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date: 16 December 2019

(p. 827) Index

(p. 827) Index

Note: Italicized letter n designates footnotes. Headings which appear periodically throughout the page range are designated with passim.

A
accounting standards
banking sector and, 17, 419
command economy and, 56, 62
electricity sector and, 387
Europe and, 262n10
growth and, 4, 132–136, 140–147, 156n37, 157n38
mineral resources and, 419
natural resources and, 311, 334n9
New Economic Policy and, 36
oil and gas sector and, 343, 346
privatization and, 172, 182
resource rents and, 311, 319, 334n9, 335n22
Soviet legacy and, 7, 31, 56, 62, 251–252
taxation and, 246–252, 259, 261, 263n18, 319, 335n22
admissions, college, 731–732
aging population. see demographics; knowledge transfer
agriculture, 16–17
Asia and, 519, 522, 528, 537–538
Brezhnev era and, 516
bureaucracy and, 529, 535, 539
CIS and, 514
collectivism and, 31, 38, 517, 524–525, 529, 535
command economy and, 54, 57
competition and, 514, 535, 598
corporate, 16–17, 526–528
cropping patterns and, 522
diversification and, 540
domestic consumption and, 521
electricity sector and, 384
Europe and, 600
GDP and, 515–519, 540n1
geography and, 620, 624, 637, 661–687 passim
Gorbachev era and, 521
government policy and, 518–520
gross output, 519–520, 537–538
growth and, 137
imperial legacy and, 30
individualization and, 526–528
informal sector and, 267, 276
investment and, 515–516
livestock and, 515–522, 530–533, 537, 599, 601
monetary policy and, 518
New Economic Policy and, 31, 36–37
poverty and inequality and, 540, 776, 785, 788
privatization and, 524–528
productivity of, 531–534
property rights and, 524–528, 534–536, 683–684
R&D and, 474, 478
recession and, 112
reform of, 523–524
resource rents and, 309
sanitary/phytosanitary requirements and, 599, 601
Siberia and, 661–687 passim
Soviet legacy and, 16, 31, 33, 36–46 passim, 515–517
state control/ownership and, 683–684
structure of, 523–524, 529–531
subsidies and, 598–599, 609, 611n11
taxation and, 249–250
total factor productivity and, 540n2
trade and, 521–522, 609
transferability of property and, 524, 526
transition and, 112, 514–541 passim
US and, 41, 530–531
WTO and, 19, 598–601
amber box subsidies, 598–599
arbitrage
electricity sector and, 295
institutions and, 208
privatization and, 6
state control/ownership and, 90
taxation and, 263
armed forces, 453–465 passim
China and, 453
corruption and, 296
global influence of, 1, 14
imperial legacy and, 461–462
Muscovy legacy and, 461–462
perestroika era and, 685
reform of, 32, 462–463
Soviet legacy and, 461–462, 685
strength of, 2, 464n1
(p. 828) WWI and, 34
Asia
agriculture and, 519, 522, 528, 537–538
corporate governance and, 223
electricity sector and, 12, 400
exports and, 687–688
financial crisis of 1998–2000 and, 95
Gazprom and, 684
geography and, 617
gross agricultural output and, 537–538
growth and, 687–688
informal sector and, 282
institutional performance and, 206
integrating markets with, 21
mineral resources and, 419
modernization and, 31
oil and gas sector and, 684
privatization and, 223
recession and, 115, 119–127 passim, 129n9
tariffs and, 687–688
trade and, 669, 676–679, 684, 687–688
transition and, 95
see also the Far East; international community; Siberia; specific region
asset stripping
banking sector and, 549–550, 553, 566
bankruptcy and, 6
government policy and, 7
institutional performance and, 196, 207
mineral resources and, 412
privatization and, 6, 171
resource rents and, 320
taxation and, 262n11
automotive sector
corporate governance and, 223
mineral resources and, 416
railways and, 500
tariffs and, 679, 685
trade and, 609
WTO and, 19
B
baby bonuses, 817–821
banking sector, 17–18, 544–571
accounting standards and, 17, 419
asset stripping and, 549–550, 553, 566
bankruptcy and, 545, 548, 565
Basel II/Basel III and, 17, 544, 560
CIS and, 544
competition and, 544–545, 550–570 passim
compliance and, 550
consumer confidence and, 544–571 passim
deposit insurance and, 555–558
development and, 18
distrust of, 552–553, 555–558
efficiency of, 560–561
Europe and, 562
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 562–570
foreign banks and, 17, 570
foreign financing and, 561–563
foreign funding of, 17
funding and, 17, 570
Gazprom and, 568
GDP and, 545, 551, 562
government policy and, 565–566
institutions and, 545–550, 554–555
investment and, 548–562 passim
lending and, 17
liquidity and, 545, 550, 555–570 passim, 563–565
macroeconomic stabilization and, 555
management and, 558
monetary policy and, 564, 566–567
number of banks and, 566–568
oligarchs and, 546
pocket banks and, 17, 72, 549–550, 553, 570
property rights and, 545–550
regulation and, 544, 556, 558–560, 586
Sberbank and, 552–553
Soviet legacy and, 545–554
speculation and, 17
state control/ownership and, 568
transition and, 551–554
US and, 598
volatility and, 551–552
wages and income and, 550
Yeltsin era and, 556
bankruptcy
asset stripping and, 6
banking sector and, 545, 548, 565
command economy and, 62, 79n55
corporate governance and, 222, 224, 228, 233
corruption and, 286
electricity sector and, 386
institutional performance and, 207–208
mineral resources and, 413
Basel II/Basel III, 17, 544, 560
birth rates, 800–801
employment and, 24–25
fertility and, 813–821
maternal capital program and, 817–821
black market. see informal sector
bonds
corporate, 18, 574–575, 578, 582
domestic, 583
Eurobonds, 562, 575, 583
foreign government, 581
government, 581, 588
railways and, 506
regional, 197
Brezhnev, Leonid, era of
(p. 829) agriculture and, 516
environmental laws under, 13
GDP and, 103
lifestyle choices and, 88
rent management system and, 330
see also Soviet legacy
bribery. see corruption
Budget Code, 20–21, 644–645, 656–657
bureaucracy
agriculture and, 16–17, 529, 535, 539
command economy and, 63
corruption and, 289–291, 302
health care system and, 769
informal sector and, 8, 274
innovation and, 484
institutional performance and, 203, 210
privatization and, 5, 163, 176–177, 181–183
recession and, 103
regional government and, 5
business services sector
command economy and, 19
trade and, 594–595, 597, 603
WTO and, 19
C
capacity markets, 12, 386–401 passim
cartels, 12, 401
Central Europe. see Europe/European Union; specific region
centralization
command economy and, 53
federalism and, 646–657, 659n12
fiscal, 647–655
health care system and, 748, 764–768
institutional performance and, 190, 197–198, 211
modernization and, 31, 42
oil and gas sector and, 342–343, 345, 366–367
political, 647–655
regional government and, 20–21
see also federalism
Chernomyrdin, Viktor, 11, 366
child care, 25, 819–820
China
armed forces and, 453
collectivism and, 4
corporate governance and, 238
corruption and, 286
environmental regulation and, 429
famine and, 129n14
the Far East and, 668–688 passim
financial and credit markets and, 588–589
foreign investment and, 602–603, 606
funding competition from, 7, 238
geography and, 631, 640n5
industrialization and, 31
institutional performance and, 197
military-industrial complex and, 453, 462
mortality rate and, 801
oil and gas sector and, 80n70
poverty and inequality and, 794–795
railways and, 490–491, 497, 502
recession and, 102–127 passim
research and development and, 472, 480, 483
Siberia and, 662–688 passim
trade and, 600, 677–688 passim
Chukotka region, 637, 667–668, 674–676, 687, 764
collectivism
agriculture and, 31, 38, 517, 524–525, 529, 535
China and, 4
command economy and, 53, 55, 66–67
the Far East and, 668, 674, 683
financial and credit markets and, 582
institutional performance and, 193, 210–211
labor markets and, 718, 721n13
modernization and, 31, 33, 38
poverty and inequality and, 776
recession and, 120–127 passim, 129n9
college. see education
colonialism. see imperial legacy
command economy, 51–81 passim, 81n80
accounting standards and, 56, 62
agriculture and, 54, 57
bureaucracy and, 63
business services sector and, 19
centralization and, 53
collectivism and, 53, 55, 66–67
competition and, 57, 62, 68, 74
compliance and, 54
conglomerates and, 72
consumer confidence and, 67–68
cultural traditions and, 66–68, 71–76
diversification and, 71, 73
equity markets and, 63
Europe and, 65
funding and, 62
GDP and, 69
Gorbachev era and, 55, 65, 74, 76n1
infrastructure and, 56–59, 69–71
institutions and, 59–68, 71–76
investment and, 56–62, 70–73
market economy and, 51–75 passim
Medvedev era and, 73–75, 81n77
monetary policy and, 54, 61–71 passim
pipeline system and, 71–72
political legacies of, 63–64
productivity and, 56–59
Putin era and, 65, 73–75
regulation and, 52, 54, 60, 62, 71
(p. 830) social policy and, 64–65
total factor productivity and, 69
unions and, 64–65
Yeltsin era and, 64–65, 74
commodities
financial and credit markets and, 576
foreign investment and, 604
geography and, 630
government policy and, 6
growth and, 150–151, 154
informal sector and, 271
institutional performance and, 189, 200–213 passim
railways and, 496–500, 506–507
total factor productivity and, 4
trade and, 677–679
transition and, 16, 91, 94
see also agriculture; specific commodity
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
agriculture and, 16, 514
banking sector and, 544
electricity sector and, 12, 400
labor market and, 704, 720n2
life expectancy and, 801
oil and gas sector and, 311
privatization and, 163
state control/ownership, 94
taxation and, 247, 255
trade and, 94
transition and, 94
communism. see Soviet legacy
competition
agriculture and, 16–17, 514, 535, 598
banking sector and, 544–545, 550–570 passim
command economy and, 57, 62, 68, 74
corporate governance and, 7, 222, 228, 233–234, 238–239
corruption and, 288, 290, 298, 302
education and, 735, 741–742
electricity sector and, 386–401
environmental regulation and, 427, 432–433, 444
federalism and, 646–647, 658n2
financial and credit markets and, 18, 585, 588–590
foreign investment and, 595, 605
Gazprom and, 11
growth and, 135–139, 147, 151, 153, 156n37
health care system and, 760–768
institutional performance and, 192–213 passim
investment and, 595, 605
labor market and, 717, 719
military-industrial complex and, 457, 461, 463
mineral resources and, 13, 410, 412–413, 417, 423
modernization and, 39, 45
natural resources and, 310–311, 314, 322, 331
oil and gas sector and, 10–11, 341–358 passim, 368, 375–378
poverty and inequality and, 785, 795
privatization and, 163, 170, 176
railways and, 15–16, 492–507 passim, 508n7
recession and, 109–111, 114–117
regional issues and, 638, 666–684 passim
science and, 487
Soviet legacy and, 550–551
taxation and, 259
transition and, 90
WTO and, 18–19
compliance
banking sector and, 550
command economy and, 54
corporate governance and, 239n7
environmental regulation and, 437, 442, 445
federalism and, 652
growth and, 134
informal sector and, 275
institutional performance and, 207
oil and gas sector and, 355
poverty and inequality and, 793
sciences and, 486
small business and, 260
taxation and, 247, 252, 258–261, 275
compulsory health insurance, 23, 748–749, 759–771
conflict, corporate governance and, 228–238
conglomerates, 6, 72
consolidation, 17, 223–226
consumer confidence
banking sector and, 17, 544–571 passim
command economy and, 67–68
corruption and, 301
family programs and, 820
financial and credit markets and, 18, 578, 581, 588–589
informal sector and, 277, 279
institutional performance and, 192, 198, 210–211
labor market and, 719, 721n16
unions and, 719, 721n16
corporate agriculture, 16–17, 526–528
corporate bonds, 18, 574–575, 578, 582
corporate governance, 6–7, 221–242
Asia and, 223
automotive sector and, 223
bankruptcy and, 222, 224, 228, 233
China and, 238
competition and, 222, 228, 233–234, 238–239
compliance and, 239n7
conflict and, 228–238
conglomerates and, 6
(p. 831) consolidation and, 223–226
equity markets and, 226
Europe and, 223, 231
funding competition and, 7
Gazprom and, 237
globalization and, 222, 238
Gorbachev era and, 222
improvement of, 238–239
investment and, 6, 228, 230, 238
law enforcement and, 6–7, 221–222, 227–229, 233, 238
Medvedev era and, 234–238
privatization and, 4–5, 222–227, 229–233
property rights and, 6–7
regulation and, 227
shareholder conflicts and, 229–233
state control/ownership and, 7, 226–227
US and, 231, 239n1
Yeltsin era and, 223
see also management
corporate income tax (CIT), 249–250
accrual-based, 7
federalism and, 649–651, 655, 658n7
oil and gas sector and, 357
corporate raiding. see asset stripping
corruption, 1, 9–10, 286–304 passim
armed forces and, 296
bankruptcy and, 286
bribery amounts and, 9
bureaucracy and, 289–291, 302
business and, 296–300
China and, 286
competition and, 288, 290, 298, 302
consequences of, 301–302
consumer confidence and, 301
crime and, 291
democracy and, 6
development of, 292–296
domestic consumption and, 297
in everyday life, 292–296
funding and, 296
GDP and, 296–297
Gorbachev era and, 289–292
informal sector and, 8–9, 267, 274-277, 279, 281n15
international ratings and, 300–301
kickbacks and, 9, 304, 321, 662–663
law enforcement and, 9, 290–301 passim
management and, 301
Medvedev era and, 300
oligarchs and, 97, 291
perestroika era and, 289–292
political, 298–300
privatization and, 4
Putin era and, 291–292
regulation and, 287, 297–301
Soviet legacy and, 252, 289–292
taxation and, 8, 252
wages and income and, 9
Yeltsin era and, 290–292
crime
corruption and, 291
Europe and, 120–122
the Far East and, 671
labor market and, 715
monetary policy and, 105
mortality rate and, 806
recession and, 102–105, 118–126, 128n6
Siberia and, 671, 673
Soviet legacy and, 4, 74
transition and, 86
wages and income and, 715
cropping patterns, 522
currency. see monetary policy
customs tariffs. see tariffs
czarist Russia. see imperial legacy
D
day-ahead market, 388–401 passim
decentralization. see centralization
demographics, 24–25, 733, 800–822
baby bonuses and, 817–821
birth rates and, 24–25, 800–801, 813–821
development and, 20
education and, 733
environmental regulation and, 13
fertility rates and, 24, 813–821
geography and, 619–624
government policy and, 24–25
health status and, 749–751
heterogeneous population and, 733
knowledge transfer and, 15, 476, 477
life expectancy and, 1, 4, 13–14, 800–813
lifestyle choices and, 25, 808–813
maternal capital program and, 817–821
morbidity rate and, 4, 749–751, 805–813
mortality rate and, 4, 24, 749–751, 800–813
poverty and inequality and, 785–787, 790–795
Putin era and, 817
R&D and, 15
regional development and, 20
total factor productivity and, 4
urbanization and, 30
US and, 629–630, 634, 640n3, 818
deposit insurance, 555–558
deregulation. see regulation
development, 2, 5
accession to WTO and, 593–596
agriculture and, 17
banking sector and, 18
(p. 832) corruption and, 292–296
decline of, 13
electricity sector and, 400–402
environmental regulation and, 438–447
the Far East and, 676–677, 684–687
geography and, 19–20
modernization and, 38–39
natural resources and, 343–345
oil and gas sector and, 10–11, 343–345
railways and, 501–503
reform and, 38–39
regional, 20–21
Siberia and, 676–677, 684–687
stages of, 30–31
WTO and, 19
diversification
agriculture and, 540
command economy and, 71, 73
environmental regulation and, 448
financial and credit markets and, 18, 578, 585–588
foreign investment and, 609–610
institutional performance and, 202–203
natural resources and, 333
oil and gas sector and, 357
taxation and, 253
trade and, 593–596
WTO and, 19, 609–610
domestic bonds, 583
domestic consumption
agriculture and, 521
corruption and, 297
electricity sector and, 12, 400
the Far East and, 21
Gazprom and, 11
oil and gas sector and, 365
Siberia and, 21
dual financial system, 14, 54, 61, 282, 458, 583–586
E
Eastern Europe. see specific region
economic development. see development
economic geography. see geography
economic growth. see growth
economic transition. see transition
education, 725–745
admissions and, 731–732
bribery and, 9
competition and, 735, 741–742
Europe and, 479, 482, 727, 740
funding of, 23, 296, 725–744 passim
GDP and, 725–726, 730
government policy and, 478–479, 739–744
heterogeneous population and, 733
innovation and, 478–479
investment and, 741, 743
market power and, 735
middle class and, 684, 733, 737–742
poverty and inequality and, 725, 729
primary and secondary, 729–730
privatization of, 22–23, 25n3
R&D and, 15
state control/ownership and, 22–23, 25n3
subsidies for, 739–744
transition and, 725–729
US and, 725–727, 740
wages and income and, 729
electricity sector, 383–402
accounting standards and, 387
agriculture and, 384
arbitrage and, 295
Asia and, 12, 400
bankruptcy and, 386
capacity markets and, 12, 386–401 passim
cartels and, 12, 401
CIS and, 12, 400
competition and, 386–401
day-ahead market and, 388–401 passim
development of, 400–402
domestic consumption and, 400
Europe and, 393–394, 400
forward markets and, 394–395
Gazprom and, 401
imperial legacy and, 384
investment in, 383–394 passim, 400–401
management and, 387
market power and, 11–12, 384, 390–401 passim
monetary policy and, 387
power plant capacity and, 12
pricing within, 12
productivity and, 11–12
reform of, 389–391
regulation and, 386, 388, 394
restructuring of, 387–389
Soviet legacy and, 385–387
structure and, 10, 387–389
US and, 394
employment
corporate governance and, 6
demographics and, 24–25
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 705–709
health care system and, 751–759
institutional foundations and, 709–715
labor market and, 695–698
moonlighting, 8, 276–279
poverty and inequality and, 24
R&D and, 474–476
regulation of, 709–710
social policy and, 21–24
US and, 46
wages and income and, 694–721 passim
(p. 833) work hours and, 22, 700–701
see also labor market
enforcement. see law enforcement; regulation
enterprise management. see management
environmental regulation, 13–14
China and, 429
climate change and, 430–431
competition and, 427, 432–433, 444
compliance and, 437, 442, 445
degradation costs and, 427–434
demographics and, 13
development and, 20, 438–447
diversification and, 448
economic instruments and, 441–447
emissions and, 427–428
Europe and, 426, 429
financing of, 440–441
funding and, 444
GDP and, 427–433, 438
Gorbachev era and, 435–436
green investment and, 430–448 passim
growth and, 427–434
health risks and, 428–430
incentive and, 440–441
institutional decline and, 437–438
liberalization and, 436–437
life expectancy and, 13–14, 427, 430, 434
management and, 435–447 passim
MET and, 444
perestroika era and, 13, 436
pollution and, 427–430
quality of life and, 14
reform of, 426–449
Soviet legacy and, 434–436
technology development and, 13
US and, 453
weakening of, 437–438
see also regulation
equity markets, 18
command economy and, 63
corporate governance and, 226
financial and credit markets and, 574–590 passim
resource rents and, 319
Eurobonds, 562, 575, 583
European Russia. see Commonwealth of Independent States; specific region
Europe/European Union
accounting standards and, 262n10
agriculture and, 600
banking sector and, 562
command economy and, 65
corporate governance and, 223, 231
crime and, 120–122
education and, 479, 482, 727, 740
electricity sector and, 12, 393–394, 400
environmental regulation and, 13, 426, 429
EURASEC and, 601
exports and, 612n12, 675
fertility rates and, 816
financial and credit markets and, 575, 580, 583
Gazprom and, 597
geography and, 617
health care system and, 750–755
institutional performance and, 191, 206
life expectancy and, 670, 802–803
lifestyle choices and, 811
military-industrial complex and, 462–463
modernization and, 29–47 passim, 30
morbidity rate and, 807
mortality rate and, 750, 803–806
oil and gas sector and, 80n70, 310, 320–321, 336n24, 373–374, 612n12, 675
pipeline system and, 310, 597
poverty and inequality and, 24
privatization and, 223
productivity and, 5, 80n59
railways and, 492, 495, 498, 502
R&D and, 479, 482
recession and, 115
sciences and, 479, 482
subsidies and, 600
tariffs and, 111
trade and, 677
transition and, 98
unions and, 65
everyday corruption, 292–296
exports
Asia and, 687–688
Europe and, 612n12, 675
the Far East and, 21, 679–683
natural resources, 679–683
oil and gas sector and, 1, 612n12
R&D and, 15
Siberia and, 21, 679–683
taxation of, 19
WTO and, 19
see also trade
F
factor services, 133–147
families, 24, 819–820
famine, 129n14
the Far East, 21, 661–688 passim
China and, 668–688 passim
Chukotka and, 674–676
collectivism and, 668, 674, 683
crime in, 671
(p. 834) development and, 676–677, 684–687
exports and, 679–683
gross regional product and, 669–674
growth and, 677–679
natural resources and, 679–683
perestroika era and, 666–669
property rights and, 683–684
reform and, 666–669
Soviet legacy and, 674–676
state control/ownership and, 683–684
trade and, 677–679
transition and, 669–674
farming. see agriculture
federalism, 20, 643–660
Budget Code and, 20–21, 644–645, 656–657
centralization and, 646–657, 659n12
CIT and, 649–651, 655, 658n7
competition and, 646–647, 658n2
compliance and, 652
the Far East and, 21
GDP and, 648–649
health care system and, 23
investment and, 646
management and, 644, 657
market preservation and, 6
MET and, 650
PIT and, 649–651, 656, 659n7
Putin era and, 644
regional government and, 20–21, 655–656
regulation and, 645
Siberia and, 21
tax code and, 644–645, 647
VAT and, 650–652, 655, 659n7
fertility rates, 800–801, 813–821
employment and, 24
Europe and, 816
maternal capital program and, 817–821
financial and credit markets, 18, 574–590
China and, 588–589
collectivism and, 582
commodities and, 576
competition and, 585, 588–590
consumer confidence and, 578, 581, 588–589
corporate governance and, 7
diversification and, 18, 578, 585–588
dual financial system, 583–584
equity markets and, 574–590 passim
Europe and, 575, 580, 583
funding and, 18, 584–585, 590
Gazprom and, 576, 588
GDP and, 574–588 passim
globalization and, 7
growth and, 579–590
infrastructure and, 6
institutional foundations and, 557–579
law enforcement and, 575
liquidity and, 579, 581–586 passim
macroeconomic stabilization and, 18, 577–579, 584, 590
modernization of, 18
monetary policy and, 574–590 passim
natural resources rent and, 6
oil and gas sector and, 574–577
oligarchs and, 575, 579, 583
Putin era and, 576, 579, 581, 590
regulation and, 582, 586, 590
state control/ownership and, 574–577
US and, 583, 587–588
wages and income and, 584, 587
financial crisis of 1998–2000, 95, 779–780
financial crisis of 2008–2009, 562–570
employment and, 705–709
foreign financing and, 562–563
government and, 565–566
labor market and, 705–709
liquidity and, 563–565
number of banks and, 566–568
poverty and inequality and, 780
financing
developing countries and, 7
environmental regulation and, 440–441
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 562–563
foreign, 561–563
health care system and, 23, 764–766
fiscal centralization, 647–655
fiscal federalism. see federalism
fixed-income markets. see bonds
flexible hours/wages, 700–705, 718
food. see agriculture
forced labor, 326, 664–666
forced migration, 674–676
foreign currency. see monetary policy
foreign financing, 561–563
foreign government bonds, 581
foreign investment, 18–19, 593–612 passim
China and, 602–603, 606
commodities and, 604
competition and, 595, 605
diversification and, 609–610
GDP and, 603
labor market and, 720
Medvedev era and, 606
mineral resources and, 13
oil and gas sector and, 10–11
Putin era and, 604
reform and, 608–610
WTO and, 19, 593–612 passim
see also investment
(p. 835) forward markets, 394–395
Freight One/Freight Two, 504–505
freight tariffs, 496–498
funding
banking sector and, 17, 570
command economy and, 62
corporate governance and, 7
corruption and, 296
education, 23, 296, 725–744 passim
environmental regulation and, 444
financial and credit markets and, 18, 584–585, 590
health care system and, 23, 748–772 passim, 772n3
institutional performance and, 208
military-industrial complex and, 14, 457
mineral resources and, 421–423
natural resources and, 310
oligarchs and, 413
political candidates and, 413
railways and, 16
R&D and, 15, 470–488 passim
regional, 675–676, 682
sciences and, 15
see also financing
G
Gaidar, Yegor, 3, 46, 68, 92–94, 98, 248, 460
Gazprom, 11–12, 347, 350–354, 363–382 passim
Asia and, 684
banking sector and, 568
command economy and, 72, 74
corporate governance and, 237
electricity sector and, 401
Europe and, 597
financial and credit markets and, 576, 588
growth and, 134
institutional performance and, 214n11
natural resources and, 310
pipeline system and, 371, 597
pricing and, 372–376
privatization and, 368–371
productivity and, 379–380
R&D and, 474
reform and, 376–379
regional issues and, 676, 684
geography, 617–640
agriculture and, 620, 624, 637, 661–687 passim
Asia and, 617
China and, 631, 640n5
commodities and, 630
demographics and, 619–624
development and, 19–20
Europe and, 617
the Far East and, 21
GDP and, 633–634
government policy and, 624–631
growth and, 638–639
industrialization and, 624–631
migration and, 621–624, 635–638
monetary policy and, 635
natural resources and, 11, 618–619
poverty and inequality and, 635–638
railways and, 15
regional inequality and, 635–638
regional investment and, 638–639
Siberia and, 21, 663
urbanization and, 631–635
wages and income and, 626, 629
globalization, 7, 222, 238
Gorbachev, Mikhail, era of, 10
agriculture and, 521
command economy and, 55, 65, 74, 76n1
corporate governance and, 222
corruption and, 289–292
environmental regulation and, 435–436
life expectancy and, 808
military-industrial complex and, 453–455, 460
mineral resources and, 411
modernization and, 44
oil and gas sector and, 346
poverty and inequality in, 777
privatization and, 222
recession and, 107, 115
rent management system and, 330
transition, 88–90
governance, corporate. see corporate governance
government bonds, 581, 588
government policy
asset stripping and, 7
banking sector and, 565–566
commodities and, 6
education and, 739–744
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 565–566
fiscal regime for natural resources and, 257–258
geography and, 624–631
health care system and, 753–754
industrialization and, 624–631
innovation and, 476–487
privatization and, 6
regional issues and, 655–656
transition and, 518–520
green box subsidies, 598
greenhouse gasses, 429–430
gross domestic product (GDP)
agriculture and, 515–519, 540n1
(p. 836) banking sector and, 545, 551, 562
Brezhnev era and, 103
command economy and, 69
corruption and, 296–297
education and, 725–726, 730
environmental regulation and, 427–433, 438
federalism and, 648–649
financial and credit markets and, 574–588 passim
foreign investment and, 603
geography and, 633–634
growth and, 132–133, 140–154 passim
health care system and, 23, 752–755, 766, 769, 771
informal sector and, 8–9, 266–279 passim
institutional performance and, 202–203
labor market and, 694–695, 701, 705–706, 712
military-industrial complex and, 453–454, 460, 463
modernization and, 30, 38, 41, 47
natural resources and, 310, 315, 321–333 passim, 335n17, 336n31
oil and gas sector and, 365
poverty and inequality and, 780–783
R&D and, 470–472, 486
recession and, 102–123 passim
regional issues and, 665
resource rents and, 310, 315, 321–333 passim, 335n17, 336n31
Soviet legacy and, 4
taxation and, 249–250
total factor productivity and, 4
trade and, 4, 594–595, 609, 610n3
transition and, 86–99 passim
US and, 30, 583, 587–588
world rankings for, 1
WTO and, 18–19
growth, 4
accounting standards and, 4, 132–136, 140–147, 156n37, 157n38
after 1998, 132–157
agriculture and, 137
Asia and, 687–688
capital services and, 139–141
commodities and, 150–151, 154
competition and, 135–139, 147, 151, 153, 156n37
compliance and, 134
data quality issues and, 134–135, 147
environmental regulation and, 427–434
factor services and, 133–147
the Far East and, 677–679
federalism and, 21
financial and credit markets and, 579–590
Gazprom and, 134
GDP and, 132–133, 140–154 passim
geography and, 638–639
inflationary trends and, 150–153
informal sector and, 273–277
institutional performance and, 6, 200–202
investment and, 139–154 passim
labor market and, 13, 141–142
measures of, 137–139
monetary policy and, 132, 150–151
natural resources and, 13
patterns of, 147–149
poverty and inequality and, 780
productivity and, 133–147
projections of, 149–150
regional, 638–639
Siberia and, 677–679
total factor productivity and, 4, 135–147 passim
transition and, 273–277
wages and income and, 141
Grozny, Ivan, 455–458
gulag system, 20, 326, 330
H
health care system, 748–772
bureaucracy and, 769
centralization and, 748, 764–768
competition and, 760–768
drug delivery and, 762–763
employment and, 24, 751–759
Europe and, 750–755
financing of, 764–766
funding of, 23, 748–772 passim, 772n3
GDP and, 23, 752–755, 766, 769, 771
informal sector and, 757–759
investment and, 753, 759, 763, 767
life expectancy and, 766
morbidity rate and, 749–751, 805–813
mortality rate and, 749–751
pollution and, 428–430
privatization of, 22–23
Putin era and, 763
reform of, 759–770
regional issues and, 764
regulation and, 762–763
resources and, 751–759
social policy and, 23, 748–749, 759–771
Soviet legacy and, 4
state control/ownership and, 22–23
higher education. see education
horizontal integration
mineral resources and, 12–13, 404, 408–412
oil and gas sector and, 342
human capital. see labor market (p. 837)
I
IGFR (intergovernmental fiscal relations). see federalism
immigration. see migration
imperial legacy
agriculture and, 30
armed forces and, 458–460
corruption and, 9
electricity sector and, 384
the Far East and, 21
Ivan III and, 14, 454–455
Ivan IV (the Terrible) and, 455, 624, 663
migration and, 621–624
Muskovy and, 455–465 passim
Nicholas II and, 455
prices and, 458–460
reform and, 624, 626, 664
regional development and, 20
Siberia and, 21, 663–664
Stolypin reform and, 624, 626, 664
imports. see tariffs; trade
industrialization
China and, 31
command economy and, 57
geography and, 624–634
growth and, 147
market-led, 32–33
modernization and, 30–48 passim
recession and, 105, 112
Soviet legacy and, 624–634, 664
US and, 33, 629–630, 640n5
inequality. see poverty and inequality
inflation
corruption and, 291
financial and credit markets and, 18
growth and, 150–153
poverty and inequality and, 788
informal sector, 8–9, 265–282
agriculture and, 267, 276
Asia and, 282
bureaucracy and, 274
commodities and, 271
compliance and, 275
consumer confidence and, 277, 279
effect of, 277–278
federalism and, 20
GDP and, 8–9, 266–279 passim
growth of, 273–277
health care system and, 757–759
information flow and, 8
law enforcement and, 273
measurement of, 268–273
moonlighting and, 8, 276–279
PIT and, 275
poverty and inequality and, 24
regulation and, 266–267, 274–279
resource rents and, 10, 319–320
Soviet legacy and, 266–268
subsidies and, 10
taxation and, 321–323
tax code and, 275
transition and, 268–280
wages and income and, 271–272
Yeltsin era and, 273
infrastructure, 15–16
command economy and, 56–59, 69–71
natural resources rent and, 6
oil and gas sector and, 11
railways and, 15–16, 492–494
innovation
bureaucracy and, 484
education and, 478–479
government policy and, 476–487
transition and, 470–474
institutional foundations, 2, 557–579, 709–715
institutional performance, 189–215
Asia and, 206
asset stripping and, 196, 207
bankruptcy and, 207–208
bureaucracy and, 203, 210
centralization and, 190, 197–198, 211
China and, 197
collectivism and, 193, 210–211
commodities and, 189, 200–213 passim
competition and, 192–213 passim
compliance and, 207
consumer confidence and, 192, 198, 210–211
diversification and, 202–203
Europe and, 191, 206
funding and, 208
Gazprom and, 214n11
GDP and, 202–203
growth and, 200–202
investment and, 189–192, 196–211 passim
monetary policy and, 200, 202
natural resources and, 202–206
oligarchs and, 193–195, 200, 209, 213
pipeline system and, 204, 206
poverty and inequality and, 196
regional bonds and, 197
institutional structure, 354–358, 364–365, 523–524
institutions
arbitrage and, 208
banking sector and, 545–550, 554–555
collectivism and, 4
command economy and, 59–68, 71–76
environmental regulation and, 437–438
extractive vs. inclusive, 6
genesis of, 118–126
growth and, 6, 192–200
management and, 196
recession and, 118–126
society and, 209–212
Soviet legacy and, 545–550
times of crises and, 208–209
transition and, 118–126
wages and income and, 196, 201–202
weakness of, 1
insurance
deposit, 555–558
intellectual property rights, 15, 485, 594
intergovernmental fiscal relations (IGFR). see federalism
international community
maternal capital program and, 820–821
mortality rate and, 803–805
poverty and inequality and, 793–795
WTO accession and, 18–19, 594, 607–608
see also specific regions
International Monetary Fund, 89, 94–95, 246, 257, 493, 585–587
intraregional fiscal relations, 655–656
investment, 4, 18–19, 593–612 passim
agriculture and, 515–516
banking sector and, 548–562 passim
command economy and, 56–62, 70–73
competition and, 595, 605
consumer confidence and, 18
corporate governance and, 6, 228, 230, 238
education and, 741, 743
electricity sector and, 12, 383–394 passim, 400–401
environmental regulation and, 430–448 passim
the Far East and, 21
federalism and, 646
Gazprom and, 11
growth and, 139–154 passim
health care system and, 753, 759, 763, 767
institutional performance and, 189–192, 196–211 passim
labor market and, 720
Medvedev era and, 606
mineral resources and, 13, 406, 412, 420, 423
modernization and, 31–32, 38
oil and gas sector and, 10–12, 344–357 passim, 371–381 passim
pension funds and, 818
privatization and, 173
Putin era and, 604
railways and, 15–16
recession and, 109–116, 125, 127
reform and, 608–610
resource rents and, 320, 329, 333
rights of, 6
Siberia and, 21, 663–664, 669, 674–687 passim
Soviet legacy and, 619, 625–626, 632–633
taxation and, 255, 258
transition and, 89, 94–95
vertical integration and, 10–11
WTO and, 19, 593–612 passim
Ivan III, 14, 454–455
Ivan IV (the Terrible), 455, 624, 663
J
Jackson-Vanik Amendment, 19, 602
Jewish Autonomous Oblast region, 670, 679, 683, 687
K
Khodorkovsky, Mikhail, 80n70, 173, 226, 298, 331, 350, 413
knowledge transfer, 15, 476–477
L
labor market, 693–721
CIS and, 704, 720n2
collectivism and, 12, 718, 721n13
competition and, 717, 719
consumer confidence and, 719, 721n16
crime and, 715
demographics and, 24–25
employment and, 695–698
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 705–709
forced, 326, 664–666
growth and, 13, 141–142
gulag system and, 20, 326, 330
institutional foundations and, 709–715
investment and, 720
law enforcement and, 714–715
minimum wage and, 710–711
mining and, 13
mobility and, 698–700
moonlighting and, 8, 276–279
politics/political rights and, 715–718
poverty and inequality and, 24, 781–783
productivity of, 1
reform of, 22
regional development and, 20
regulation and, 704, 709, 714–719
serfdom and, 20
social policy and, 21–24
stages of, 694–695
trade unions and, 713–714
unemployment benefits and, 711–712
(p. 839) US and, 69, 703
wages and income and, 22, 694–721 passim
work hours and, 22, 700–701
see also employment
labor unions. see unions
law enforcement
corporate governance and, 6–7, 221–238 passim
corruption and, 9, 290–301 passim
federalism and, 20
financial and credit markets and, 18, 575
informal sector and, 273
labor market and, 714–715
rent management system and, 329
see also crime
life expectancy, 1, 800–813 passim
CIS and, 801
environmental regulation and, 13–14, 427, 430, 434
Europe and, 670, 802–803
Gorbachev era and, 808
health care system and, 766
recession and, 102–106, 118
regional issues and, 670
Siberia and, 670
Soviet legacy and, 4, 102
transition and, 86–88, 99
lifestyle choices, 25, 88, 808–813
liquidity
agriculture and, 518
banking sector and, 545, 550, 555–570 passim, 563–565
command economy and, 54
financial and credit markets and, 579, 581–586 passim
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 563–565
institutional performance and, 215
migration and, 624
transition and, 95
livestock, 515–522, 530–533, 537, 599, 601
M
macroeconomic stabilization, 3, 555
banking sector and, 555
financial and credit markets and, 18, 577–579, 584, 590
transition and, 86, 91–99 passim
management
banking sector and, 558
corruption and, 301
electricity sector and, 387
environmental regulation and, 435–447 passim
federalism and, 644, 657
fishing industry and, 686
institutions and, 196
military-industrial complex and, 456, 463
mineral resources and, 411–420 passim
natural resources and, 203, 679–687 passim
oil and gas sector and, 345–377 passim
oligarchs and, 411–412
privatization and, 4–5, 170
property/property rights and, 211, 676, 683–684
R&D and, 483
state control/ownership and, 3, 233–238, 676, 683–684
market economy. see transition
market-led industrialization, 32–33
market power
education and, 735
electricity sector and, 11–12, 384, 390–401 passim
railways and, 498
markets. see specific type
maternal capital program, 817–821
Medvedev, Dmitry, era of
command economy and, 73–75, 81n77
corporate governance and, 234–238
corruption and, 300
foreign investment and, 606
investment and, 606
mineral resources and, 413
regional issues and, 684
metals. see mineral resources
middle class, 813, 819
agriculture and, 16–17, 515, 684
education and, 684, 733, 737–742
modernization and, 24–25
poverty and inequality and, 784
privatization and, 6
reform and, 201, 212, 213
migration, 20, 25n2
employment and, 24
forced, 674–676
geography and, 621–624, 635–638
imperial legacy and, 20, 621–624
Jackson-Vanik Amendment and, 602
liquidity and, 624
poverty and inequality and, 635–638
regional issues and, 20, 25n2, 635–638
military-industrial complex (MIC), 3, 14, 453–465
China and, 453, 462
competition and, 457, 461, 463
development of, 2
Europe and, 462–463
(p. 840) funding and, 457
funding of, 14
GDP and, 453–454, 460, 463
Gorbachev era and, 453–455, 460
management and, 456, 463
mineral resources and, 2
monetary policy and, 457
Muskovy legacy and, 455–465 passim
natural resources and, 458–460
prices and, 458–460
Putin era and, 459–462
quality control and, 457
reform of, 462–463
rent-granting system and, 14
Soviet legacy and, 453–458
Stalin era and, 455–458
structure and, 10
Yeltsin era and, 453, 459–460
see also armed forces
mineral extraction tax (MET), 7, 253, 257–258, 334n7, 379
environmental regulation and, 444
federalism and, 650
mineral resources, 12–13, 404–423
accounting standards and, 419
Asia and, 419
asset stripping and, 412
automotive sector and, 416
bankruptcy and, 413
competition and, 410, 412–413, 417, 423
exploration and, 421–422
export of, 1
funding and, 421–423
Gorbachev era and, 411
horizontal integration and, 404, 408–412
investment and, 406, 412, 420, 423
labor market and, 13
management and, 411–420 passim
Medvedev era and, 413
military-industrial complex and, 2
nepheline and, 410, 413, 417–419
oligarchs and, 13, 404, 409, 411–415, 675
privatization of, 407–411
Putin era and, 404, 412–422 passim
quality control of, 13, 417–421
quantity of, 13
regulation and, 415–416
Soviet legacy and, 406–407
state control/ownership and, 415–417
structure and, 10
supply chain in, 12–13
vertical integration and, 12–13, 404, 407–411, 419
WTO and, 19
Yeltsin era and, 412
minimum wage, 710–711
mining. see mineral resources
mobility, labor, 698–700
modernization, 29–48, 487
Asia and, 31
centralization and, 31, 42
Civil War and, 35–36
collectivism and, 31, 33, 38
competition and, 39, 45
development and, 38–39
Europe and, 29–47 passim
financial and credit markets and, 18
GDP and, 30, 38, 41, 47
Gorbachev era and, 44
industrialization and, 32–33, 37–38
investment and, 31, 32, 38
market economy and, 38, 44
market-led industrialization and, 32–33
monetary policy and, 36, 43–44
New Economic Policy and, 36–37
R&D and, 487
regulation and, 30, 34–35, 38
Soviet legacy and, 29–48
stages of development and, 30–31
stagnation and, 39–42
Stalin era and, 31
systemic impediments to, 39–42
unions and, 34
urbanization and, 30
wages and income and, 45
World War I and, 32–35
monetary policy
agriculture and, 518
banking sector and, 564, 566–567
command economy and, 54, 61–71 passim
crime and, 105
electricity sector and, 387
financial and credit markets and, 18, 574–590 passim
geography and, 635
growth and, 132, 150–151
institutional performance and, 200, 202
military-industrial complex and, 457
modernization and, 36, 43–44
natural resources and, 323
New Economic Policy and, 36
oil and gas sector and, 343, 350, 365, 368
poverty and inequality and, 777, 779
productivity and, 661
recession and, 105, 108–109
transition and, 90, 93–95, 97
morbidity rate, 805–813
(p. 841) Europe and, 807
health care system and, 749–751
Soviet legacy and, 4
technology and, 810–813
mortality rate, 800–813
China and, 801
crime and, 806
employment and, 24
Europe and, 750, 803–806
fluctuations in, 808–810
health care system and, 749–751
international community and, 803–805
poverty and inequality and, 809
Soviet legacy and, 4
Stalin era and, 105
Muskovy legacy, 455–465 passim
N
natural resources
accounting standards and, 311, 334n9
competition and, 310–311, 314, 322, 331
dependence on, 1, 309–339
development and, 20, 343–345
diversification and, 333
export of, 679–683
the Far East and, 21, 679–683
fiscal regime for, 257–258
funding and, 310
Gazprom and, 310
GDP and, 310, 315, 321–333 passim, 335n17, 336n31
geography and, 11, 618–619
growth and, 13
institutional performance and, 202–206
institutional structure and, 354–358
management and, 203, 679–687 passim
monetary policy and, 323
oligarchs and, 675, 683
pipeline system and, 310, 313, 322–333 passim, 334n4, 339n49
prices and, 6, 458–460
R&D and, 15
regional development and, 20
regional revenues and, 20–21
royalties on, 7
Siberia and, 21, 679–683
Soviet legacy and, 253, 309–310
taxation of, 253, 257–258
WTO and, 19
nepheline, 410, 413, 417–419
New Economic Policy, 21, 36–37, 48n2, 456
Nicholas II, 455
noncompetition. see competition
O
oil and gas sector, 341–361, 363–382
accounting standards and, 343, 346
Asia and, 684
banking sector and, 17
centralization and, 345
China and, 80n70
CIS and, 311
CIT and, 357
competition and, 341–358 passim, 368, 375–378
compliance and, 355
denationalization of, 348–349
dependence on, 309–339
development of, 10–11, 343–345
diversification and, 357
domestic consumption and, 365
Europe and, 80n70, 310, 320–321, 336n24, 373–374, 612n12, 675
exports and, 1, 612n12
financial and credit markets and, 574–577
GDP and, 365
Gorbachev era and, 346
horizontal integration and, 342
institutional structure of, 354–358, 364–365
investment in, 11, 344–357 passim, 371–381 passim
Mikhail Khodorkovsky and, 80n70, 173, 226, 298, 331, 350, 413
management and, 345–377 passim
monetary policy and, 343, 350, 365, 368
negotiations in, 10–11
organizational structure of, 10–11, 345–346
planned economy and, 342–343, 366–367
pricing of, 3, 6, 11, 372–376, 574–577
private enterprise and, 11
privatization and, 348–352, 368–371
productivity and, 1, 11, 344–345, 379–380
Putin era and, 331, 352, 367, 370
reform in, 11, 346–359 passim, 376–379
regulation and, 341, 355–381 passim
Soviet legacy and, 309–310, 342–349, 364–367
state control/ownership and, 352–354
structure and, 10
subsidies and, 320–321, 336n24, 373–374
supply and, 12
taxation of, 7, 253, 257–258, 318–319, 321–322
transportation and, 11, 323
US and, 3, 80n70, 310, 374, 381n1
vertical integration and, 10–11, 341, 347–348
wages and income and, 349
world ranking for export of, 1
WTO and, 612n12
oligarchs
banking sector and, 546
corruption and, 97, 291
financial and credit markets and, 575, 579, 583
institutional performance and, 193–195, 200, 209, 213
Mikhail Khodorkovsky and, 80n70, 173, 226, 298, 331, 350, 413
management and, 411–412
mineral resources and, 13, 404, 409, 411–415, 675
natural resources and, 675, 683
politics and, 413
privatization and, 6
regional issues and, 675, 683
rent management system and, 331–332
resource rents and, 320, 322
wages and income and, 412
P
pension funds, 25, 587–588, 818
perestroika era, 10
armed forces and, 685
corruption and, 289–292
environmental regulation and, 13, 436
the Far East and, 666–669
poverty and inequality in, 777, 787–793 passim
reform and, 346–354
Siberia and, 666–669
performance. see institutional performance
personal income tax (PIT), 7, 206, 246–250, 260–261, 261n2
federalism and, 649–651, 656, 659n7
informal sector and, 275
phytosanitary requirements, 599, 601
pipeline system, 11, 341–381 passim, 381n3
access to, 371
China and, 80n70
command economy and, 71–72
Europe and, 310, 597
Gazprom and, 597
institutional performance and, 204, 206
natural resources and, 310, 313, 322–333 passim, 334n4, 339n49
regional issues and, 676–677, 684
Siberia and, 676–677, 684
taxation and, 257, 263n21
US and, 3, 381n1
planned economy. see centralization
pocket banks, 17, 72, 549–550, 553, 570
policy. see government policy
politics/political rights
centralization and, 647–655
corruption and, 298–300
labor market and, 715–718
oligarchs and, 413
WTO and, 599–601
Yukos and, 262n17
popular trust. see consumer confidence
population. see demographics
poverty and inequality, 1, 23–24, 775–796
agriculture and, 540, 776, 785, 788
bribery and, 9
China and, 794–795
collectivism and, 776
competition and, 785, 795
compliance and, 793
demographics and, 785–787, 790–795
education and, 725, 729
Europe and, 24
financial crisis of 1998–2000 and, 779–780
financial crisis of 2008–2009 and, 780
GDP and, 780–783
Gorbachev era and, 777
growth and, 780
informal sector and, 24
institutional performance and, 196
international community and, 793–795
labor market and, 781–783
liberalization and, 779
middle class and, 784
modern era and, 778–780
monetary policy and, 777, 779
mortality rate and, 809
perestroika era and, 787–793 passim
recession and, 129n12
regional issues and, 20, 635–638
Soviet legacy and, 4, 23–24, 776–777
Stalin era and, 776
subsidies and, 783–784
threshold for, 790–791
trade and, 595–596
transition and, 779–781, 788–795
US and, 24, 794
WTO and, 595–596
power plants. see electricity sector
pricing. see subsidies; specific sectors
privatization, 3–5, 161–183, 222–227
accounting standards and, 172, 182
aggregate effects of, 168–173
agriculture and, 16–17, 524–528
Asia and, 223
(p. 843) asset stripping and, 6, 171
auctions of, 9
banking sector and, 17
bureaucracy and, 5, 163, 176–177, 181–183
CIS and, 163
competition and, 163, 170, 176
concentration of, 6
consolidation and, 223–226
corporate governance and, 4–5, 222–233 passim
corruption and, 4
education and, 22–23, 25n3
enterprise management and, 4–5
Europe and, 223
the Far East and, 21
foreign, 5
Gazprom and, 11
Gorbachev era and, 222
health care system and, 22–23
individual wealth and, 6
investment and, 173
management and, 170
middle class and, 6
mineral resources and, 12–13, 407–411
oil and gas sector and, 348–349, 349–352, 368–371
oligarchs and, 6
percent of GDP produced in, 3
performance after, 5
pipeline system and, 371
power plants and, 12
railways and, 15–16, 505–506
regional variations in, 5, 173–181
regulation and, 171, 182, 191–211 passim
rent seeking and, 6
shareholder conflicts and, 229–233
Siberia and, 21
small business requirements and, 259–260
social policy and, 22–23, 25n3
state control/ownership and, 5, 226–227
taxation and, 6
total factor productivity and, 4, 166
transition and, 95–96
transparency and, 10–11
vertical of power and, 6
wages and income and, 5, 162–164
Yeltsin era and, 176–177
productivity, 4
aggregate estimates, 142–144
agriculture and, 531–534, 540n2
command economy and, 56–59, 69
Europe and, 5, 80n59
GDP and, 4
growth and, 133–147, 135–147 passim
industry-level estimates, 144–147
monetary policy and, 661
oil and gas sector and, 1, 11, 344–345, 379–380
privatization and, 4, 166
scientific, 479–480
targets for, 9
US and, 41, 69, 80n59
WTO and, 19
property/property rights, 16, 534–536
agriculture and, 524–528, 534–536, 683–684
banking sector and, 545–550
the Far East and, 21, 683–684
management and, 211, 676, 683–684
Soviet legacy and, 545–550
state control/ownership of, 683–684
transferability and, 524, 526
Putin, Vladimir, era of, 10, 18
command economy and, 65, 73–75
corruption and, 291–292
demographics and, 817
federalism and, 644
financial and credit markets and, 576, 579, 581, 590
foreign investment and, 604
health care system and, 763
investment and, 604
military-industrial complex and, 459–462
mineral resources and, 13, 404, 412–422 passim
oil and gas sector and, 331, 352, 367, 370
regional issues and, 664, 676, 684
rent management system and, 322, 329–332
taxation and, 247
trade and, 593, 596–597
transition and, 96, 99
WTO and, 593, 596–597
R
railways, 15–16, 490–511
access charges and, 498–501
automotive sector and, 500
bonds and, 506
China and, 490–491, 497, 502
commodities and, 496–500, 506–507
competition and, 15–16, 492–507 passim, 508n7
development of, 501–503
Europe and, 492, 495, 498, 502
Freight One/Freight Two, 504–505
freight tariffs and, 496–498
infrastructure of, 492–494
market power and, 498
monopolies and, 15–16
privatization and, 505–506
reform of, 492–494
Refservice and, 503–504
regulation and, 495–498
TransContainer and, 503–504
US and, 490–500 passim
vertical integration and, 15–16, 507
(p. 844) Yeltsin era and, 492
recession
agriculture and, 112
Asia and, 115, 119–127 passim, 129n9
bureaucracy and, 103
China and, 102–127 passim
collectivism and, 120–127 passim, 129n9
competition and, 109–111, 114–117
crime and, 102–105, 118–126, 128n6
Europe and, 115
GDP and, 102–123 passim
Gorbachev era and, 107, 115
institutions and, 118–126
investment and, 109–116, 125, 127
life expectancy and, 102–106, 118
market economy and, 103
monetary policy and, 105, 108–109
regulation and, 109–119 passim
transition and, 102–129
types of, 108–111
wages and income and, 108–109
Yeltsin era and, 115
reform, 3, 25n1
agriculture and, 523–524
armed forces and, 32, 462–463
banking sector and, 18
development and, 38–39
electricity sector and, 389–391
environmental regulation and, 426–449
the Far East and, 666–669
foreign investment and, 608–610
health care system and, 22–23, 759–770
institutional structure and, 523–524
labor market, 22
middle class and, 201, 212, 213
military-industrial complex and, 462–463
oil and gas sector and, 11, 346–359 passim, 376–379
perestroika era and, 346–354
railways and, 492–494
Siberia and, 666–669
Soviet legacy and, 89–91, 346–354
Pyotr Stolypin and, 624, 626, 664
taxation and, 7–8, 253–261
trade and, 608–610
transition and, 87–99
vertical integration and, 11
WTO and, 19, 608–610
Yeltsin era and, 91–93
Refservice, 503–504
regional issues
bonds and, 197
bureaucracy and, 5
competition and, 638, 666–684 passim
electricity sector markets and, 12
the Far East and, 21
federalism and, 20–21, 655–656
fiscal relationship with, 655–656
funding and, 675–676, 682
Gazprom and, 676, 684
GDP and, 665
geography and, 638–639
growth and, 638–639
health care system and, 23, 764
imperial legacy and, 14, 20, 454–455, 624, 663
investment and, 619, 625–626, 632–633, 638–639, 663–687 passim
life expectancy and, 670
Medvedev era and, 684
migration and, 20, 25n2, 635–638
oligarchs and, 675, 683
pipeline system and, 676–677, 684
poverty and inequality and, 24, 635–638, 636
privatization and, 5, 173–181
Putin era and, 664, 676, 684
regulation and, 686
revenues and, 20–21
Stalin era and, 625–626, 632, 662, 664
Yeltsin era and, 675
see also specific region
regulation
banking sector and, 544, 556, 558–560, 586
command economy and, 52, 54, 60, 62, 71
corporate governance and, 227
corruption and, 287, 297–301
demographics and, 13
electricity sector and, 386, 388, 394
employment, 709–710
federalism and, 645
financial and credit markets and, 582, 586, 590
health care system and, 762–763
informal sector and, 8, 266–267, 274–279
labor market and, 704, 709, 714–719
life expectancy and, 13–14
mineral resources and, 415–416
modernization and, 30, 34–35, 38
oil and gas sector and, 341, 355–381 passim
privatization and, 171, 182, 191–211 passim
quality of life and, 14
railways and, 15–16, 495–498
R&D and, 485
recession and, 109–119 passim
regional issues and, 686
taxation and, 252, 254
technology development and, 13
trade and, 594
transition and, 90–98 passim
US and, 394
WTO and, 594
rent management system, 329–332
Brezhnev era and, 330
decentralization of, 10
Gorbachev era and, 330
law enforcement and, 329
medieval Russia and, 14
military-industrial complex and, 14
oligarchs and, 331–332
Putin era and, 322, 329–332
recentralization of, 10
Soviet legacy and, 329–331
Stalin era and, 329–330
Yeltsin era and, 329, 331
research and development (R&D), 468–488 passim
agriculture and, 474, 478
China and, 472, 480, 483
education and, 478–479
employment and, 474–476
Europe and, 479, 482
funding of, 15, 470–488 passim
Gazprom and, 474
GDP and, 470–472, 486
governmental policy and, 476–487
gross expenditures on (GERD), 471–474, 484
innovation and, 476–487
investment and, 483–485, 502–503
knowledge transfer and, 15, 476, 477
management and, 483
military-industrial complex and, 14
modernization and, 487
natural resources and, 15
organizational structure of, 14–15
prior to transition, 468–470
productivity in, 479–480
regulation and, 485
resource rents and, 324
transition and, 470–474
US and, 472, 480, 482, 484
wages and income and, 474–476, 486–488
resource rents, 6, 9–10, 310–333
accounting standards and, 311, 319, 334n9, 335n22
agriculture and, 309
asset stripping and, 320
components of, 317–324
defined, 311–312, 334n9
equity markets and, 319
excess costs and, 321–323
exploration and, 324
formal categories of, 319–320
GDP and, 310, 315, 321–333 passim, 335n17, 336n31
informal sector and, 10, 319–320
investment and, 320, 329, 333
measuring, 312–317
New Economic Policy and, 456
oligarchs and, 320, 322
price subsidies and, 320–321
privatization and, 6
profits from, 319–320
R&D and, 15, 324
structure and, 327–329
taxation of, 319, 321–323
VAT and, 319
Russian Railways. see railways
RZhD. see railways
S
sanitary/phytosanitary requirements, 599, 601, 609
Sberbank, 72, 235, 546, 552–568 passim, 575–576, 586
sciences, 468–488 passim
competition and, 487
compliance and, 486
education and, 478–479
Europe and, 479, 482
governmental policy and, 476–487
innovation and, 476–487
modernization and, 487
productivity in, 479–480
tax code and, 486
second economy. see informal sector
shadow economy. see informal sector
shareholder conflict, 7, 229–233
Siberia, 21, 661–688
agriculture and, 661–687 passim
China and, 662–688 passim
crime in, 671, 673
development and, 676–677, 684–687
exports and, 679–683
geography of, 663
gross regional product and, 669–674
growth and, 677–679
imperial legacy and, 663–664
investment and, 663–664, 669, 674–687 passim
life expectancy and, 670
natural resources and, 679–683
perestroika era and, 666–669
pipeline system and, 676–677, 684
reform and, 666–669
Soviet legacy and, 664–666
trade and, 677–679
transition and, 669–674
(p. 846) wages and income and, 666, 669, 685
Yeltsin era and, 675
small business
agriculture and, 17
compliance and, 260
optional tax base for, 259
privatization and, 259
taxation of, 7, 258–261
transitioning out of, 260–261
turnover requirements and, 259–260
WTO and, 19
social policy
banking sector and, 18
command economy and, 64–65
creative destruction and, 22
demographics and, 24–25
drug delivery and, 762–763
employment and, 21–24
informal sector and, 24
institutions and, 209–212
labor market and, 21–24
mineral resources and, 13
poverty and inequality and, 24, 783–784
privatization and, 22–23, 25n3
regional development and, 20
wages and income and, 22
working hours and, 22, 700–701
Soviet legacy
accounting standards and, 7, 31, 56, 62, 251–252
agriculture and, 16, 31, 33, 36–46 passim, 515–517
armed forces and, 461–462, 685
banking sector and, 17–18, 545–554
Chukotka and, 674–676
command economy and, 51–81
competition and, 550–551
corruption and, 252, 289–292
crime and, 4, 74
electricity sector and, 385–387
environmental regulation and, 434–436
the Far East and, 674–676
financial and credit markets and, 18
GDP and, 4
industrialization and, 624–634, 664
informal sector and, 8, 266–268
institutions and, 545–550
investment and, 619, 625–626, 632–633
life expectancy and, 4, 102
market economy and, 68–76
military-industrial complex and, 14, 453–458
mineral resources and, 12–13, 406–407
modernization and, 29–48
morbidity rate and, 4
mortality rate and, 4
natural resources and, 253, 309–310
oil and gas sector and, 253, 309–310, 342–349, 364–367
political rights and, 4
poverty and inequality and, 23–24, 776–777
production targets and, 9
property rights and, 545–550
quality control and, 321
recession and, 102–129
reform and, 89–91, 346–354
rent management system and, 10, 329–331
Sberbank and, 552–553
Siberia and, 664–666
state-provided goods and, 9
supply chain and, 12–13
taxation and, 7, 8, 247–252
transition and, 89–91, 102–129, 551–554
US and, 31, 87, 90
wages and income and, 4, 23–24
war communism and, 31, 35–36, 48n1
stabilization. see macroeconomic stabilization
Stalin, Joseph, era of
military-industrial complex and, 455–458
modernization and, 31
mortality rate and, 105
poverty and inequality and, 776
regional issues and, 625–626, 632, 662, 664
rent management system and, 329–330
see also Soviet legacy
state control/ownership
agriculture and, 16–17, 683–684
arbitrage and, 90
banking sector and, 568
CIS and, 94
corporate governance and, 7, 226–227
education and, 22–23, 25n3
the Far East and, 21, 683–684
financial and credit markets and, 18, 574–577
health care system and, 22–23
management and, 3, 233–238, 676, 683–684
mineral resources and, 415–417
oil and gas sector and, 352–354
privatization and, 5, 226–227
property and, 683–684
railways and, 15–16
shareholder conflicts and, 233–238
Siberia and, 21
Stolypin, Pyotr, 624, 626, 664
structure. see infrastructure; specific types
subsidies
agriculture and, 598–599, 609, 611n11
education, 739–744
Europe and, 600
informal sector and, 10
oil and gas sector and, 320–321, 336n24, 373–374
poverty and inequality and, 783–784
resource rents and, 320–321
(p. 847)
T
tariffs, 7
Asia and, 687–688
automotive sector and, 679, 685
Europe and, 111
freight, railways and, 496–498
WTO and, 597, 599–601, 607
taxation, 246–263
accounting standards and, 246–252, 259, 261, 263n18, 319, 335n22
agriculture and, 249–250
arbitrage and, 263
asset stripping and, 262n11
CIS and, 247
CIT and, 7, 249–250, 357, 649–651, 655, 658n7
competition and, 259
compliance and, 247, 252, 258–261, 260, 275
corruption and, 252
diversification and, 253
enterprise assets and, 7
evasion of, 8
evolution of, 251–261
exports and, 19
Gazprom and, 11
GDP and, 249–250
informal, 321–323
investment and, 255, 258
mineral resources and, 7, 13
natural resources and, 253, 257–258
oil and gas sector and, 253
optional base for, 259
pipeline system and, 257, 263n21
political rivals and, 8
private property and, 7
privatization and, 6, 259
Putin era and, 247
R&D and, 15
reform of, 7–8, 253–261
regulation and, 252, 254
resource rents and, 319, 321–323
small business and, 258–261
Soviet legacy and, 7, 247–252
structure of, 7–8
transition and, 260–261
turnover requirements and, 259–260
tax code, 248, 262n5, 262n17
federalism and, 644–645, 647
informal sector and, 275
sciences and, 486
technology sector, 468–488 passim
agriculture and, 16
education and, 478–479
environmental regulation and, 13
Gazprom and, 11
governmental policy and, 476–487
innovation and, 476–487
modernization and, 487
morbidity rate and, 810–813
productivity in, 479–480
total factor productivity, 4
agriculture and, 540n2
command economy and, 69
GDP and, 4
growth and, 135–147 passim
privatization and, 4, 166
trade, 18–19, 593–612
accession to WTO and, 593–596
agriculture and, 521–522, 609
Asia and, 669, 676–679, 684, 687–688
automotive sector and, 609
business services sector and, 594–595, 597, 603
China and, 600, 677–688 passim
CIS and, 94
commodities and, 677–679
corporate governance and, 7
diversification and, 593–596
EURASEC and, 601
Europe and, 677
the Far East and, 677–679
GDP and, 4, 594–595, 609, 610n3
inspections and, 607
liberalization of, 3
poverty and inequality and, 595–596
Putin era and, 593, 596–597
reform and, 608–610
regulation and, 594
Siberia and, 677–679
US and, 602, 608, 677–678
trade unions. see unions
TransContainer, 503–504
transferability of property, 524, 526
transformation. see recession; transition
transition, 86–99
agriculture and, 112, 514–541 passim
Asia and, 95
banking sector and, 551–554
CIS and, 94
command economy and, 51–75 passim
commodities and, 16, 91, 94
competition and, 90
crime and, 86
deregulation and, 93–96
(p. 848) education and, 725–729
Europe and, 98
the Far East and, 669–674
GDP and, 86–99 passim
Gorbachev era and, 88–90
government policy and, 518–520
growth and, 273–277
health care system and, 748–772 passim
informal sector and, 268–280
innovation and, 470–474
institutions and, 118–126
investment and, 89, 94–95
macroeconomic stabilization and, 86, 91–99 passim
market reform and, 87–99
modernization and, 38, 44
monetary policy and, 90, 93–95, 97
poverty and inequality and, 779–781, 788–795
privatization and, 95–96
Putin era and, 96, 99
R&D and, 468–474
recession and, 102–129, 103
regulation and, 90–98 passim
Siberia and, 669–674
Soviet legacy and, 51–75 passim, 89–91, 551–552, 553–554
taxation and, 260–261
volatility and, 551–552
wages and income and, 86, 89–90, 93–94
Yeltsin era and, 91–98
transparency, 10–11, 231
transportation. see automotive sector; railways
tsarist Russia. see imperial legacy
turnover limit, 259–260
two-tiered wage structure, 712–713
U
unemployment benefits, 711–712
unions
command economy and, 64–65
consumer confidence and, 719, 721n16
electricity sector and, 12
Europe and, 65
labor market and, 713–714
modernization and, 34
United States
agriculture and, 41, 530–531
banking sector and, 598
corporate governance and, 231, 239n1
demographics and, 629–630, 634, 640n3, 818
education and, 725–727, 740
electricity sector and, 394
employment and, 46
environmental regulation and, 453
financial and credit markets and, 583, 587–588
GDP and, 30, 583, 587–588
industrialization and, 33, 629–630, 640n5
Jackson-Vanik Amendment and, 602
labor market and, 69, 703
military-industrial complex and, 453–455, 462–463, 465n14
modernization and, 30
oil and gas sector and, 3, 80n70, 310, 374, 381n1
pension funds and, 587–588
pipeline system and, 3, 381n1
poverty and inequality and, 24, 794
productivity and, 41, 69, 80n59
railways and, 490–500 passim
R&D and, 472, 480, 482, 484
regulation and, 394
sanitary/phytosanitary requirements and, 599, 609
Soviet legacy and, 31, 87, 90
trade and, 602, 608, 677, 678
transparency and, 231
urbanization and, 634
wages and income and, 103–104, 703
unofficial economy. see informal sector
urbanization, 30, 631–635
V
value-added tax (VAT), 7, 246–253, 261, 261n2, 262n11, 262n14, 262n16
federalism and, 650–652, 655, 659n7
resource rents and, 319
vertical integration
mineral resources and, 12–13, 404, 407–411, 419
oil and gas sector and, 10–11, 341, 347–348
railways and, 15–16, 507
W
wages and income, 1
agriculture and, 540
banking sector and, 550
bribery and, 9
crime and, 715
distribution of, 103–104
education and, 729
employment and, 694–721 passim, 701–705
financial and credit markets and, 584, 587
flexibility of, 700–705, 718
geography and, 626, 629
(p. 849) growth and, 141
informal sector and, 24
institutional foundations and, 709–715
institutions and, 196, 201–202
labor market and, 22, 694–721 passim
liberalization and, 779
minimum, 710–711
modernization and, 45
oil and gas sector and, 349
oligarchs and, 412
poverty and inequality and, 24
privatization and, 5, 162–164
recession and, 108–109, 129n12
regional development and, 20
Siberia and, 666, 669, 685
social policy and, 22
Soviet legacy and, 4, 23–24
trade unions and, 713–714
transition and, 86, 89–90, 93–94
two-tiered structure of, 712–713
unofficial economy and, 271–272
US and, 103–104, 703
war communism, 31, 35–36, 48n1
World Trade Organization (WTO), 7, 18–19, 593–612 passim
agriculture and, 19, 598–601
diversification and, 19, 609–610
EURASEC and, 601
Europe and, 600
foreign investment and, 593–596, 602–606
imports and, 597–599
inspections and, 607
international community and, 18–19, 594, 607–608
Jackson-Vanik Amendment and, 602
oil and gas sector and, 612n12
political considerations re, 599–601
poverty and inequality and, 595–596
Vladimir Putin and, 593, 596–597
reform and, 19, 608–610
regulation and, 594
service sector and, 597–598, 600
tariffs and, 597, 599–601, 607
see also trade
Y
Yeltsin, Boris, era of, 10
banking sector and, 556
command economy and, 64, 65, 74
corporate governance and, 223
corruption and, 290–292
informal sector and, 273
military-industrial complex and, 14, 453, 459–460
mineral resources and, 412
privatization and, 176–177
railways and, 492
recession and, 115
regional issues and, 675
rent management system and, 329, 331
transition and, 91–98
Yukos
command economy and, 72, 76
corporate governance and, 226
corruption, 298
financial and credit markets and, 575–577
institutional performance and, 195
mineral resources and, 413–417
natural resources and, 320, 331
oil and gas sector and, 347, 350–352
politics and, 262n17
taxation and, 250, 262n17