
adoption studies and, 240;
alleles and, 238, 249–250, 256n1;
assortative mating and, 241–242;
environmental equivalents assumption (EEA), 240–241;
environmental factors and, 237–242, 246, 248, 250–251, 254–256, 614;
Falconer method and, 239–240;
gene-environment (GE) correlation, 254–255;
“general genes” and, 242–243;
genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and, 615;
genotypes and, 238;
heritability and, 237–241, 243, 255, 613–614;
in-group favoritism and, 250;
MAOA gene, 252;
multivariate genetic analysis and, 242–243, 253;
neuroscience and, 243–244, 252, 256;
out-group hostility and, 250;
party affiliation and, 249–250, 252;
personality and, 248–249;
phenotypes and, 238–243, 254;
political behavior and, 7–8, 237–238, 241, 244–255;
political efficacy and, 251;
political ideology and, 613–615, 617, 817;
political knowledge and, 251;
political participation and, 251–254;
prejudice and, 816–817;
religious affiliation and, 250, 252;
social orientation and, 248;
values and, 245–248, 255;
voting and, 251–252
Belgium, 793
Ben Ali, Zine al-Abidine, 484
benevolence, 604–606
Benford, R., 779, 792
Bennett, W. L., 265
Bennington College study, 72
Bercovitch, J., 923
Berelson, B., 666, 693
Berkeley (California), 613
Berlin (Germany) blockade crisis, 307
Berlin, Isaiah, 373
Bertaux, Daniel, 474
Betzig, L., 220, 223
bias. See prejudice
BIAS (Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes) Map, 897–898
Big Five personality types. See under personality
Bigler, R. S., 64, 70
Billig, M., 263, 267–269, 271–276, 285, 288, 289n9
Bin Laden, Osama, 367, 481
Biography and Society (Bertaux), 474
Birt, Raymond, 412
Black, E., 827–828, 833
Black, J. H., 84
Black, L., 706–707, 715, 720, 722
Black, M., 827–828
Blader, S. L., 643
Blair, I. V., 899, 902
Blair, Tony, 275, 278, 284
Block, J. and J. H., 612–613
Bloody Sunday (Northern Ireland), 930
Blumer, H., 740, 777, 866
Bobo, L., 15
Bolivia, 343
Borgida, E., 17
Boulding, K., 340
bounded rationality. See under rationality
Bourhis, R. Y., 760, 860, 862
Bowskill, M., 862
Boyd, R., 216–217
Brader, Ted, 8, 12–13, 866
Bradley, Tom, 829
(p. 960) Breakwell, G. M., 748
Brewer, M. B., 743, 746–747, 761, 763, 840n7
Brezhnev, Leonid, 435, 444
British Columbia, 266
Brody, R., 149
Broffenbrenner, U., 355
Brooke, Edward, 829
Brown, R., 905–906
Brubaker, R., 855
Bruck, H. W., 306, 402
Bryan, C. J., 536
Buchanan, Patrick, 680
Buechler, S. M., 777
Bullitt, William, 462–463, 465
Burke, K., 277
Burns, John F., 423
Burnstein, E., 714
Bursell, M., 225
Burstein, P., 802–803
Burton, John, 503–504, 510
Bush, George H. W.:
1988 election and, 830;
Gorbachev and, 375;
Gulf War (1991) and, 79, 371–372, 448, 480;
supporters of, 36
Bush, George W.:
2000 election and, 193n9, 679–680;
Iraq War (2003-) and, 284–286, 309, 366, 369, 382, 409–411;
political rhetoric and, 283–286, 410–411, 750;
Social Security and, 567;
stem cell research and, 546–547;
supporters of, 539;
tax cuts and, 104
Byman, D., 423, 425
Cacioppo, J. T., 166
Calvert, R. L., 686
Cambodia, 635
Camerer, C., 378
Cameron, David, 433, 852, 855
Camp David Summit (1979), 424, 477–478
Campbell-Bannerman, Henry, 433
Campbell, A., 42, 61, 71, 149, 739, 823
Campbell, Donald, 15, 650
Canada, studies from, 84, 866, 895–896
Capanna, C., 43, 605
Caprara, G., 8, 32, 37, 41–43, 533–534, 617–618
Carli, L., 902
Carlson, L., 446
Carmines, E. G., 827–828
Carney, D. R., 612
Carter, Jimmy, 423–425, 470, 477–478
Castano, E., 539–540
Chagnon, N. A., 223
Chamberlain, Neville, 443
Chechyna, 944
Chiao, J. Y., 543
Chigas, Diana, 510–511
childhood:
cognitive development in, 67, 70;
political interest during, 62;
socialization and, 14, 59–68, 70, 83, 608
Childhood and Society (Erikson), 471
Chile, 343–344, 348
China:
Cultural Revolution and, 444;
culture of, 432;
foreign policy of, 348;
Great Leap Forward and, 444;
perceptions of, 352, 366, 372;
Taiwan Straits crisis and, 444
Chong, Dennis, 5–6, 13, 103–104, 118, 131
Christiakis, N. A., 691
Chufrin, G. I., 505
Churchill, Winston, 283, 484
Ciarrochi, J., 340
Cicero, 264, 287
Civil Rights Act (United States, 1964), 827–828, 835
Clark, L. A., 187
Clarke, P., 571
Clawson, R. A., 569
Cleveland (Ohio), 671–672
Clinton, Bill, 446, 828;
psychology of, 424–425, 446;
supporters of, 36
Clinton, Hillary, 282, 436
Clore, G. L., 413
Coaker, Vernon, 284
coalitional psychology, 222
coalitions: evolutionary biology and, 214–215, 222–223;
foreign policy and, 348–349
Cochrane, C., 595, 598
Cocks, G., 463
Coenders. M., 874
cognition:
affect and, 13–14, 173, 414, 822;
cognitive complexity, 67, 396, 427;
cognitive consistency, 10, 272, 546;
cognitive psychology and, 9;
decision-making and, 5;
limits of, 10–11, 14, 138–139
(p. 961) cognitive dissonance theory, 564
cognitive shortcuts. See heuristics
Cohen, B., 565
Cohen, G. L., 111–112, 115, 530
Cohen, J., 379, 381, 701, 704
Cohen, Marilyn, 946
Colbert Report, The, 574, 577
collective action:
action mobilization and, 791–792;
advantaged groups and, 785;
causality versus correlation in, 800;
connective action and, 793;
consciousness raising and, 791;
consensus mobilization and, 780–781, 788, 791–792;
continuity and, 795;
conversion and, 795;
core activists and, 794;
critical communities and, 788;
critical events’ influence on, 795;
declining commitment and, 797;
definition of, 776;
demand side of, 780–786, 799;
disadvantaged groups and, 7853;
discursive communities and, 781;
disengagement and, 795–799;
efficacy and, 644, 782–783, 785, 791;
emotions and, 643, 785–786, 799–800;
frames of, 788–789;
incentives and, 774, 787;
insufficient gratification and, 796;
Internet and, 791, 793;
justice and, 642–644, 647–648;
labor unions and, 794, 798;
media and, 793;
mobilization and, 780, 788–794;
non-normative forms of, 644;
normative forms of, 644;
oppositional identity and, 795;
party politics and, 801–803;
precipitating events and, 797–798;
protests and, 774, 776, 785, 795, 801;
radicalization and, 798;
social capital and, 790, 800;
social context and, 787, 790, 799, 801–802;
social embeddedness and, 790–791;
social media and, 793;
social networks and, 787, 790–791;
stigmatization and, 787, 794;
supply side of, 780, 786–789;
sustained participation and, 794–795, 799;
themes and counterthemes of, 788;
trust and, 782
colony stereotype, 351–352
Colored Revolutions, 803
Common Knowledge Effect, 715–716
Condor, S., 272–274, 281, 284, 286
conflict analysis and resolution. See also intergroup conflict; intractable conflict:
collective fears and needs in, 491;
compellence and, 492;
concessions and, 490, 492–493;
confidencebuilding measures and, 512;
controlled communication and, 503;
cultural analysis and, 513;
Cyprus case study and, 510–511;
deterrence and, 492;
diplomacy and, 492, 494;
gender differences and, 513;
Georgia-South Ossetia case study and, 511–512;
incentives in, 492–493;
institutionalization and, 516;
interactive conflict resolution and, 489, 503–512;
internal conflicts and, 491–492;
international conflict and, 490–494;
Israeli-Palestinian case study and, 509–510;
mediation and, 515;
mutual reassurance and, 493;
negotiation sessions and, 507;
problem-solving workshops and, 489, 503–513, 515–516;
psychodynamic approach to, 503;
responsiveness and, 493–494;
separation strategy and, 355–356;
sequencing issues and, 515;
settlements and, 492;
social-psychological approach to, 489–490, 495, 504;
social-psychological assumptions and, 506;
third parties and, 492, 504–506, 508, 515;
training and, 513–514;
congruence, 46–47
Conley, P., 103–104
Conover, P. J., 597
conservatism. See also political ideology:
age and, 79–80;
behavioral genetics and, 817;
cognitive rigidity and, 532–535;
economic, 594–595, 599–600;
empathy and, 541;
happiness and, 541;
inequality and, 594–595, 598;
multi-dimensional aspect of, 16, 599;
neuroscience findings and, 542–543;
personality and, 610–611, 617;
security values and, 34–35, 533–534, 539, 541, 594–595, 610;
strict parent model and, 608–609
Conservative Party (United Kingdom), 279, 282, 286, 902, 911
Converse, Philip, 32, 35, 61, 71, 75, 82, 528, 592–594, 602, 705, 739, 826, 831, 841n19
(p. 962) Correll, J., 898, 910
Cosmides, L., 212, 222
Cottam, Martha, 342–344, 354
Cottam, Richard, 340–341, 349–351, 354
Craik, K. H., 29–30
crisis:
definition of, 396–397;
institutional forms of, 397–399, 400;
sense of urgency and, 396–397;
situational forms of, 397–399;
threat and, 396;
uncertainty and, 397
crisis management:
cognitive complexity and, 396, 408–410, 414;
decision heuristics and, 396;
decision making and, 395, 400, 402–404, 406–407;
dual process models of thinking and, 395–396, 404–407, 412–414, 417;
emotions and, 404, 407, 412–415, 417;
fear and, 414–415;
framing of narratives and, 400–401;
groupthink and, 415–416;
heuristics and, 406–407, 410–412, 417;
information processing and, 408–409;
integrative complexity and, 409–410;
loss aversion and, 414–415;
meaning making and, 401;
political psychology approach to, 402–404, 416–417;
postcrisis learning and, 401–402, 411;
pride and, 415;
process and, 402–403;
prospect theory and, 414–415;
psychology of, 395;
public communication and, 400–401;
rationality models and, 402–404;
stress and, 395–396, 405–408, 412;
stress-motivation nexus and, 396;
testing realities and, 399–400;
time pressure and, 400, 408;
“Wag the Dog” effect, 401;
Yerkes-Dodson model and, 405–407
Cronbach, L. J., 334, 344
Crosby, T., 463
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), 307, 326n48, 402–403, 408, 444, 501
Cunningham, W. A., 542
Curtis, K. A., 62
Cyprus conflict, 510–511
Dahl, Robert, 152, 570
Daily Show, The, 574, 577
Dalton, Russell, 17, 775–776, 783, 803
Damasio, A., 378
Danigelis, N. L., 80
Darwin, Charles, 166, 206–207, 219, 227
Davies, J., 778
Dawes, C. T., 241, 246–247, 249, 252, 691
Dawes, R., 156n1
Dawkins, Richard, 206
De Cock, B., 283
de Gaulle, Charles, 440, 500
de Klerk, F. W., 500
De Oratore (Cicero), 264
Dean, Howard, 574
Deaux, K., 747, 759, 762, 926
Decision Making (Janis and Mann), 309
decisions:
behavioral decision theory (BDT) and, 132, 135–140;
choice and, 131;
definition of, 131–132;
emotion and, 5, 184–185;
global evaluations and, 132;
justifications and, 147;
normative theories of, 133;
process tracing and, 132;
rational choice theory (RCT) and, 132–135;
voting and, 132
Decoding the Past (Loewenberg), 474
Deess, E. P., 708
Deliberative Polls studies (United Kingdom), 700, 704–705, 707, 710, 715, 719, 725
Delli Carpini, M. X., 107, 570, 633, 708–709, 723–724
democracy:
citizens’ competence in, 4;
definitions of, 47;
equality and, 48;
freedom and, 47;
political deliberation and, 701–703, 707–708, 716, 727;
political participation and, 40
Democratic Party (United States), 744, 826–827. See also liberalism
Denmark, 432–433, 710, 864, 911
Denny, K., 252–253
Denton, N. A., 894
Desai, Morarji, 433
Descartes, René, 166
deterrence theory:
Cold War and, 492;
credibility and, 382–383;
perception and, 347, 357;
prospect theory and, 377;
signaling and, 335
Deutsch, K., 340
Deutsch, M., 498
Devine, P., 538
Di Renzo, G., 29
Diamond, Louise, 510–511
Dillard, J. P., 705
discrimination. See also prejudice:
active versus passive behavior and, 897;
affirmative action against, 911–912;
aversive racism (p. 963) and, 894–897, 903;
combating, 890, 904–913;
consequences of, 893–894, 913;
cross-categorization a means of combating, 908–909;
definition of, 890;
discrimination: dispositions and, 901;
employment and, 895–898;
equal opportunity legislation combating, 912;
ethnicity and, 225;
health care and, 896;
impact of age on, 70;
informal forms of, 898;
intergroup contact as a means of combating, 905–908;
legal system and, 898–899, 902;
perception and, 69–70;
political behavior and, 901–903;
prejudice and, 890–892, 913;
racial, 11, 69, 895–896, 898–900;
self-regulation against, 904–905;
sex, 225, 897, 902–903;
social norms and, 894–895, 903;
socialization and, 69–70;
stereotypes and, 897–900, 902–904, 910, 912;
training to combat, 910
discursive psychology, 276
Ditto, P., 600
Dixon, J. C., 871
Dollinger, M., 706
Donovan, “Wild Bill,” 476
Doosje, B., 799
dopamine, 247, 249, 252, 691
Dorn, R. M., 407–408
Dovidio, J., 753, 891–898, 901, 906–910
Downs, A., 6, 121, 134, 568, 686
Downton, J., 797
Doyle, O., 252–253
Druckman, J. N., 118–119, 568, 570, 689, 716
Drury, J., 794
Dryzek, J. S., 262
Du Bois, W. E.B., 280–281, 283–284
Duckitt, J., 38, 65, 533, 596–597, 611, 869
Dukakis, Michael, 830
Dulles, John Foster, 307, 342–343, 403
Duncan, M., 282–283
Durrheim, K., 871
Duyvendak, J. W., 789
Dykes, C., 41
Dyson, S. B., 6, 8, 10, 409–410
Eagly, A. H., 224, 902–903
Easton, D., 130, 633
economic system justification (ESJ) scale and, 548–549
Eden, Anthony, 413
editing, decision-making and, 137–138
education:
cognitive ability and, 39;
political behavior and, 32, 35, 39, 41, 72, 80;
prejudice and, 818–819, 837;
socialization and, 63–65, 72;
tolerance and, 818–819
Edwards, W., 136
Egypt:
Arab Spring in, 484, 580;
Arab-Israeli War (1967) and, 377;
Arab-Israeli War (1973) and, 311, 375, 377
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 348
Ekman, Paul, 187
El Salvador, 930
elections. See political campaigns; voting
elites:
cognitions and, 441–445;
cognitive biases among, 6, 10;
cognitive styles among, 39;
emotion and, 13;
heuristic reasoning and, 10;
implicit motives and, 445–447;
leader-society congruence and, 446–447;
perceptions of threat among, 8, 13, 15;
personality profiles of, 29, 35, 423–448;
political attitudes and, 73, 82;
social contexts and, 432–438;
traits and, 438–441
Elizabeth I (Queen of England), 220
Ellemers, N., 634, 753–754, 799
Ellis, C., 599
Elmira (New York), 666
Elster, J., 100, 121
emotions:
action tendencies and, 182–183;
as adaptive programs of action, 380;
advocacy groups and, 190;
affective intelligence theory and, 169, 172, 176–180, 185–186;
appraisal theories and, 167–168, 171–174, 186;
approach-avoidance theories and, 167;
attention and, 184–185;
attitudes and, 176, 183–184;
autocracies and, 192;
aversion and, 172;
basic, 170;
bodily reactions to, 187;
calmness/serenity and, 178–179;
collective, 384–387;
contagion and, 384–385;
decision-making and, 5, 184–185;
definitions of, 378, 388n1;
dimensional typologies of, 170–171;
discrete typologies of, 169–171;
disgust and, 180, 187;
efforts to control, 191–192;
enthusiasm and, 172, 174–176, 185;
families of, 175–182;
group identities and, 754–757;
(p. 964) guilt and, 181, 184;
habitual associations and, 12;
intergroup emotions theory (IET), 190–191, 385, 755–757;
intergroup relations and, 189–190;
intragroup relations and, 189–190;
learning and, 184–185;
major theoretical perspectives on, 167–169;
manipulation of, 191–192;
measurement of, 187–188;
moral judgments and, 183–184;
neural process theories and, 168–169, 171, 173–174;
neuroscience of, 7, 168–169, 178, 187, 379, 414–415;
perceptions and, 354, 365, 379–380;
personality and, 188–189;
political advocacy messages and, 191;
political attitudes and, 176, 183–184;
political behavior and, 13, 176;
political consequences of, 182–185;
political information processing and, 536–540, 546;
postconscious appraisals and, 173–174, 186;
preconscious appraisals and, 173–174, 186;
rationality and, 378–379;
sadness/disappointment, 176–177, 180, 185;
self-conscious types of, 181–182;
shame and, 181–182, 184;
social appraisal and, 385;
social context and, 380, 384–385;
Sociofunctional Th reat-Based Approach to Intergroup Affect, 190–191;
theoretical testing and, 186–187;
threat perception and, 377–387, 396;
valence and, 170
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC, United States), 912
equality:
conservatism and, 594–595, 598;
distributive justice and, 630, 637;
liberalism and, 595, 598
Erie County (Ohio), 666
Erikson, Erik:
on adolescence, 471–472;
Gandhi psychobiography by, 29, 472, 475;
on generativity, 434;
on infancy, 471;
on life cycle phases, 75, 460, 471–473;
Luther psychobiography by, 9, 29, 460, 472, 474;
psychobiography field and, 29, 460, 466–467, 471–474, 485
Erikson, R. S., 76, 602
Esses, V. M., 870
Esterling, K. M., 707–708, 710, 719–720, 722
Ethier, K., 759, 762
Ethington, L., 447
Ethiopia, 352
ethnic identity. See under identity
ethnocentricism, 215–216, 218–219, 227, 496
European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR), 2
European Union, 150, 278, 864
Evans, A., 816
evolutionary biology:
adaptations and, 207, 213–214;
altruism and, 208–210;
arbitrary-set hierarchy and, 223–224, 227;
categorization and, 218;
coalitions and, 214–215, 222–223;
conditioned fear and, 225;
conformism and, 217;
cooperative strategies and, 209–210;
cultural group selection, 217;
cultural marking and, 217;
ethnocentricism and, 215–216, 218–219, 227;
evolutionary psychology and, 211–213;
expropriative coalitions and, 222;
gendered intergroup conflict and, 224–227;
genes and, 206, 208–209;
group identities and, 742–743;
group selection and, 210–211, 217;
group-based social hierarchy and, 221–224;
hunting and, 207, 212, 214;
in-group favoritism, 8, 215–216, 219;
intergroup conflict and, 214–215, 221, 224–227;
kin selection and, 208–209, 216–218;
leadership and, 214–215;
misogyny and, 223;
natural selection and, 205–207, 212–213;
nature versus nurture dichotomy and, 206, 212, 227;
out-group male target hypothesis (OMTH) and, 224–226;
out-groups and, 218, 221;
parental investment and, 207–208, 219;
patriarchy and, 220–224, 227;
phenotypes and, 206–207, 212, 613, 816;
political psychology and, 7, 205, (213227), 221–222;
polygyny and, 214;
reciprocal altruism, 209–210;
sex differences and, 219–224, 226;
sexual selection and, 207, 219–220;
social exchange and, 214;
social science and, 205–206;
socialization and, 227–228;
socially defined kinship and, 217–218;
within-group power, 214–215
evolutionary psychology:
adaptation and, 211–213;
ancestral environments and, 212–213;
brain structure and, 211–212;
domain specificity and, 211–212;
learning and, 212;
political psychology and, 7, 205, 213–227;
punishment psychology, 214
(p. 965) expectancy-value theory, 6, 134
Explorations in Psychohistory (Lifton), 474
Eysenck, Hans, 29, 428, 463, 525–526, 609, 619n13
Facebook, 266, 793
Fairbairn, Nicholas, 286
fairness. See justice
family:
divorce and, 62–63;
socialization and, 61–65, 73–74, 83–84
Farrar, C., 705
Faschingbauer, T. R., 430, 439–440
Fazio, R. H., 900
fear. See under emotions
Federico, C. M., 33, 595
Feldman, Stanley, 8–9, 16, 36, 528, 592, 596–601, 818, 840n11
Finland, 854
Finlayson, Alan, 268, 274–276, 289n10
First Amendment, 117
Fischerkeller, M. P., 341, 344
Fisher, Ronald J., 504–506, 510–511, 515
Fishkin, J. S., 707, 719
Fiske, Alan, 340–341
Fiske, Susan, 340
Fitzgerald, J., 62
Fløttum, K., 278, 284
Folkman, S., 408, 414
foreign policy. See also international relations:
analogies and, 311–312;
appeasement and, 312;
bounded rationality and, 308;
case studies and, 321;
coalitions and, 348–349;
cognitive biases and, 10, 308;
cognitive paradigm approach to, 302, 308–309;
collective memory and, 79;
decision boards and, 317;
decision-making studies and, 306–308;
domestic politics and, 315, 317;
elites and, 306;
emotion and, 309–310, 313;
expected-utility theory and, 314, 316–317;
framing and, 315–316;
game theory and, 321–322;
heuristics and, 308, 310–311, 337–338;
images’ role in, 335;
individual leaders and, 302–303, 305, 309–310, 312–313, 321;
information processing and, 307;
international context and, 305–306;
laboratory experiments and, 304, 316;
learning and, 310–312, 334–335;
levels-of-analysis framework and, 302–304, 323;
loss aversion and, 314, 316, 376–377, 384;
misperception in, 308;
motivated reasoning and, 309;
national interests framework and, 305;
operational codes and, 307;
overconfidence and, 313–314;
perceptions’ role in (Expand), 334–335, 343–344, 346–349, 356;
poliheuristic theory of decision and, 316–317;
political psychology and, 3, 302, 305–306, 320;
prospect theory and, 314–316, 321, 376–377, 384;
public opinion and, 119;
rational unitary actor model of, 305;
rationalist framework and, 305;
research methods and, 304–310, 320–321;
risk and, 314, 316, 321, 376, 384;
Rubicon model of war and, 312–314;
signaling and, 336;
social psychology approach and, 306, 308–310, 320;
Stanford “1914” studies and, 308;
status quo bias and, 315;
stress and, 304, 309;
temporal construal theory and, 319–320;
time horizons and, 317–320
Fowler, J. H., 241, 246, 249, 251–252, 255, 691
framing:
ambivalence and, 119–120;
competition in, 118;
crisis management and, 400–401;
discounting behavior and, 319;
emphasis and, 568;
equivalence and, 568;
information processing and, 116–120, 122;
justice and, 628, 640, 644;
motivated reasoning and, 119–120;
political communication and, 563, 567–570;
political deliberation and, 716, 723;
prejudice and, 832–834;
psychology and, 117;
public opinion and, 118, 122;
qualification of, 117–118
France, 864, 930
Frankfurt school of social theory, 28
Franz, M., 572
Frederick, S., 545
Fredin, E., 571
Fredrickson, George, 820, 826
Freedom Summer, 794
Frenkel-Brunswik, E., 444
Freud, Anna, 467
Freud, Sigmund, 428, 649;
analysis of political leaders and, 8;
Da Vinci psychobiography by, 424, 462;
Erikson and, 471;
on Moses, (p. 966) 462, 472;
on narcissism, 461–462, 471;
Oedipus complex and, 466;
on parenthood, 461;
psychobiography field and, 459, 461–464;
on war, 305;
Wilson psychobiography and, 462–463, 465
Friese, M., 900–901
Fromm, Eric, 464
Fulker, Rushton, 253
fundamental attribution error, 376, 496
Funk, C. L., 7–8, 241–243, 245–251, 903
Gaddaffi, Mu’ammar al-, 424, 444, 484–485
Gaertner, S. L., 895, 908–909
Gaines, B. J., 113, 152
Galinsky, A. D., 647
game theory, 321–322
Gamson, W., 568, 780–781, 788
Gandhi, Indira, 436, 441
Gandhi, Mohandas, 29, 460, 466, 474–475, 478
Gandhi, Rajiv, 433
Gangl, A., 599
Garb, Paula, 511
Gastil, John, 705–706, 708, 715
Gaudet, H., 666
gender:
conflict analysis and resolution and, 513;
discrimination and, 225, 897, 902–903;
gender gap, 222, 719;
personality and, 32, 436, 724;
political behavior and, 32;
political deliberation and, 718–719;
socialization and, 63;
stereotypes regarding, 12
gendered prejudice theory, 226–227
General Social Survey (National Opinion Research Center), 668, 822
genetics. See behavioral genetics
George, Alexander:
on the power seeker, 467;
on risk, 321;
on Soviet Politburo, 307;
Wilson psychobiography by, 9, 305–306, 426, 459–460, 466–468, 483, 485
George, Juliette:
Wilson psychobiography by, 9, 305–306, 426, 459–460, 466–468, 483, 485
Georgia, 511–512
Gerber, A. S., 111, 122, 581, 619n16, 677, 761
Germany:
interwar period in, 474;
multiculturalism and, 852;
Nazi Era in, 3, 28, 77–78;
Nazi Youth in, 474;
studies from, 31–32, 37, 61–62, 82, 601, 759–760, 863, 874–875;
Turkish immigrants in, 747, 859;
Versailles Treaty and, 433;
World War I and, 474
Gibson, J. L., 634–635, 751–752
Gigerenzer, G., 139, 411
Gil-White, F. J., 217–218
Gilens, M., 107, 118–119, 704
Giles, M. W., 816
Gilovitch, T., 110, 138
Glaser, J., 594
Glasford, D. E., 753
Glaspie, April, 480
Glick, P., 897
Glock, Charles, 819–820
Goebbels, Joseph, 559
Golan Heights (Israel-Syria conflict), 470
Goldberg, A., 600
Goldstein, J., 322, 371
Goldstein, K., 572
Goldwater, Barry, 827–828
González, Velasco, 870
Good Friday Agreement (Northern Ireland), 284
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 375, 435, 444
Gordon, M., 861
Gore, Al, 193n9, 679–680
Goren, P., 530, 593
Goslinga, S., 798
Graham, J., 600, 607, 618
Grasmick, H. G., 535
Gray, J., 269
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Depression, 474
Great Trek (South Africa), 433
Green, D. P., 111, 122, 677
Greenberg, J., 539, 631, 762
Greenstein, Fred, 165, 348, 425, 429–430, 440
Greenwald, A. G., 891–892, 900–901
Griffin, D. W., 138
Gronke, P. W., 751
group consciousness, 82, 744, 753–754
group identities:
acquired versus ascribed, 759–760;
cognitive approach to, 739–740;
convergent identities and, 746–747;
defensiveness and, 745–746;
development of, 757–762;
emotions and, 754–757;
(p. 967) evolutionary biology and, 742–743;
external labeling and, 760;
fraternal deprivation, 741, 751–752;
group consciousness and, 753–754;
group identification and, 738;
group meaning and, 747–750;
group membership and, 738;
group position and, 740, 756;
group size and, 761;
identity strength and, 755–756;
in-group solidarity and, 738, 741, 743, 746, 762;
individual differences and, 761–762;
material interests and, 751–752;
national identity and, 747;
normative values and, 759;
out-group antipathy and, 738, 743, 746, 752–753;
patriotism and, 747–749, 762;
permeable boundaries and, 760;
political cohesion and, 739, 744–754, 763;
political identities and, 739;
prototypes and leadership for, 749–750;
realistic interest approach to, 740–741, 751;
relative deprivation theory and, 741;
salient identity and, 745, 758–759;
self-categorization theory (SCT) and, 739–742, 749, 758;
self-interest and, 740–741;
shared interests and, 740, 750;
situation salience and, 740;
social constructivism and, 742, 744;
social identity and, 739;
social identity theory (SIT) and, 741–744;
strong subjective, 744–746;
subjective, 739, 750, 757;
symbolic interests and, 752–753;
threat and, 762
Gruenfeld, D. H., 351
Guatemala, 343, 347
Gulf War (1991), 79, 311, 413
Guns of August, The (Tuchman), 412
Gurin, G., 42
Gurr, T., 642, 778
Haas, M. L., 347–348
Habermas, J., 702, 712
Haidt, Jonathan, 184, 600, 606–607, 609, 617–618
Hainmueller J., 837
Hajnal, Z. L., 83–84
Hamas, 383
Hamilton, W. D., 208–210, 216–217
Handbook of Political Psychology, 1–2
Handbook of Social Psychology, 816
Handlin, Oscar, 462–463
Hansen, K.M, 709–710
Hanson, Pauline, 277
Harcourt, A. H., 214
Harding, D. J., 78
Hart, P. ‘t, 6, 8, 10, 13, 400–401, 469, 714
Hartmann, Heinz, 464
Harvard Study Group (Cyprus conflict), 510–511
Haslam, N., 342
Hastie, R., 156n1, 576, 714
Hatemi, P. K., 74
Hebb, D., 12
Heider, Fritz, 349–350, 353–354, 497
Helpline study, 717
Henry, P. J., 910
Hermann, Margaret, 165, 409, 445–447
Hermann, Richard, 340–341, 343–344
heuristics:
adaptive tool box model of, 139;
additive difference rule (AddDif), 141, 143–144;
anchoring and adjustment, 138, 310–311, 374;
availability and, 138, 311–312, 345–346, 374, 411, 548;
behavioral decision theory (BDT) and, 137–139, 141–144, 148–151, 156;
cognitive, 6, 10;
dispositional, 44;
Elimination-by-Aspects Heuristic (EBA), 142–144;
endorsements and, 150–151, 571;
equal weights heuristic (EqW), 141, 143;
expected utility rule (EU) and, 141, 143;
fast and frugal, 139, 411;
foreign policy and, 308, 310–311, 337–338;
frequency of good and bad features (FreqGB) and, 141–143;
information processing and, 108, 111, 113, 115, 123;
lexicographic heuristic (LEX), 142–144;
likeability and, 45–46, 150–151;
majority of confirming dimensions heuristic (MCD), 141, 143–144;
moral, 548;
perceptions and, 337–338, 345–346;
political behavior and, 23;
rationality and, 396;
representativeness and, 138, 346, 374, 411–412;
satisficing (SAT) and, 139, 142–143, 562;
“take the best” and, 139, 411;
threat perception and, 371–376;
voting and, 44–46, 149–151;
weighted additive rule (WAdd) and, 143
Hewstone, M., 11, 13, 893, 905–906
Hibbing, J. R., 704
Higgins, E. T., 904
(p. 968) Highton, B., 80
Hill, K. A., 564, 592
Hirschfeld, L. A., 839
Hirschman, A. O., 99
Hirsh, J., 543
Hiscox, M. J., 837
Hitler, Adolf:
foreign policy analogies and, 371–372;
on Germany’s young, 474;
Munich conference (1938) and, 443;
Mussolini and, 426;
psychobiography of, 305, 424, 460, 476–477;
suicide of, 444;
World War II and, 341, 375, 408, 425, 444
Hobbes, Thomas, 381
Hobolt, S. B., 150
Hofstede, G. H., 433
Hogg, M. A., 750, 759–762
Holocaust:
authoritarian followers and, 3;
collective memory and, 433, 478, 485;
obeying authority and, 3;
political institutions and, 425
Holsti, K. J., 340
Holsti, Ole, 342–343
Hopf, T., 347
Hopkins, Nick, 268, 270–271, 279, 286, 750, 857–859
Horney, Karen, 464–465
Horowitz, D. L., 341
Horton, Willie, 830
Houtman, D., 598–599
Hovland, Carl, 561
Huckfeldt, R., 8, 10, 153, 548, 668–671, 679–682, 684–686
Huddy, Leonie, 8, 13, 15
Humphreys, M., 724
Huo, Y. J., 648
Hurricane Katrina, 64, 70, 398
Hussein, Saddam:
Gulf War (1991) and, 79, 371–372, 413, 479–480;
Iraq War and, 366, 369–370, 388, 425, 481;
psychoanalysis of, 413;
psychobiography of, 460, 478–481, 485
Hutter, S., 801–802
Hyman, H. H., 61
Hymans, Jacques, 385, 414–415
identity. See also group identities:
congruence and, 46;
immigrants and, 82–83, 784;
intergroup conflict and, 499–500;
intractable conflicts and, 931, 939–940;
multiple forms of, 783–784, 797;
Muslims and, 858;
political rhetoric and, 276–286;
politicization of, 784;
socialization and, 60
Ideological Dilemmas (Billig), 274
ideology. See political ideology
Idris (King of Libya), 485
Ihanus, J., 432
Ilie, C., 277–278
Iliescu, Ion, 279–280
images. See perceptions
Immelman, A., 430
Immerman, Richard, 348
immigration. See migration
Immigration Act of 1965 (United States), 854
Immortal Ataturk, The (Volkan and Itzkowitz), 460, 482
Implicit Association Tests (IAT), 11, 216, 536–538, 824, 891–892, 896, 910
in-groups:
behavioral genetics and, 250;
evolutionary biology and, 8, 215–216, 219;
political rhetoric, 279–280, 286;
solidarity and, 738, 741, 743, 746, 762
income, political behavior and, 32, 35, 41
India, 433, 909
Indianapolis–St. Louis study, 668–669
information acquisition:
rational choice theory (RCT) and, 96, 100, 102–103, 105–109, 115–116, 121–123, 134–135, 155;
sequencing of, 143–144, 146
information processing. See also political information processing:
Bayesian model and, 310;
bias and, 109–112;
consistency and, 119–120, 122–123;
deliberation and, 12, 114;
framing and, 116–120, 122;
heuristics and, 108, 111, 113, 115, 123;
incentives and, 114;
issue preferences and, 115;
motivated reasoning and, 9, 13, 109–110, 112, 114, 120, 123;
overcoming bias and, 114–116;
partisan bias and, 110–112, 119;
qualitative judgments regarding facts and, 112–114;
rational choice theory (RCT) and, 97, 100–101, 106, 109–120, 122–123, 134, 155;
reasoning versus intuition, 100, 379;
responsiveness to new information and, 110, 112, 118, 122–123;
source cues and, 113–114, 119, 122–123
(p. 969) information search:
alternative-based forms of, 143–144, 146;
attribute-based forms of, 144, 146;
depth of, 142–143, 145–146;
haphazard forms of, 144;
variance level in, 144
Inglehart, R., 650
Institutio Oratoria (Quintilian), 264
interactive acculturation model (IAM), 860
interactive conflict resolution, 489, 503–512
intergroup conflict. See also conflict analysis and resolution; intractable conflicts:
attribution errors and, 496–497;
categorization and, 499;
cognitive consistency and, 497–498;
cognitive dissonance and, 497;
collective moods and, 501;
decision-making processes and, 501–502;
dehumanization and, 498;
entrapment and, 498;
escalation and, 497–498;
ethnocentricism and, 496;
group loyalties and, 500–501;
group processes and, 498–503;
groupthink and, 502;
identity and, 499–500;
images and, 495–498;
loss aversion and, 498, 501;
negotiation and bargaining processes in, 502;
perceptual processes and, 495–498;
prospect theory and, 498, 501;
realistic group conflict theory (RCT), 499;
self-esteem and, 499;
social identity theory (SIT) and, 499;
stereotypes and, 495–497;
structural and psychological commitments and, 502–503
intergroup emotions theory (IET), 190–191, 385, 755–757
intergroup relations:
affect and, 14;
emotion and, 14;
prejudice and, 66;
rational choice theory and, 14–15;
realistic conflict theory and, 15;
social dominance orientation and, 37;
social prestige and, 15
international conflict:
collective needs and fears in, 490–491;
concessions and, 490;
dehumanization and, 494;
domestic constraints and, 501;
elites and, 491, 494;
escalatory nature of, 494, 497;
internal conflicts and, 491–492;
intersocietal nature of, 491–492, 515;
mutual influences in, 492;
objective factors and, 491;
self-fulfilling prophecies and, 494, 497
International Crisis Behavior series, 408
international relations. See also foreign policy:
constructivism and, 301, 322, 323nn1–2;
gestalt approach to, 340;
individual leaders’ roles in, 301;
liberalism and, 301, 322, 323n1;
psychological theories and, 303, 322–323;
rational approach to threat in, 6;
realism and, 301, 323n1, 356, 490, 503;
threat perceptions and, 15, 364–388
International Society of Political Psychology (ISPP), 1–2, 468
Internet:
collective action and, 791, 793;
interactivity and, 574;
political campaigns and, 574;
political communication and, 560–561, 564–565, 574–575, 579–580;
political impact of, 485;
political information and, 574
intractable conflicts. See also intergroup conflict; international conflict:
belief systems and, 932;
collective emotions and, 932–933, 938–939;
collective identity and, 931, 939–940;
collective memory and, 936–937;
collective psychological states and, 923, 926–928, 931–945;
conceptual framework of, 925–928;
contexts and, 926–927, 934–935, 941–943;
culture of conflict and, 939–940;
de-escalation and, 941–945;
definition of, 924;
“entrepreneurs” and, 927, 929, 934, 942;
eruption of, 923, 929–934;
escalation and, 934–940;
ethos of conflict and, 936–938, 940, 943;
false polarization and, 933;
group behavior and, 925–926;
media and, 942;
mobilization and, 930–931, 934;
motivated reasoning and, 940;
out-groups and, 932;
patriotism and, 938;
peace-building and, 941;
perceived threat and, 930, 932;
prospect theory and, 935;
relative deprivation and, 931–932;
sociopolitical-psychological approach to, 925;
symmetry versus asymmetry distinction and, 935;
ultimate attribution errors and, 933;
victimhood and, 938;
violence and, 924, 932, 935, 939–940, 943, 945;
zero-sum framing of, 924, 934
Inzlicht, M., 543
Iran: Green Revolution protests in, 793;
Iraq and, 366, 370;
Islamic Revolution in, 469–470;
nuclear program of, 383;
U.S. perceptions of, 348, 352, 383
(p. 970) Iraq Study Group, 411
Iraq War (2003-):
cognitive biases and, 369;
insurgency and, 410;
motivated reasoning and, 309;
overconfidence and, 313, 320;
perceptions and, 336;
political rhetoric, 275, 284–286, 568;
prospect theory and, 315;
public opinion and, 112–113, 152, 336, 546, 755, 757, 793, 834;
Samarra mosque bombing (2006) and, 411;
Sunni Awakening and, 352;
threat perception and, 369, 388
Iraq, Gulf War (1991) and, 79, 480–481
Israel:
Arab-Israeli War (1973) and, 311, 375, 377;
Arab-Israeli Wars (1967) and, 377;
Camp David peace process with Egypt and, 469–470;
elections in, 35;
Hamas and, 383;
Holocaust and, 433;
intelligence failures in, 311, 375;
Iran and, 383;
personality studies in, 35;
prejudice in, 66;
public opinion in, 386;
Russian immigrants to, 870;
Second Intifada in, 510;
studies from, 66, 78, 606, 759, 870
Israeli-Palestinian conflict:
national identity issues in, 500;
Oslo agreement, 509;
perceptions and, 355;
resolution efforts in, 504, 509–511;
Second Intifada and, 510
issue preferences:
political communication and, 566;
political deliberation and, 705, 710, 722;
prejudice and, 830–836;
socialization and, 61–62, 73
Italy, studies from, 31–32, 35, 43, 45, 82, 605, 753, 871
Itzkowitz, Norman, 460, 482
Iyengar, S., 265, 566–567, 569, 578
Iyer, R., 600, 617
Izard, C., 414
Jabotinsy, Vladimir, 478
Jackson, Jesse, 829
Jacobs, Lawrence, 17, 707–708, 722–723, 726–727
Jamieson, K., 578
Janis, Irving, 309, 406–408, 415–416, 502
Janoff-Bulman, R., 540
Japan, 315, 352, 433
Japanese Americans, 648, 750
Jassim, Latif, 481
Jencks, C., 78
Jennings, M. K., 62–63
Jerit, J., 150
Jervis, Robert, 79, 302, 304, 308–314, 337, 345–346, 364–366, 370, 374, 497
Jinnah, Mohammed Ali, 281
Johnson, B. T., 221–222
Johnson, J., 701
Johnson, Lyndon, 79, 440, 827
Johnson, M., 527–528
Johnson, P. E., 670
Johnston, C., 596, 598–601, 617
Johnston, R., 828, 907
Joint Working Group on Israeli-Palestinian Relations, 509–510
Jones, Ernest, 462
Joseph, C., 618
Jung, Carl, 428, 464
Junn, J., 759
justice:
authorities and institutions and, 632–635, 638;
collective action and, 642–644, 647–648;
conflict resolution and, 639–640;
consensus about, 636, 639–641;
definitions of, 627;
disadvantaged groups and, 645–647;
distributive, 629–632, 637–639, 642–646, 649;
economic issues and, 632, 639, 645–647;
framing and, 628, 640, 644;
governance and, 631, 639–640, 651–652;
group level of, 641–644, 646, 652;
individual level of, 641–644, 646;
interpersonal treatment and, 638, 648, 652;
justifications in opposition to, 644–648;
moral values and, 627, 629, 649–651;
motivated reasoning and, 645;
neutrality and, 638;
offenders’ roles in, 639;
origins of the concept of, 15;
participation’s role in, 634;
philosophical aspects of, 627;
psychological aspects of, 627–628, 630;
relative deprivation theory and, 642–643;
restorative, 638–639;
retributive, 628–629, 634–639, 649;
reward and, 627–628, 652;
scope of, 629, 648;
self-interest and, 6, 627–628, 650;
social coordination and, 635–636, 651;
socialization and, 649–650;
societal (p. 971) level of, 641, 643;
system justification theory and, 645–648;
transitional, 635;
trust and, 638;
victims’ roles in, 638–639, 644;
voice and, 638, 650;
workplace issues and, 631
Kahani-Hopkins, Vered, 268, 270–271, 858
Kahneman, Daniel, 6, 9, 100, 116–117, 138, 153–155, 410–412, 545, 568, 822
Kalish, Y., 690
Kanai, R., 542, 615
Kane, J., 262, 287
Kaplan, M. F., 714
Karpowitz, C. F., 702, 708, 718–719, 722
Kashmir, 923
Kassam, K. S., 407
Katz, E., 666
Kawakami, K., 895, 910
Keane, M. T., 525–526
Keashly, L., 515
Kee, K. F., 579
Keeping Faith (Carter), 477–478
Keeter, S., 107, 570
Kelly, George, 428
Kelly, M., 65
Kelman, Herbert, 303, 499–500, 503–506, 509–510
Keltner, D., 933
Kemeny, M. E., 408
Kennedy, John F.:
assassination of, 78;
Cuban Missile Crisis and, 408, 412, 444;
Eisenhower and, 348;
Guns of August and, 412;
political rhetoric of, 749
Kernberg, Otto, 460, 464, 481–482
Key Jr., V. O., 570, 816, 827
Khrushchev, Nikita, 423, 444
Kim Jong-il, 367–368
Kim Jong-un, 423
Kim, S., 154–155, 787
Kinder, Donald, 8, 11–15, 529–530, 566–567, 751
King Jr., Martin Luther, 181–182, 280
Kissinger, Henry, 307, 423, 440–441
Kite, M., 224
Klandermans, Bert, 15, 775–776, 778–789, 791–795, 797–801
Klapper, J., 560, 564
Klein, Melanie, 464
Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, 17
Klofstad, C. A., 668–669
Klu Klux Klan, 569–570
Kluegel, J. R., 632
Knight, J., 701
Kohlberg, L., 606, 649
Kohut, Heinz, 460, 464, 479, 481–482
Koleva, S., 600
Kolodny, R., 150–151, 571
Koopmans, R., 801
Kopko, K. C., 152
Korean War, 79, 311
Kosloff, S., 539
Koslov, K., 407
Kosovo, 433
Kriesi, H., 592, 781
Kris, Ernst, 464
Krosnick, J. A., 76, 567
Kruglanski, A. W., 594
Krupnikov, Y., 579
Kuklinski, J. H., 112–113, 150
Kurzban, R., 7, 14–15, 218
Kuwait. See Gulf War (1991)
Labour Party (United Kingdom), 279, 284, 911
Lake, D. A., 388
Lakoff, G., 527–528, 607–609
Landau, M. J., 539
Lane, Robert E., 2
Langer, Walter, 305, 460, 476–477
Larson, D. W., 347, 355
Lasswell, Harold:
on political communication, 561;
psychodynamic theory and, 459;
on psychodynamics of power seeking, 465–467, 475, 485;
psychogenetics and, 465–466;
Psychopathology of Politics and, 8–9
Late Show with David Letterman, 577
Latin America, 343–344, 601, 854, 868
Latinos, 69–70, 82–84, 858, 866, 876
La Veist, T. A., 896
Lavine, Howard, 17, 528
Lazarsfeld, Paul, 665–667, 689, 693
Lazarus, R. S., 168, 193n8
Lazer, D., 677, 708
Le Duc Tho, 441
(p. 972) leadership:
authoritarianism and, 3;
evolutionary biology and, 214–215;
extraversion and, 41;
Freudian interpretations of, 5;
personality and, 29–30, 44, 46;
psychobiography and, 29;
social psychology studies of, 652
Lebanon, 929
Lebow, R., 310, 338, 348, 408
Lee Myung-bak, 386
Lee, I. C., 221–222
Lee, T., 83–84
legitimacy:
elections and, 633;
procedural justice and, 632–633;
retributive justice and, 635;
Supreme Court’s role in, 633–634
Leites, N., 307, 442
Lelkes, Y., 744
Lenin,Vladimir, 460, 475–476
Lenz, G. S., 567
Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood (Freud), 462
Lepper, M., 109–110
Lerner, J. S., 165, 185
Lesbian and Gay Law Reform Act (Australia), 269–270
Levendusky, M. S., 150
Lever, Ralph, 288
Levin, S., 221, 744, 907
Levine, J., 15, 547, 668–669
Levinson, Daniel, 444, 460, 472–473, 476, 485, 609, 816
Lewin, Kurt, 345, 652, 925–926, 943
Lewis-Beck, M., 71
Lewis, G. J., 617–618
Liberal Democrat Party (United Kingdom), 911
liberalism. See also political ideology:
cognitive flexibility and, 532, 541–542, 548, 610;
economic, 600;
empathy and, 541, 544;
equality and, 595, 598;
neuroscience findings and, 542–544;
nuturant family model and, 607–609;
personality and, 610–611, 617;
social, 600;
tolerance and, 595
libertarianism, 600–601
Libya, 484–485
Life History and the Historical Moment (Erikson), 474
Lifton, Robert, 460, 462, 474
Likud Party (Israel), 478
Lilie, S., 36
Lincoln, Abraham, 440–441, 460, 483
Lincoln’s Quest for Union (Strozier), 460
Lind, E. A., 643
Lindemann, T., 310
Lindner, E., 933
Link, Arthur, 468
Lippmann, Walter, 572, 591, 593
Locke, John, 348
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 467
Lodge, M., 111, 151, 576
Loewenberg, Peter, 77–78, 460, 463, 465, 474
Loewenstein, G., 378, 381
Loewenstein, Rudolph, 464
Logic of Collective Action, The (Olson), 774
logic of consequence, 133, 135, 156
long term memory (LTM). See under memory
Lord, C. G., 109–110
Los Angeles (California), 829
loss aversion, 8, 314, 316, 376–377, 384, 387, 414
Lubensky, M., 907
Lupia, M., 108, 571
Luther, Martin, 9, 29, 460, 466, 472, 474
macaques, 216
MacArthur, Douglas, 483
MacKuen, M. B., 152, 169, 602
macropartisanship, 81
Maitland, K., 282
Majestic Failure (Zonis), 460, 482
Major, B., 754, 756
Makari, George, 464
Malaysia, 906–907, 909
malignant narcissism, 413, 444, 460
Malka, A., 744
Mandela, Nelson, 436
Mannheim, K., 74–75, 77, 434
Mansbridge, J. J., 700, 717–718
Mao Zedong, 441, 444, 446
Marcus, G. E., 8, 12–13, 152, 154
Martin, N. G., 817
Martorana, P. V., 647
Marx, Karl, 28, 529
Maslow, Abraham, 428, 937
Mason, D. S., 632
(p. 973) Massey, D. S., 893–894
Masters, Roger, 193n4
matrilineal societies, 220
McAdam, D., 788–789, 791, 794, 801–802
McAdams, D., 441, 609
McCain, John, 282, 901
McCann, J. A., 36, 671
McCarthy hearings (United States), 818
McCarthy, J. D., 778
McClelland, David, 34, 428
McCombs, M. E., 565
McDermott, R., 310
McGee, M. C., 273
McGill, A. L., 535
McGovern, George, 76
McGregor, I., 543
McGuire, W. J., 561, 563, 575, 840n8
McLaren, L. M., 875
McPhee, W. N., 666, 744
Mebane, M., 43
media. See news media
Meertens, R. W., 836, 868
memory. See also working memory:
associative network model of, 526–528;
behavioral decision theory (BDT) and, 136, 148, 151;
collective, 78–79, 433, 478, 485;
long term memory (LTM), 526–529, 537, 562;
spreading activation and, 526–527;
working memory (WM), 5, 9, 134, 379, 389, 526–529, 562
Mencken, H. L., 628
Mendelberg, T., 4, 706, 717–719, 834
Mendes, W. B., 407
Mercer, J., 309, 346–347
Merkel, Angela, 220, 852, 855
Merritt, R., 340
Merton, R. K., 642
Mervielde, I., 596
Mexican Americans, 66, 759
Michigan socialization study, 62–63, 71, 75, 77, 81
migration:
acculturation and, 859–864, 878;
contact theory and, 871, 873–875, 908;
contextual factors affecting, 872–878;
ethnic competition theory and, 873;
ethnic identity and, 856–857;
ideological climate and, 876–877;
individualism and, 860;
majority attitudes toward, 858, 860, 862–869, 873–875, 877–878;
marginalization and, 860;
material threats and, 866–867;
migrants’ attitudes toward, 862–863;
migrants’ identities and, 856–860;
Muslims and, 867–868;
national identity and, 869–870;
national in-group values and, 568, 867–869;
perceptions of discrimination and, 861;
political parties and, 876–877;
psychological challenges of, 861–862;
social dominance orientation (SDO) and, 866;
threat perceptions and, 864–876, 878–879;
transnational communities and, 856
Milbrath, L. W., 40
Milgram, Stanley, 3
Mill, John Stuart, 707
Miller, J. M., 567
Miller, W., 42, 61, 71
Millon, T., 430
Min, S.-J., 723
Mind of Adolf Hitler, The (Langer), 460, 476–477
Mineka, S., 225
Mintz, A., 317, 337–338
Mischel, Walter, 344–345, 428
misperceptions. See perceptions
Mission for My Country (Shah of Iran), 469
Mississippi Freedom Summer Campaign, 794
Mistry, R. S., 64
Mitchell, A. A., 902
Mitchell, G., 634
Mitchell, Stephen, 464
MODE (Motivation and Opportunities as Determinants of Behavior) model, 900
Modigliani, A., 568
Moghaddam, F., 776
Mondak, Jeffrey, 10, 253, 671–672, 689
Monteith, M. J., 904
Moore, S., 64
morality. See values
Morgenstern, O., 134
Morgenthau, H. J., 337, 349–351, 381
Morley, J., 269
Morrell, M. E., 709
Moscovitz, K., 706–707, 715
Moses and Monotheism (Freud), 462–464, 472
Moskowitz, D., 901
(p. 974) Moskowitz, J. T., 408, 414
Moss, P., 281
motivated reasoning:
behavioral decision theory (BDT) and, 148, 151–152;
as a form of hot cognition, 13;
framing and, 119–120;
information processing and, 9, 13, 109–110, 112, 114, 120, 123;
perceptions and, 351–353, 357;
political impact of, 16;
political information processing and, 546–548
Mubarak, Hosni, 484
Mugabe, Robert, 436
Muhlberger, P., 710
multiculturalism:
critiques of, 852, 855;
group-differentiated policies and, 855;
historical context and, 853, 855, 878;
intergroup relations and, 14;
migrant groups’ attitudes toward, 863–864;
national majorities’ attitudes toward, 863–864
Mummendey, A., 909
Munich analogy, 311–312, 412
Murdock, G., 222
Murray, Henry, 427–428, 445
Muslim Parliament of Great Britain, 270–271
Mussolini, Benito, 426
Mustle, C., 867
Mutz, D. C., 577, 680, 683–684, 702, 727
Myers, C. D., 4, 702–703, 705–706, 716, 719–720, 722
Myrdal, G., 835
Nabatchi, T., 709–710
Nader, Ralph, 680
Nagata, D., 648
Nan, Susan Allen, 511
Napier, J. L., 33, 541, 595
Nash, K., 543
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 479
National Alliance (Italy), 837
National Front (France), 837–838
Native Americans, 69, 824
Navarrete, C. D., 225–226
Nazism. See under Germany
Need to Have Enemies and Allies, The (Volkan), 482
Negro Citizen, The (Du Bois), 283–284
Nekby, L., 225
Nekuee, S., 762
Nelson, C., 897
Nelson, K., 570, 689, 716
Nelson, T. H., 569
NEO Personality Inventory, 610
Netherlands:
Muslim migrants in, 762, 857–858, 863, 868, 870;
political ideology in, 598–599;
studies from, 37, 69, 752, 762, 781, 788, 791–794, 798, 800, 857, 863, 868, 870
neuroscience:
amygdala and, 541–543, 615;
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and, 541–545, 615–616;
behavioral genetics and, 243–244, 252, 256;
disgust sensitivity and, 616;
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and, 542;
electroencephalograhics (EEG) and, 616;
emotions and, 7, 168–169, 178, 187, 379, 414–415;
empathy and, 544–545;
fear and, 381, 414–415;
fMRI readings and, 542–545, 615;
habitual associations and, 12;
information processing and, 378;
insular cortex (insula) and, 541–545;
motivated reasoning and, 545;
neuropolitics and, 541–545, 549–550;
political ideology and, 244, 247, 541, 615–617;
political psychology and, 9;
prejudice and, 538;
putamen and, 544;
religious activity and, 543–544;
stereotyping and, 538;
threatening stimuli tests and, 616, 618
New Deal generation, political attitudes of, 77–78, 80
news media. See also political communication:
accountability function of, 572;
bias and, 572–573;
heuristics and, 576;
knowledge acquisition and, 571–573;
polling and, 576
Nicaragua, 347, 929
Nickerson, D., 677–678, 715
Niemi, R. G., 62
Nisbett, R., 433, 892–893, 926
Nixon, Richard, 64, 398, 408, 440–441, 446, 828–829
Nobody Wanted War (White), 933
nonattitudes, 528, 592, 602
North Korea, 367–368, 376, 384, 386
Northern Ireland:
group identities in, 745–746, 753, 909;
intractable conflict in, 501, 929–930, 944
Norway, 911
(p. 975) Nuremberg trials, 429
Nyhan, B., 546–547
Oakes, P., 758
Oakland (California), 613
Obama, Barack, 266, 901–902;
biography of, 437;
election of, 812, 829–830, 901–902;
Internet political campaigning and, 574;
political rhetoric and, 278–279, 282;
prejudice and, 829–830, 900–901
Oegema, D., 792
Öhman, A., 225
Okun, A. M., 640
Olbrechts-Tyteca, L., 265, 279
Oleske, J., 717
Olson, Mancur, 774–775, 778
Olsson, A., 225
On Narcissism (Freud), 461
Opp, K. D., 796
Osgood, C., 355, 493, 823
out-groups:
affect and, 15;
animosity toward, 14–15, 738, 743, 746, 752–753;
behavioral genetics and, 250;
conditioned fear and, 225;
evolutionary biology and, 8, 218, 221, 224–226
Oxley, D. R., 542–543, 616
Page, B., 110
Pager, Devah, 896
Palestinians:
collective memory and, 79, 433;
Gulf War and, 480
Palin, Sarah, 282
Paluck, E. L., 908
paranoia, theories of, 353
parasocial contact, 908
parental investment theory, 207–208, 219
Park, B., 576
Park, N., 579
Parker, S. & G., 671
Parsons, B. M., 683
party identification:
abiding nature of, 826;
age and, 84–85;
behavioral genetics and, 249–250, 252;
environmental factors and, 249–250;
genetic influences on, 249–250, 255–256, 817;
socialization and, 61–63, 71–72, 75–78, 82–85;
voting and, 828–829
Pasek, J., 578
Patapan, H., 262, 287
Pavlov, Ivan, 11
Payne, B., 901
Pearl Harbor attack, 307, 315, 750
Pearson d’Estree, Tamra, 511, 513
Pearson, K., 868
Penner, L. A., 896
People’s Choice (Lazarfeld et al.), 666
Perception and Misperception in International Politics (Jervis), 308
perceptions. See also threat perception:
of allies, 347, 354;
attempts to change, 354–355;
attribution bias and, 346;
balance theory and, 349–350, 352–355, 357;
categorization and, 339, 495–496;
coalitions and, 348–349;
cognitive inclinations and, 345–348;
cognitive maps and, 339;
Cold War and, 336–338, 347, 355, 375, 384, 442, 495–496;
colony stereotype and, 351–355, 357;
communication and, 338;
conflict resolution and, 356;
of cultural status, 340–341;
definitions of, 365;
dehumanization and, 342, 350–351, 357, 494–495, 498;
deterrence and, 347, 357;
of different countries, 338–340;
dispositional attributions, 346;
elites and, 336;
emotions and, 354, 365, 379–380;
“generic knowledge” and, 338;
gestalt approach to, 339–342, 344;
heuristics and, 337–338, 345–346;
ideal-type constructions and, 342;
ideology and, 347–348;
imperialism and, 341–342, 349, 351–355, 357;
Iraq War (2003-) and, 336;
measures of, 337;
motivated reasoning and, 351–353, 357;
of motivation, 337;
nationalistic universalism and, 349;
operational codes and, 339;
of opportunity, 341–342, 348, 350–351, 353–354;
origins of, 344–354, 357;
of power, 336–337, 340, 348;
of relationships, 340–341;
reputation and, 346–347;
schemata and, 343–344;
scripts and, 338, 344, 347;
selective and distorted, 496;
social psychology approach to, 340;
stereotypes and, 342–344, 350–351, 354–357;
(p. 976) terrorism and, 355;
underlying motives and, 348–354;
war and, 336–337, 341–342;
of warmth, 340
Percy, Walker, 485
Perelman, C., 265, 279
Pérez, E. O., 537
Perreault, S., 760
Persian Gulf. See Gulf War (1991)
Personal Influence (Katz & Lazarfeld), 666
personality:
achievement motivation and, 426, 446;
age and, 433–434;
agreeableness, 31–32;
authoritarian, 14, 28–29, 37–38, 443–444, 531, 840n11;
“Big Five” personality traits and, 30–31, 38, 40–41, 44, 189, 248, 253, 408, 427–428, 438–439, 532–534, 581, 610–612, 615, 618, 619n6, 690–691;
cognitive abilities and, 39–41;
cognitive aspects of, 345, 428;
communication skills and, 41;
conscientiousness and, 31–32;
content analysis of spoken words and, 431–432, 442, 444–447;
cultural context and, 432–433;
definitions of, 8, 23–24, 426;
democracy and, 48;
Democrats and, 30;
emotions and, 188–189;
extraversion and, 30–31;
extremism and, 40;
family impact on, 28;
gender and, 32, 436, 724;
generational context and, 434;
genetics and, 25–26, 33, 47, 248–249, 253;
historical context and, 433;
identity and, 24, 26;
idiographic approach to, 9;
implicit motives and, 445–447;
integrative complexity and, 442–443, 446–447;
intelligence and, 27;
leadership and, 29–30, 44, 46;
motives and, 427–429;
narcissism and, 460;
needs and, 27, 33–34;
NEO Personality Inventory and, 610;
nomothetic approach to, 9;
objective perspective on, 24;
openness to experience and, 31–32;
operational code and, 442;
political attitudes and, 39;
political context and, 9;
political ideology and, 9, 30–36, 38–40, 47, 532–534, 609–613, 616–618;
political participation and, 23, 26, 30–31, 37–43, 45, 47–48, 252–253, 581;
political psychobiography and, 429–430;
politicians and, 23–24, 29–30, 32, 39–41, 43–46;
power motivation and, 446;
prejudice and, 28–29;
psychoanalysis and, 28–30;
Republicans and, 30;
self-beliefs and, 25, 27, 444;
self-presentation and, 32–33;
as self-regulatory system, 24–26, 35, 42;
social cognitive approaches to, 25, 42;
social contexts and, 24–26, 32–33, 42, 47–48, 427–428, 432–438;
social hierarchies and, 434–436;
social influence in politics and, 688, 690–693;
social learning and, 25, 42;
stability and, 26, 30–32, 35, 46;
structural components of, 24–25;
subjective perspective on, 23–24;
theory-based rating scales and, 430–431;
values and, 25–27, 34–40, 445;
voters and, 23–24, 32, 39–40, 46–47
Peru, 343–344
Petrocik, J. R., 567
Pettigrew, T., 496–497, 836, 868, 875, 905–906, 933
Piaget, J., 606
Pierce, J. L., 710, 718, 724
Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), 671–672
Plant, E. A., 226
Plato, 287, 628
Point of View process (Georgia-South Ossetia conflict), 511–512
Poland, 708
political advertising, 567, 572–573, 830, 834
political attitudes. See attitudes
political behavior. See also political participation:
behavioral genetics and, 7–8, 237–238, 241, 244–255;
congruence and, 46–47;
education and, 32, 35, 39, 41, 72, 80;
elites and, 16;
emotions and, 13, 176;
gender and, 72;
impact of age on, 80;
intergroup relations and, 14;
mass societies and, 16;
neuroscience and, 244;
values and, 36–37
political campaigns, 152, 266, 560, 578–580
political communication:
agenda setting and, 562–563, 565–566, 574;
attention and, 563–570, 575;
attitude change and, 575–577;
authoritarianism and, 579–580;
comedy shows and, 574, 577;
contacting and, 578;
definitions of, 561;
elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and, 577;
framing and, 563, 567–570;
human information processing and, 561–563, 566, 570;
(p. 977) issue preferences and, 566;
learning and, 570–575;
media framing and, 567–570;
media priming and, 563, 566–567, 574;
media technology and, 561;
memory and, 562;
message content and, 561;
motivated reasoning and, 570;
news media and, 559, 571–575, 580;
newspapers and, 571–572;
partisanship and, 573;
persuasion and, 563;
political advertising and, 567, 572–573, 578–579, 830, 834;
political campaigns and, 560, 567, 572, 576–577;
political knowledge and, 571;
political participation and, 577–580;
propaganda and, 559–560;
public opinion and, 560;
repetition and, 559–560;
selective exposure and, 563–565;
social media and, 579–580;
source cues and, 561;
television and, 572, 575, 577–578;
two-step flow notion and, 560
political deliberation:
absence of coercion and, 701–702;
attitude convergence and, 715;
collaborative discourse and, 721;
common knowledge effect, 715–716;
context and, 703, 708, 722–726;
conventional discourse and, 721;
conversation mode and, 720–721;
decision rules and, 725–726;
definitions of, 700–701;
democracy and, 701–703, 707–708, 716, 727;
Discourse Quality Index (DQI) and, 712–713, 721;
divide the dollar game and, 706;
effect of group diversity on, 716–719, 722;
equal opportunity to voice opinion and, 701–703, 711, 720;
face-to-face interaction and, 708, 723–724;
framing and, 716, 723;
gender and, 718–719;
Helpline study, 717;
heterogeneity of interests and, 719–720, 722;
issue preferences and, 705, 710, 722;
jury studies and, 708, 716–718, 724–725;
kinds of speech in, 720–721;
knowledge gain and, 707, 710–711;
measurements of, 712–714;
medium of, 723–724;
moderators and, 724–726;
normative theory and, 700–702, 711–714, 726–727;
online forms of, 723–724, 726;
opinion change and, 704–707, 710;
opinion quality’s impact on, 706;
outcomes of, 703–711, 726;
persuasive arguments and, 714;
polarization and, 714–715, 722–723;
political efficacy and, 709–710;
political participation and, 708, 727;
political psychology’s contributions to, 702;
postdeliberation behavior and, 707–709;
processes of, 703, 711–722, 726;
psychological theory and, 714–716;
race and, 717–718;
requirements for, 701–702, 705, 711, 713, 716;
satisfaction with, 710;
self ratings and, 712;
social comparison and, 714;
storytelling and, 720;
toleration and, 709, 711;
town planning studies and, 708
political efficacy:
collective action and, 644, 782–783, 785, 791;
perceptions of, 42–43;
political behavior and, 42–43, 47
political endorsements, 119, 150–151, 571
political ideology: agnostics and, 600;
behavioral genetics and, 613–615, 617, 817;
belief system constraint and, 594, 602;
classical liberalism and, 605;
cognitive style’s impact on, 532–536;
as constraint, 273;
contradictions in, 274;
economic egalitarianism and, 605–606;
economic preferences and, 595–600, 617;
education and, 599;
elites and, 594, 596;
genetic influences and, 243, 245–247, 255;
glutamate and, 247;
heterogeneity in, 598–599;
ideologues and, 600;
inconsistency and, 598–599;
measurements of, 592–593;
moral values and, 606–609, 617;
Netherlands and, 598–599;
neuroscience and, 244, 247, 541, 615–617;
nonattitudes and, 592;
origins of, 602–617;
parameters of, 591–593;
personality and, 9, 30–36, 38–40, 47, 532–534, 609–613, 616–618;
political knowledge and, 592;
right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and, 596;
social and political values and, 602–606, 616–617;
social dominance orientation (SDO) and, 596–597;
social preferences and, 595–600;
structure of, 593–596;
two-dimensional models of, 595, 600, 616;
typologies of, 600;
unidimensional model of, 594–595, 597, 599–600, 611;
United States and, 598–601, 619n9;
voting and, 593;
Wilson-Patterson Index and, 245–247
political information processing:
AIDS case study and, 545;
ambiguity intolerance and, 548–549;
anxiety and, 539–540, (p. 978) 545;
associative network memory model and, 526–527;
automatic emotions and, 536–540, 546;
avoidance motivation and, 540–541;
Big Five personality traits and, 532;
bounded rationality and, 526;
categorization and, 535;
causal attributions and, 535–536;
cognitive consistency and, 546;
cognitive flexibility and, 532, 534–535;
cognitive rigidity and, 532–535;
cognitive-motivational variables and, 532–533;
cold cognition and, 537;
emotions and, 536–540, 546;
environmental cues and, 538;
grounded cognition and, 527–528;
group orientations and, 530;
happiness and, 541;
heuristics and, 547–548;
hot cognition, 537;
Implicit Association Tests and, 536–538;
implicit attitudes and, 536–540;
individual cognitive processes and, 531;
long-term memory (LTM) and, 526–529, 537;
material self-interest and, 529–530;
memory-based models of, 528–529, 575–576;
metaphors and, 527–528;
mortality salience and, 539–540;
motivated reasoning and, 546–548;
negative campaigning and, 537–538;
neuropolitics and, 541–545;
nonattitudes and, 528;
online models of, 528–529, 575–576;
opinion formation and, 525, 528–531, 541;
party identification and, 530;
political values and, 530;
right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and, 533, 539;
selective exposure and, 547;
sensory modalities and, 527;
situated cognition and, 527;
social dominance orientation (SDO) and, 533;
working memory and, 526–529
political participation. See also political behavior:
behavioral genetics and, 251–254;
emotion and, 579;
personality and, 23, 26, 30–31, 37–43, 45, 47–48, 252–253, 581;
political advertising and, 578–580;
political communication and, 577–580;
political deliberation and, 708, 727;
social influence in politics and, 683–684;
social media and, 579–580
political psychology:
defining elements of, 1–5, 16
political rhetoric:
advocacy and, 271–272;
ambiguity and, 282–283;
argument and, 267–276;
Aristotle and, 264;
aspirational identities and, 280–281;
audience types and, 265;
Australia and, 277;
categorization and, 269–271, 279;
classical period and, 264–265, 287;
commonplaces and, 267, 273, 276;
consubstantiality and, 277, 284;
context and, 272;
democratic systems and, 277–278;
Estonia and, 281;
ethos and, 276;
first-person plural pronouns and, 281–286, 289n15, 484;
forked tongue strategy and, 286;
hegemonic competition and, 278;
identity and, 276–286;
ideographs and, 273;
ideological dilemmas and, 273–274;
implicit displays of alignment and, 281–282;
in-group membership appeals, 279–280, 286;
intersubjectivity and, 273, 275;
Iraq War (2003-) and, 275, 284–286, 568;
logical consistency and, 272;
logos and, 271, 276, 278;
mobilization and, 270;
multisubjectivity and, 272–273, 275;
new media and, 265–266;
opposing themes and, 273–274;
Pakistan and, 281;
pathos and, 276;
personalization of, 265;
“polemical not” and, 278–279;
referent slippage and, 285;
research trends in, 266–267, 287;
rhetorical political analysis (RPA) and, 268, 274–276, 289n10;
rhetorical psychology perspective on, 267–274, 276;
Romania and, 279–280;
Scotland and, 279;
segmental technique and, 282;
self-categorization and, 268, 270–271, 279;
shared beliefs hypothesis and, 278–279;
side-taking and, 277–279;
syntax of hegemony and, 285;
thinking and, 268–269;
United Kingdom and, 270–274, 279, 282, 286;
virtue words and, 273;
witcraft and, 288
politicization of collective identity (PCI), 784
Pollack, K., 423, 425
Polletta, E., 720–721
Pollock, P., 36
Pompidou, Georges, 441
Popkin, Samuel, 149, 154, 570
Popper, K., 464
populism, 601
Post, Jerrold, 353, 407, 413, 468
Powell, Colin, 79, 902
Power and Personality (Laswell), 465
(p. 979) “Power as a Compensatory Value for Political Leaders” (Alexander George), 466
power mediation, 515
Pratto, Felicia, 37, 221–223, 753
prejudice. See also discrimination:
authoritarianism and, 817–818;
biological versus cultural, 819–821, 825, 835;
categorization and, 814;
cognitive development theory and, 67;
cognition versus emotion, 821–823, 835;
consequences of, 826–836;
correlated varieties of, 825;
definitions of, 890;
degree and, 814–815;
economic explanations of, 836–838;
education and, 818–819, 837;
emotion and, 14, 814, 821–823, 835;
ethnicity and, 66;
European countries and, 836–838;
framing and, 832–834;
gendered prejudice theory and, 226–227;
genetic predispositions and, 816–817;
group conflict and, 815–816;
group-centrism and, 831;
impact of age on, 75, 80;
implicit versus explicit, 823–825, 833–835, 838, 891–892, 894, 896, 898, 903;
issue preferences and, 830–836;
migrants and, 836–838, 866, 874–875;
nature of, 814–815;
neuroscience and, 538;
origins of, 815–819;
partisanship and, 825–828;
persistent inequality and, 815;
personality and, 14, 28–29;
physical conditions and, 814;
potential decline of, 825–826;
sex and, 223, 227;
social conditions and, 815–816;
socialization and, 59, 67;
stereotyping and, 821–822, 825, 830, 835, 890;
subtle forms of, 820, 836, 868;
varieties of, 819–826;
voting and, 828–830, 901–902
Prelec, D., 378
Press, D. G., 347
Price, V., 569, 709, 714, 720, 723
Prior, M., 72, 572, 575
prisoner’s dilemma (PD), 209–210, 318
prisons, public opinion and, 118–119
problem-solving workshops, 489, 503–513, 515–516
process tracing, 140–141, 151, 316
Proctor, K., 281–282
Proposition 13 (California), 102–104
prospect theory, 6, 302, 310, 414–415, 935
protests. See collective action
Pruitt, D. G., 944
psychoanalysis:
ego psychological paradigm and, 465;
interpersonal perspective and, 465;
object relations paradigm and, 465;
politics of, 464–465;
schools of, 464
psychobiography:
aging autocrats and, 484–485;
charisma and, 474;
criticisms of, 462–463;
Erikson and, 29, 460, 466–467, 471–474, 485;
father figures and, 467–468, 475, 482;
Freud and, 459, 461–464;
George, Alexander and Juliette and, 29, 459, 466–467;
historical context and, 473–474;
key life transitions and, 472–473;
Laswell on, 465–466;
leader-follower relations and, 474;
life cycle phases and, 471–473;
on medical illness, 460, 468–470;
mentor-protégé relationships and, 476;
methodology and, 462–464;
narcissism and, 481–483;
psychodynamics of power and, 465–466, 485;
revolutionaries and, 475–476;
self-estimates and, 466–467, 478–479
psychohistory, 305, 459, 462–463. See also psychobiography
Psychology of Democratic Citizenship, The (Borgida et al.), 17
Psychopathology and Politics (Laswell), 465
public opinion. See also political information processing:
attitude constraint and, 705;
Bayesian models and, 114;
framing eff ects and, 118, 122;
information effects and, 110, 112, 118, 122, 577;
John Q. Public model of, 111;
limits of rational deliberation and, 13–14;
political ideology and, 593;
polls and, 823;
Receive-Accept-Sample (RAS) model of, 110–111, 575–576
Puerto Ricans, 84, 759
punishment. See justice, retributive
Putin, Vladimir, 435–437
Putnam, Robert, 80
Q-Sort method, 430–431
Quebec, 854
Quillian, L., 835, 837, 874
Quintana, S. M., 66
(p. 980) Quintilian, 264
Quirk, P., 112–113, 150
Rabin, Yitzhak, 500, 509
race:
anthropology and, 813–814;
biology and, 813–814;
categorization and, 218;
definitions of, 813;
prejudice and, 8, 12–16, 59, 65–68, 75, 80, 82, 85, 223, 227, 813–816, 819, 822, 824, 827, 829–830, 832–836, 839, 868, 874;
socialization and, 65–68, 73, 82, 85
racism. See also prejudice, racial:
automatic emotions and, 536;
symbolic, 785, 820, 868, 894
Rajoy, Mariano, 437
Rao, H., 647
Rao, V., 719
Rapley, M., 277
Rapport, A., 319–320
rational choice theory (RCT):
assumptions of, 98–101, 133–134, 156n1;
Bayesian models and, 156n1;
behavioral decision theory (BDT) and, 131, 133, 137, 140, 152, 154–155;
bounded rationality and, 97, 99, 123, 155;
collective action problem and, 135;
definitions of, 5, 96;
economic rationality and, 99;
evolutionary biology and, 7;
expected value framework and, 6, 133–134;
incentives and, 100, 114, 123;
incommensurability and, 134;
information acquisition and, 96, 100, 102–103, 105–109, 115–116, 121–123, 134–135, 155;
information processing and, 97, 100–101, 106, 109–120, 122–123, 134, 155;
irrationality and, 99–100;
neuroscience and, 7;
optimal choice and, 106;
political decision making and, 97;
preferences/preference formation and, 98, 102–103, 106–108;
self-interest and, 5–6, 96, 101–105, 133;
subjective expected utility (SEU) and, 134–135, 371, 377;
utility maximation and, 99, 133, 135, 371;
voting and, 107–108, 110, 115, 121–122, 135
rationality:
bounded, 10, 44, 97–99, 123, 139, 155, 526;
definitions of, 6, 97, 155–156, 371;
emotions and, 378–379;
as standard of decision making, 120–121
Rawls, John, 628, 706
Raymond James, 193n1
Reagan, Ronald, 433, 470, 828
realism, 301, 323n1, 356, 490, 503
Reasoning Voter, The (Popkin), 149
Redlawsk, David, 107–108, 115, 147–148, 150, 686–687
Reicher, Stephen, 270, 279, 286, 748–749, 753, 794–795, 797
Reid, S. A., 750
Reifler, J., 546–547
relative deprivation theory, 642–643, 777, 781
Republic (Plato), 628
Republican Party (United States), 78, 115, 826–828, 902. See also conservatism
Revolution in Mind (Makari), 464
rhetoric. See also political rhetoric:
categorization of, 264;
classical accounts of, 264;
definitions of, 263–264;
research methodologies and, 262–263
Rhetoric of Motives, A (Burke), 277
Rice, Condoleezza, 830, 902
Richerson, P., 217
Richey, S., 153, 687
Rick, S., 381
Ridout, T. R., 572
right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), 596–597, 618, 869;
core components of, 37–38, 606;
genetic influence and, 243, 248;
political information processing and, 533, 539;
security and, 38;
social conditions and, 38–39, 611
risk:
anger and, 5, 179, 183;
fear and, 178, 183, 384, 386;
gender and, 326n49;
prospect theory and, 6;
when facing losses, 4
Robins, G., 690
Robins, Robert, 353, 407–408
Robinson, R. J., 933
Roccas, S., 746–747
Rochon, T. R., 788
Rock, M. S., 540
Rockefeller, Nelson, 441
Rodden, J., 592–593
Rogers, Carl, 428
Rogers, M., 280–281
(p. 981) Roggeband, C. M., 789
Rokeach, Milton, 29, 534, 603, 606
Romania, 279–280
Romanova, Ekaterina, 511
Romer, D., 578
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 436, 466
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 368
Roosevelt, Theodore, 205, 433
Rosch, E., 269
Roseman, Ira, 168
Rosenberg, S. W., 721
Ross, Dennis, 315
Ross, L., 109–110
Rotberg, Robert, 511
Rouhana, Nadim, 509
Rubenzer, S. J., 430, 439–440
Rubicon Model of War, 312–314
Rubinstein, A., 100
Rumsfeld, Donald, 316, 409–410
Runyan, W. M., 463–464
Russia:
culture of, 432;
generations in, 435;
Georgia conflict and, 383;
public opinion in, 434–435;
South Ossetia conflict and, 511;
U.S. perceptions of, 352
Russo, J. E., 131
Rwanda, 908, 923, 929
Ryan, J. B., 153, 671, 687
Sadat, Anwar: Arab-Israeli War (1973) and, 375, 377;
Camp David peace process and, 424–425, 469;
Israeli Knesset speech of, 493;
psychobiography of, 441, 460, 477–478
Saleh, Ali Abdullah, 484
San Francisco Bay Area, 819–820
Sandel, M. J., 649
Sanders, Lynn, 701, 716
Sanford, R. N., 444, 609, 816
São Tomé and Principe, 724
Sapin, B., 306, 402
Sapiro, Virginia, 85
Saucier, D. M., 895
Saudi Arabia, 348, 352
Saunders, Harold, 504–505
Schattschneider, E. E., 121–122
Scheepers, D., 753, 873
Schelling, T. C., 675, 688
Schiffer, Irvine, 474
Schkade, D., 714
Schlueter, E., 875
Schmitt, D., 447
Schooler, T., 340
Schreiber, D. M., 543
Schuman, Howard, 78
Schwartz, S. H., 597, 603–605, 617
Scott, W., 340
Scottish National Party, 286, 750
Sears, David O., 102–103, 867
Seasons of a Man’s Life, The (Levinson), 472
Secondary Transfer Effect, 906
security:
conservative ideology and, 34–35, 533–534, 539, 541, 594–595, 610;
nationalist political values and, 37
self-categorization theory (SCT), 739–742, 749
self-interest:
cooperation and, 15–16, 102;
definitions of, 101–102;
measurement of, 102–105;
priming of, 103–104;
rational choice theory and, 5–6, 96, 101–105, 133;
socialization and, 60;
uninformed, 104–105;
values and, 101–102
Seligman, M. E.P., 443
Semyonov, M., 874
Sen, Amartaya, 909
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, 1, 63, 375, 382, 385–386, 398, 539, 757
Serbia, 501, 933
Settle, J. E., 246, 249, 691
sexual selection theory, 207, 211, 219
Shaftsbury, Earl of, 268, 276
Shah of Iran, 460, 469, 482
Shah, D. V., 572
Shaker, L., 706
Shapiro, I., 110
Shapiro, Robert, 17
Sharon, Ariel, 470
Sharpeville (South Africa), 930
Shaw, D. L., 565, 572
Sherif, M., 866
Shestopal, E. B., 434–435
Shiite Muslims, 433
Shimko, K. L., 343
Sibley, C. G., 38, 533
Sidanius, J., 222–224, 744
Sides, J., 836, 874
(p. 982) Sigel, R. S., 81, 85
Silventoinen, K., 614
Silvester, J., 41
Simon, B., 784
Simon, Herbert, 118, 139, 335, 526
Simonton, D, 430, 439–440
Simpson, J. A., 893
Sindic, D., 748–749
Six Crises (Nixon), 398
Skinner, B. F., 334, 428
Slim, Randa, 505
Smelser, N. J., 777–778
Smith, K. B., 248
Smoke, R., 321, 403
Sniderman, Paul, 118, 149–151, 752
Snow, D. A., 779, 788–789, 792
Snyder, J., 348, 592–593
Snyder, R., 306, 402–403
social capital:
cognitive component of, 790–791;
collective action and, 790, 800;
relational components of, 790–791;
structural components of, 790–791
Social Darwinism, 227
social dominance orientation (SDO):
core components of, 37–38, 221, 606, 866;
economic issues and, 611;
ideology and, 533;
inequality and, 38;
sex differences and, 221–222, 226, 228n6;
social conditions and, 38–39, 228n6
social dominance theory, 866
social identity theory (SIT), 499, 741–744
social influence in politics. See also social networks:
anecdotal stories and, 671;
attitude intensity and, 684;
avoidance and, 678–679, 681;
canvassing and, 677–678;
context and, 676–677, 688–689;
definition of, 663;
determinence of variance in political discussion and, 687–692;
disagreement and, 673–674, 678–685, 690–691;
endogeneity problems and, 675–678, 691–692;
evolutionary biology and, 691–693;
historical perspective on, 665–667;
impact on political participation and, 683–684;
increase in tolerance through, 683;
information effect and, 674;
measurement of, 667–672, 675–676;
media effects and, 665–666, 670–673, 689;
observational and laboratory research on, 667, 670–671, 674, 687, 692–693;
party identification and, 676;
personality traits’ impact on, 688, 690–693;
polarization and, 683–684;
political communication networks and, 676–677;
political information and, 663–664, 672;
promoting civility and understanding through, 683;
reciprocal and reverse forms of, 676;
versus self-selection, 673–679, 684;
sorting and mixing effect and, 675, 677;
stochastic nature of conversation and, 676, 693;
survey research on, 667–670, 679, 687;
transmission of political expertise and, 685–687
social justice. See justice
social media: collective action and, 793;
political communication and, 579–580;
political participation and, 579–580
social movements. See also collective action:
breakdown theory and, 777–779;
collective challenges and, 775;