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date: 12 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The immediate prospect of significant and extended decline in size of the economically active population in Russia has brought demographic questions to the policy forefront, despite the stabilization of the population crisis since 2005. The chapter analyzes the crisis’ determinants in adverse developments in already unusually high adult mortality, combined with a fall in birthrates, which is not unique but is sharp. Despite often substantial migration in-flows, the population declined by over 5 million; with guarded optimism, the chapter concludes that with a continued decline in mortality, centered on behavioral changes in the adult years and a stabilization of now-higher birthrates, it is possible to develop a menu of policy choices which will restrict population decline and substantially decrease present social welfare losses.

Keywords: mortality crisis, fertility, cardiovascular revolution, transition economies, life styles

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