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date: 20 July 2019

(p. 323) Index

(p. 323) Index

A
academic motivation, educational reform, 281–282
ACCESS program, 134
acculturation, career development, 77–78
Achieving Success Identity Pathways (ASIP), 285
adolescents, poverty and, 131–132
adult workers. See also older workers
accessibility and acceptability, 303–304
career coaching, 297
case description, 301–303
cultural context in career transition, 295–296
entry and reentry transitions, 294
faith-based programs, 297–298
future directions, 306
importance of finding a job, 304
modifications to meet needs of, 303–306
psychology of working, 301–303
supporting interventions, 304–305
training and employment services, 296–301
vocational theory and employment, 305–306
work transitions for, 293–296
African Americans. See also race
age-related health status, 170–171
American Dream, 274
barriers, supports, and meaning of work, 236
career transition, 295–296
case of psychotherapy, 264–268
counseling for work-based challenges, 236–237
critical psychology, 22, 23
demographics in United States, 73
double jeopardy hypothesis, 75
education and family support, 77
education reform, 286
harassment of employed women, 92
helping clients change, 237
history in U.S. labor force, 74
household economy model, 143
labor and education, 73
labor force projections, 165
new career paradigm, 259–260
racial group, 72
sexual identity management, 118, 119
sociopolitical development, 280
unpaid care work, 148
women to men's earnings ratios, 87
working, wages and poverty, 128–130
working women of color, 86
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (1967), 163, 176–177
agency, 43, 46
Age of Enlightenment, 38
Age of Reason, 38
aging and working, 11, 160–162. See also older workers
age and training, 165–166
age and work attitudes, 165
age and work withdrawal, 166
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 176–177
age forms for work and retirement, 164–165
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 177
assessing the older worker, 167–170
defining the older worker, 162–164
employment across lifespan, 161–162
job analysis and job descriptions, 167–168
low income and older workers, 162
needs assessment, 168–170
performance changes, 170–177
prolonging productivity across lifespan, 178
recommendations for future research, 179–181
resilience of older worker, 161
rethinking, 214
retirement, 162, 164–165
self-management theory, 166–167, 168f, 169f
unemployment, 161
Aid to Dependent Children legislation, 144
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (ADFC), 129
alienating approach, professional values, 25
American Dream, 129, 273, 274
American Psychological Association (APA), 256
American Psychologist, 228
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990), 177, 187, 189, 190, 195
Asian Americans. See also race
American Dream, 274
career transition, 295
demographics in United States, 73
family changes, 152
history in U.S. labor force, 74
labor and education, 73
labor force projections, 165
racial group, 72
unpaid care work, 148
women to men's earnings ratios, 888
attachment theory, psychology of working and psychotherapy, 266–267
attitudes
employers and disabilities, 189
older workers, 165
B
backlash, resistance to change, 108
Bailey, Hugh A., 298–299
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 39
Baritz, Lorenz, 220
behavioral injustice, 27
behaviorism, psychometric psychology, 23
Best Buy, identity engagement, 208–209
Bingham, Walter Van Dyke, 219, 220
bisexual people. See also LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender)
LGBT vocational psychology, 103–105
(p. 324) Black Americans. See African Americans
Blaming the Victim, Ryan, 23
blowback, resistance to change, 108
Blue Shirt Nation, 209
boundaryless, 63
broken chain of achievement, 129
Brown v. Board of Education, 274
building blocks, 41
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 151, 165, 185
C
calculus, Holland's theory, 51
capitalism, individualism and, 21
career, 317
cultural context in career transition, 295–296
history of word, 60
progress and school engagement, 280–281
psychology of working, 63
career and technical education (CTE), 276, 283
career concern, 61
career confidence, 62
career construction theory, 57, 61–62
career control, 62
career counseling, 12, 62, 246–247, 267
career and work literature, 30–32
“career” vs. “personal,” 58–59
critical feminist approach to, 97–98
individual intervention, 13–14
international career guidance, 137–138
male socialization approach to, 98–99
sexual identity development, 105
theories of, 57–58
work, 50
career curiosity, 62
career development, 62
acculturation and worldview models, 77–78
assessment and psychometrics, 30
assumptions of traditional theories, 49–50
counseling and psychotherapy, 253–254
definition, 317
families and workplace, 312–313
gender and, 86
gender role socialization, 90
inclusion challenges for, 257–261
inclusive psychological practices, 260–261
intervention, 285–286
male-centered literature, 86
new paradigm for 21st century, 259, 260–261
new paradigm for lives at the margins, 259–260
public policy and, problem, 313–314
self-development and, 213–214
traditional paradigms, 257–259
women and poverty, 132–133
working people, 10, 13–14
Career Development Quarterly, 103, 321
career development theories, 50–59
career counseling and, 57–58
“career” vs. “personal” counseling, 58–59
critique of traditional, 56–57
Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise, 54–55
person-environment fit theories, 51–53
social cognitive career theory (SCCT), 49, 50, 55–56
Super's life-span, life-space theory, 53–54, 258
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), 49, 52–53
career education, 62
career indifference, 62
Career Institute, 284
The Career is Dead–Long Live the Career, 166, 203
career ladder, 41
career psychology, 40
career and work literature, 30–32
theories in, 29–30
work and, 29–32
career self-management, work and retirement, 166–167
career success. See also redefining work
redefining career, 210
subjective definition, 205
toward psychological success, 210–212
career time, redefining, 214–215
care work. See also work and family
definition of, 141, 154–155
definition of unpaid, 147–148
dual breadwinner/female caregiver model, 144–145
dual model of working, 142–143
elder care, 146, 150
family changes, 151–152
feminist standpoint theory, 142
household economy model, 143
male breadwinner/female caregiver model, 143–144
market work changes, 150–151
public policies, 149
relationship of market work to unpaid and paid, 153–154
Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education and Applied Technology Act, 313, 317, 319
Carnap, Rudolf, 39
Carnegie Tech, 219, 227
Cash, Johnny, 228
Caucasians. See White Americans
celerity, theory of work adjustment style, 52
Center for Labor Market Studies, 129
Center for the Study of Career Development and Public Policy, 138
child care. See also care work
demographic changes, 150
families and workplace, 312
gender role socialization, 90
survival of working women, 94
work-family conflict, 145
Choices Program, 285
Choosing a Vocation, Parsons, 49, 57
chronological age, 163
circumscription, 54–55
civil rights, 187
Civil Rights Movement, 74
climate. See workplace climate
Clinton, Bill, 223
coal miners’ strike, 228
cognitive-behavioral approach, counseling, 267–268
cognitive growth, children, 54
cognitive processing, changes in older adults, 172–173, 174–175
collaborative workspaces, 213
collectivism, 26
College and Career Transition Initiative (CCTI), 300
colonization, 22
communication, discourses, 37–38
communitarianism, 27
community
self-management, 167, 169f
well-being of worker, 29
work in “nonwork” setting, 206
community-based interventions, psychology of working, 12–13
community-based vocational rehabilitation programs(CRPs), 186
community colleges, 300–301
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 299, 314
compromise, vocational aspirations, 54, 55
computer design, workplace, 179
congruence, Holland's theory, 51
conscientization, 280
consistency, Holland's theory, 51
construction, 37. See also social constructionism
contextual affordances, 56
contrast, vision in older adults, 171–172
corporate downsizing, market work, 150
Corporate Service Corps, 212
correspondence, 52
corruption, status quo, 22
counseling. See also psychotherapy
attachment theory, 266–267
career, vs. vocational, 133
career coaching, 297
“career” vs. “personal,” 58–59
counselors-in-training, 313
domain-sensitive, 58, 261–262
integrating psychology-of-working in case, 264–268
integrating work-based issues into, 252–253
psychology-of-working perspective, 9
realities of training about work life, 254–255
(p. 325) social constructionism, 44–45
theoretical basis, 253–254
work and relationships, 62–63
working context, 12
counseling clients with work-based challenges, 233–234, 245–246
African Americans, 236–237
clients with disabilities, 239–241
future directions for, 247
Hispanic/Latino Americans, 237–239
Native Americans, 234–236
racial/ethnic minorities, 234–239
reflections, 246–247
sexual minorities, 241–243
unemployed, homeless and working and nonworking poor, 243–245
The Counseling Psychologist, 123
creativity, older workers, 176
critical consciousness, 78, 261
Critical Management Studies (CMS), 32
critical psychology
critical approach to well-being, 26–29
critical management studies, 32
epistemic values, 24–25
individualism, 20–21
moral values, 20–24
professional values, 25–26
role in individualism and status quo, 22–24
work and career psychology, 29–32
Critical Psychology: An Introduction, 22
cult of domesticity, women, 143
culture. See also race
acculturation and worldview models, 77–78
epistemic values, 28
ethnic identity development, 77
multilevel, and community change, 29
psychology of working, 5
workplace sexual identity, 117–120
D
decision making
older workers, 175–176
workers with disabilities, 240
Derrida, Jacques, 39
deviance disavowal, 195
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM–IV), 256
differentiation, Holland's theory, 51
disability, 170, 185–186
aging and working, 180
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 177
attitudes of employers, 189
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 239–240
career transition, 296
counseling for work-based challenges, 239–241
defining, 186–188
factors influencing work-related behavior, 190–191
helping clients change, 240–241
individual/idealist model, 193t, 194
individual/materialist model, 193–194
interventions, 196
national policies, 189–190
programs related to employment of people with, 186–188
psychology of working, 6, 12, 191–192, 196–197
social/idealist model, 193t, 195–196
social/materialist model, 193t,194–195
theoretical model of, and work, 192–196
Disability Studies Reader, 197
Disabled in Action, 195
disciplinary pluralism, 15
Discipline and Punish, Foucault, 42
disclosure
decisions, 115, 121
managing sexual identity, 116–117
discorrespondence, 52
discourse analysis
career psychology, 31–32
communication, 37–38
social constructionism, 40–41, 46–47, 142
discovery, 41
discrimination. See also work discrimination
counseling minorities, 246
Discrimination Management Model, 243
equity, sexism and work, 91–93
lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) workers, 105–106
race, in workplace, 75
workplace, and sexual minority issues, 105–114
Discrimination Management Model, sexual minority clients, 243
dislocated workers, psychology of working, 9
dislocation, term, 23
diversity, encouraging, 227–228
docile bodies, 42
domain-sensitive counseling, 58, 261–262
double jeopardy hypothesis, racial and gender harassment, 75
dual breadwinner/female caregiver
social organization model, 144–145
work-family conflict, 147
dual working model
care work, 154–155
market work and unpaid care work, 142–143
relationship between market work, unpaid care work and paid care work, 153–154
single adult worker model for market economy, 152–153
E
The Economist, 19
economy, United States, 292–293
education. See also training
community colleges and vocational training, 300–301
counseling minorities, 245–246
lifelong learning, 213
poverty prevention and career, 135–137
race and academic aspirations, 76–77
racial demographics, 73–74
racial participation in, 74
reading outside your field, 228–229
work in “nonwork” setting, 206
educational reform, 273–274, 286–287
academic motivation, 281–282
American Dream, 274
career development intervention, 285–286
career progress and school engagement, 280–281
changing world of work, 275–276
fate of work preparation in, 276–278
future directions, 287
perception of barriers, 279–280
racial identity and sociopolitical development, 280
school engagement, 278–279
social justice, 274–275
theory and research, 278–282
whole-school models, 282–284
Education of all Handicapped Children Act (1975), 186
elder care, 146, 150, 154–155. See also care work
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), 277
emancipation, critical psychology, 22
empirically supported theories (ESTs), 256–257
employee policies
Best Buy and, engagement, 208–209
changes in market work, 150–151
power relationships, 42
employer policies, family-friendly, 149
employment
career coaching, 297
counseling clients, 246–247
faith-based programs, 297–298
endurance, theory of work adjustment style, 53
English language learners (ELLs), 277–278, 284
Enlightenment, agency, 46
epistemology
ethnocentric approaches, 25
mechanistic approaches, 24
psychology of working, 6
reductionist approaches, 24–25
social constructionism and, 40
well-being, 28
Equal Pay Act (1963), 87
essentialism, career theory, 30
ethics
(p. 326) employee relationships, 42
market work, 150
productivity, 154
professionalism, 150
ethnic identity development. See also culture; race
education reform, 280
theory, 77
ethnocentric approach, critical psychology, 25
Eupsychian Management, 209
European Union, public policies for care work, 149
evidence-based psychological practices (EBPPs), 256–257
expectancy-value theory, 281
expertise, older workers, 175–176
F
faith-based programs, employment services, 297–298
family. See also work and family
attachment theory, 266–267
career development of people of color, 79–80
counseling, 268
psychotherapy and counseling, 268
relationships, 167, 169f
therapy, 23
women working for social connection, 95–96
work in “nonwork” setting, 206
workplace and, 312–313
fathers
caretaking and nurturing roles, 90
unpaid care work, 148
fear of disclosure, managing sexual identity, 116–117, 121
feminism. See also gender
critical feminist approach to career counseling, 97–98
feminist standpoint theory for care work, 142
psychology of working, 5
Focus: HOPE, 212
Foucault, M., 30–31, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42
functional age, 163
G
Gates, Bill, 312
gay men. See also LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender)
LGBT vocational psychology, 103–105
Geek Squad, 209
gender. See also feminism
career counseling frameworks, 97–99
career transition, 295
children learning stereotypes, 88
complexity of race, gender and sexual orientation, 111–113
critical feminist approach to career counseling, 97–98
division of household labor, 148–149
equity, sexism and work, 91–93
future directions in working context, 100
gender role socialization, 88–90
household economy model, 143
internal views of abilities, 89–90
male socialization approach in career development, 98–99
participating in caretaking and nurturing roles, 90
participation and pay in U.S. labor force, 86–88
psychology of working, 5, 93–97
work identities, 89
working and social connection, 95–96
working as self-determination, 96–97
working as survival and power, 93–95
General Social Survey, wage inequity, 106
genetic predispositions, 23
Gergen, Kenneth, 40
Gig, Bowe, Bowe, and Streeter, 226
glass-ceiling effect, 41
GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered) individuals. See LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender)
globalization, changing world of work, 275–276
Gottfredson, theory of circumscription and compromise, 54–55
government positions, women in upper-level, 95
grand career narrative, 13
Great Depression, 161, 220, 316, 319
Great Recession, 160, 165
Group and Organization Management, 115–117
Guatemala, solidarity and social change, 28
H
Haggard, Merle, 228
Hahn, Hans, 39
Hall, G. Stanley, 225
Handbook of Disability Studies, 197
handbook overview, 10–13
harassment, Organizational Diversity Climate Scale, 112–113
Harlan County USA, 228
Hazen Paper Co. v. Biggins (1993), 177
health
age and work withdrawal, 166
aging population, 214
changes in older workers, 170–171
reactive approach, 25
hearing, changes in older adults, 172
Heumann, Judith, Disabled in Action, 195
High Schools That Work (HSTW), 283
Hispanic/Latino Americans. See also race
age-related health status, 170–171
American Dream, 274
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 238
barriers to school success, 279–280
career transition, 295–296
case description for adult worker, 301–303
counseling for work-based challenges, 237–239
demographics in United States, 73
education and family support, 76–77
education reform, 286
family changes, 152
harassment of employed women, 92
helping clients change, 238–239
history in U.S. labor force, 74
labor and education, 73
labor force projections, 165
racial group, 72
unpaid care work, 148
women to men's earnings ratios, 87
work and family balance, 80
working, wages and poverty, 128
workplace harassment, 75
Holland's career development, 51–52
homeless
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 244
counseling for work-based challenges, 243–245
helping clients change, 244–245
Horny Hands and Hampered Elbows, Williams, 225
hostile environment, harassment, 92
household economy model, social organization model, 143
Hulin, Chuck, 220
Humanitarian Work Psychology (HWP), 32
human nature, 23
human needs, psychology of working, 8–9
human resource development, 108
Humm, Doncaster, 220
Humm–Wadsworth Inventory, 220
I
IBM, career development, 212
idea productivity, older workers, 176
identity, Holland's theory, 51
Identity Management Model, 243
identity management strategies, 115
illumination, vision in older adults, 171
immigration and work, research on, 46
individual/idealist model, disability, 193t, 194
individual interventions, working, 13–14
individualism
morality, 20–21
professional values, 25
status quo, 22
Individualized Career Planning Model, workers with disabilities, 241
individual/materialist model, disability, 193–194
industrial/organizational [I/O] psychology, 3–4, 23
celebrating work, 228
encouraging diversity, 227–228
making workplace better, 229
performing job being studied, 227
psychology's relationship with management, 219–224
quantification history, 225–226
reading outside your field, 228–229
steps for better, 226–229
Undercover Boss, 227
Industrial-Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice, 228
Inquiry School in New York City, 284
Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access (IDEA), 284
Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development, 245, 282
intelligence, older adults, 173–174
interdependence, moral values, 26–27
internal working model, attachment, 266
International Centre for Career Development and Public Policy, 320
International Classification of Functioning (ICF), 187
International Labour Office (ILO), 292
interventions
adult workers, 304–305
disability and work, 196
working people, 13–14
J
job analysis, older workers, 167–168
job descriptions, older workers, 167–168
job performance, older workers, 174–175
job satisfaction
psychology of, 222–223
psychotherapy, 261
quantification, 226
race and work, 76
Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 299, 314
Journal of Applied Psychology, 223
Journal of Career Development, 31
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103
justice, moral values, 27–28
K
Kentucky Retirement Systems v. EEOC (2008), 177
Knowledge, social relationships, 41–42
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs),older workers, 169, 173, 175
Kornhauser, Arthur, 220–221, 224, 227, 229
L
labor force
color discrimination in, 75
education reform, 286–287
equity, sexism and work, 91–93
gender participation and pay in U.S., 86–88
gender role socialization, 88–90
projected change by age, 165f
racial participation in, 74–75
racial statistics, 73–74
United States, 292–293
women during World War II, 85–86
labor unions, 219–222, 224
language, social constructionism, 40–41, 46–47, 142
Latino Americans. See Hispanic/Latino Americans
learning experiences, “nonwork” setting, 206
legislation. See public policy
The Leopard, Lampedusa, 23
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender), 6, 12
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 242
changes in families, 151
concealing or revealing sexual identity, 115–117
counseling for work-based challenges, 241–243, 262
cultural identities and, 117–120
diversity initiatives, 108–109
evidence of pervasive discrimination, 105–106
fear of disclosure, 116–117, 121
focusing on interpersonal aspects of climate, 109–111
focusing on workplace climate, 106–113
friendly workplaces, 223
helping clients change, 242–243
identity complexities of LGBT workers, 111–113
inclusivity in workplace, 123–124
LGBQ workers’ experiences, 110–111
LGBTQ special rights, 108
moving to authentic psychology of working for, 122–124
psychology-of-work perspective for workplace climate, 113–114
social class, 117–120
term, 104
vocational psychology, 103–105
wage inequity, 106
workers’ experiences, 105–106
workplace discrimination and climate, 105–114
workplace sexual identity management, 114–122
liberatory psychology, and vocational counseling, 133–134
life cycles, career, 204
life design paradigm, 61–62
lifelong learning, 213
lifespan. See also aging and working; older workers
employment across, 161–162
older workers, 164
productivity of workers across, 178
self-management in workplace, 174
life-span, life-space theory, 53–54, 56, 258
Linked Learning, 283
M
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 38
male breadwinner/female caregivermodel, 143–144
management
exploiting workers, 224
power, 42
psychology's relationship with, 219–224
Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA), 299
market work, 62
changes in, 150–151
definition, 141
demographic changes, 149–150
dual model of working, 142–143
relationship to unpaid and unpaid care work, 153–154
single adult worker model for, 152–153
Marxism, social science and, 22
Mature Services, 166
Mayo, Elton, 220, 225
mechanistic approach, critical psychology, 24
Medicaid, healthcare, 187, 189, 239
Medicare, healthcare, 187, 189
mental health, working, 7
meta-narratives, term, 44
metaphors, work, 41
Millennials, 163
Minority Stress theory, 109, 123
Mintzberg, Henry, 225
models, disability and work, 192–196
Mom Corps, 213
moral relativism, social constructionism criticism, 45–46
The Morals and Politics of Psychology: Psychological Discourse and the Status Quo, Prilleltensky, 22
moral values
critical approach, 26–28
critical psychology, 20–24
individualism, 20–21
interdependence, 26–27
justice, 27–28
psychology's role in individualism and status quo, 22–24
solidarity and social change, 28
motherhood
caretaking and nurturing roles, 90
single mothers, 148, 149
source of discrimination in workplace, 91–93
unpaid care work, 148
Multiple Pathways in California, 283, 284
Munsterburg, Hugo, 219, 225
N
narrative, social constructionism, 44–45
National Center for Educational Statistics, 73
(p. 328) National Council on Disability, 185, 239
National Defense Education Act of 1958 (NDEA), 313, 318, 319
National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS), 132
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, wage inequity, 106
National Health and Social Life Survey, wage inequity, 106
National Labor Relations Act (1935), 220
National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, 129
National Science Foundation, 318
National Urban League, 135
A Nation At Risk, 276
Native Americans. See also race
American Dream, 274
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 234–235
career decisions, 79–80
counseling for work-related challenges, 234–236
demographics in United States, 73
education and family support, 76
education reform, 286
helping clients change, 235–236
history in U.S. labor force, 74
racial group, 72
working, wages and poverty, 128
needs assessment, older workers, 168–170
Neurath, Otto, 39
New Zealand, 28
No Child Left Behind (NCLB), 136, 277–278, 282–283
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 223
nonworking poor, counseling, 243–245
normalization, social relationships, 41–42
O
objective reality, metaphors, 41
occupational health, working and racism, 75–76
older workers. See also adult workers; aging and working
career transition, 296
cognitive changes in performance, 173–176
cognitive task performance, 174–175
computer design, 179
creativity and idea productivity, 176
decision making, 175–176
defining, 162–164
expertise, 175–176
health and rehabilitation changes, 170–171
hearing, 172
intelligence, 173–174
norms and statistics, 164–166
perceptual speed changes, 172–173
problem solving, 175–176
prolonging productivity across lifespan, 178
psychosocial definitions, 163
self-management theory, 166–167, 168f, 169f
sensory and perceptual changes and limitations, 171–173
strength changes, 170
training, 165–166
vision, 171–172
work and family spillover, 315
work and retirement, 164–165
work attitudes, 165
workplace design, 178–179
Opting Out? Why Women Really Quit Career and Head Home, Stone, 93
Organizational Diversity Climate Scale, 112–113
organizational psychology, 12
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 318
P
Parsons, Frank, 49, 71, 130, 258
Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 275
passing, managing sexual identity, 116, 121
Paterson, Donald, 222, 229
pay
gender, in U.S. labor force, 86–88
working, wages and poverty, 128–130
people of color. See also race
academic and career aspirations, 76–77
acculturation and worldview models, 77–78
meaning of work, 78–79
psychology of working and, 78–80
racial/ethnic identity development, 77
work as survival and power, 79
work for social connection and relations, 79–80
The Peoples’ History of the United States, Zinn, 220
personal care work, 62
personal counseling, career vs., 58–59
personal digital assistants, workers with disabilities, 241
personal growth, work in “nonwork” setting, 206
personal relationships, 62
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWOA), 129
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), 297, 298
person-environment fit theories
Holland's theory, 51–52
person-environment psychology, 51
person-job fit for older adults, 173
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), 52–53
vocational psychology, 51–53
personnel psychology, 4
Pew Healthcare Commission, 135
Pew Research Center, 295
physical health, working and racism, 75
political geography, 27
positive psychology, 24
positivism, reaction to, 39
Postmodernists, 38
poverty
adolescents and, 131–132
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 244
counseling for work-based challenges, 243–245
employment research and public policy, 137–139
government programs, 129–130
helping clients change, 244, 244–245
international career guidance initiatives, 137–138
No Child Left Behind (NCLB), 136, 277–278, 282–283
older adults and, 162
poverty prevention and career education, 135–137
practices and interventions, 133–137
(p. 329) Project HOPE (Healthcare, Opportunities, Preparation, and Exploration), 135–136
School-To-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA), 136
Summer Youth Employment and Training Program (SYETP), 135
training initiatives, 138–139
unemployment and, 133
U.S. Census Bureau, 127
vocational psychology, 130–133
women and, 132–133
working, 11
working, wages and, 128–130
power
adult worker and work as, 302
gender and working as, 93–95
need for survival through work, 63–64
race and work as, 79
social relationships, 41–42
working environments, 42
pregnancy, employment discrimination, 91
The Prince, Machiavelli, 38
problem solving, older workers, 175–176
process model, 52, 53
productivity
care work, 154, 155
older workers, 176
professionalism, 150
professional values
critical psychology, 25–26
multilevel culture and community change, 29
proactive change, 29
strength-based and empowering change, 29
well-being, 28–29
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 275, 318
Project HOPE (Healthcare, Opportunities, Preparation and Exploration), 135–136
protean career. See also redefining work
from organizational to, 204
lifelong learning, 213
Protestant work ethic, 43
psychoeducational interventions, psychology of working, 9–10
psychological health
work and day-to-day life, 72
working and racism, 75
psychological success, need satisfaction vs., 205–206
psychology
quantification of, 225–226
relationship with management, 219–224
role in individualism and societal status quo, 22–24
Psychology of Industrial Efficiency, Munsterburg, 219
psychology of working, 4–10, 63–64
core assumptions of, 79
as critique, 5–6
current status of, 9–10
disability, 6
disability and, 191–192
epistemology, 6
feminism and gender, 5
functions of work, 63–64
human needs, 8–9
integrative and inclusive frame, 268–269
LGBT vocational psychology, 122–124
LGBT workplace climate, 113–114
LGBT workplace sexual identity management, 120–122
need for relatedness, 64
need for self-determination, 64
need for survival and power, 63–64
older workers, 164
perspective, 6–9
poverty and working, 127–128, 128–130, 139
psychotherapy theories, 262–263
race and culture, 5
redefining work, 204
relational theory of working, 64
role of values in, 7
sexual orientation, 5–6
training, 254–255
vocational psychology, 293
work and family, 141–142
psychotherapy. See also counseling
advocacy and defiance in, 261–262
career and vocation, 267
career development paradigms, 257–259
career paradigm for 21st century, 259
career paradigm for lives at the margins, 259–260
case conceptualization of African American man, 264–268
challenges for career development theory, 257–261
cognitive-behavioral approach, 267–268
development of attachments, 266–267
empirically supported therapist (ESTs), 256–257
evidence-based psychological practices (EBPPs), 256–257
including psychology of working into theories, 262–263
inclusive psychological practices and new career paradigm, 260–261
integrating work-based issues into counseling and, 252–253
marital and family system, 268
professionalization, 255–257
psychodynamic orientation, 255–256
realities of training about work life, 254–255
theoretical basis, 253–254
working context, 12
public policy
agendas, 14
career development and, 313–314
career development in historical context, 316–319
career development realities, 319–321
care work, 149
definition of, 315–316
employees with disabilities, 189–190
opportunities for, engagement, 320–321
psychology of working, 12–13, 314–315
Q
quantification, history of, 225–226
quid pro quo, harassment, 92
R
race
acculturation and worldview models, 77–78
age-related health status, 170–171
American Dream, 274
barriers to school success, 279–280
Best Buy employee engagement, 208–209
career transition, 295–296
complexity of race, gender and sexual orientation, 111–113
counseling clients with work-based challenges, 234–239
double jeopardy hypothesis, 75
educational and labor force statistics, 73–74
education and family support, 76–77
education reform, 280
family changes, 152
future directions, 80–81
job satisfaction, 76
new career paradigm, 259–260
occupational health, 75–76
psychological and physical health, 75
psychology of working, 5
psychology of working and people of color, 78–80
racial groups in United States, 72
racial identity theory, 77
sexual identity management, 118, 119
social definitions of, 72
work as self-determination, 80
work as survival and power, 79
work development theories, 77–78
work for social connection and relations, 79–80
working, wages and poverty, 128–130
working and racism, 74–77
Race to the Top, educational policy, 136, 319
racial groups, 72
Radical Psychology Network, 22
reactive approaches, professional values, 25
Reagan, Ronald, 128
Reality, social constructionism criticism, 45
reasonable accommodations, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 190
redefining work, 203–204
Best Buy and identity engagement, 208–209
career development, 212–213, 213–214
career success, 210
career time, 214–215
collaborative workspaces, 213
community, church, and civic life, 206
contemporary career, 204–205
definition of career success, 205
education and personal growth, 206
enlarging definitions of my work, 206–207
enriching My Work identity, 209–210
friends and social networks, 206
home and family, 206
lifelong learning, 213
need satisfaction vs. psychological success, 205–206
organizations engaging identity, 208
psychological functions of work, 205
psychological success, 210–212
resources for career redefinition, 213
self-development, 213–214
smart jobs, 213
what I do, 207f
who I am, 207–209
work in “nonwork” settings, 206
reductionist approaches, critical psychology, 24–25
Reeve, Christopher, 194
reform. See educational reform
rehabilitation
changes in older workers, 170–171
vocational, 186
Rehabilitation Act (1973), 187
(p. 330) Reich, Robert, 312
relatedness, need for, through work, 64
relational orientation, race and work for, 79–80
relational theory of working, 64
relationships, counseling for work and, 62–63
relativism, social constructionism, 45
research agendas, psychology of working, 14–15
resilience, older workers, 161
retirement, 162
age and work withdrawal, 166
age norms for work and, 164–165
self-management theory, 166–167
rhythm, theory of work adjustment style, 52–53
Roberts, Ed, 195
Romantics, 38
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 193, 220
Rosa's Law, 196
S
safe space, psychological safety, 213
The Salesman, 228
satisfactoriness, term, 52
scaffolding, 41
Schein, Virginia, 223
school engagement
career progress and, 280–281
education reform, 278–279
school-to-work (STW) movement, 276–277
School-To-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA), 136, 276–277
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)
funding, 318
racial demographics, 73
Scott, Walter Dill, 219, 222
self-creation, concept of, 54
self-determination, 43
academic motivation, 281–282
adult worker and work as, 303
disability, 194
gender and working as, 96–97
need for, through work, 64
race and work as, 80
self-management
community influences, 167, 169f
influences on self, 167, 168f
relationships to family, 167, 169f
work and retirement, 166–167, 180–181
work influences, 167, 168f
self supreme, 21
Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), 296
Servants of Power, Baritz, 220
sexism. See also gender
double jeopardy hypothesis, 75
gender and, 85–86
women's progress in workplace, 91
sexual harassment, women in workplace, 92–93
sexual identity management, 104
career counseling, 105
definition, 115
factors related to concealing and revealing, 115–117
Fear of Disclosure Scale, 116–117
LGBT vocational psychology, 114–122
social and cultural identities, 117–120
sexual minorities.lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), 103–105
sexual orientation. See also LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender)
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 242
complexity of race, gender and, 111–113
counseling for work-based challenges, 241–243
diversity initiatives, 108–109
employment selection, 106
evidence for work discrimination, 113–114
helping clients change, 242–243
psychology of working, 5–6
working, 11
single mothers, 148, 149
Sloan Center on Aging & Work, 163
smart jobs, 213
social barriers, psychology of working, 14–15
social change, psychology's role in solidarity and, 28
social class
interface between work and family, 96
race in United States, 73
women working, 94
working, wages and poverty, 128–130
workplace sexual identity, 117–120, 124
social cognitive career theory (SCCT)
career development, 49, 50, 55–56, 258
critique, 57
LGBT workers, 123
new career paradigm, 259–260
vocational psychology, 131
social connection
adult worker and work as, 302–303
gender and working as, 95–96
race and work for, 79–80
social constructionism, 37–38
agency, 46
criticisms of, 45–46
epistemology and, 40
Foucault, 39
language and discourse, 40–41, 46–47, 142
moral relativism, 45–46
narrative, 44–45
the other, 43–44
positivist paradigm, 61
possible research directions, 46
power/knowledge and normalization, 41–42
reaction to positivism, 38
reality, 45
recent developments, 39–40
relational self, 43–44
relativism, 45
tenets, 38
Wittgenstein and Derrida, 39
The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Berger and Luckmann, 39
social control, harassment as mechanism of, 92–93
social dominance, women working, 95
Social Exchange theory, LGB workers, 109–110, 123
social/idealist model, disability, 193t, 195–196
socialization
gender role, in labor force, 88–90
male socialization approach to career counseling, 98–99
social justice
critical psychology, 28
education and, 273, 274–275
market work, unpaid and paid care work, 149, 153–154
poverty and public policy initiatives, 130, 131
psychology of working, 9
vocational psychology, 131
social/materialist model, disability, 193t, 194–195
social networks, work in “nonwork” setting, 206
social organization. See also dual working model
demographic changes, 149–150
dual breadwinner/female caregiver, 144–145
family changes, 151–152
historical models of, 143–145
household economy model, 143
male breadwinner/female caregiver, 143–144
market work changes, 150–151
social policy research, poverty and race, 129
social science, Marxism and, 22
Social Security
disability laws, 187
older adults, 162, 165
vocational rehabilitation, 190, 191
Social Security Act, 87
Social Security Disability Income, 191
Social Security Disability Insurance, 189
Social Security Work Incentives, workers with disabilities, 241
social status, working women, 94–95
Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP), 218
sociopolitical development
career development, 78
education reform, 280
(p. 331) solidarity, psychology's role in, 28
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 283
space race, 258
statistics, older workers, 164–166
status quo, 22, 24
stereotypes
children learning gender, 88
disability, 195, 196
LGBT workers, 111
strength, changes in older adults, 170, 179
stress
aging and working, 180
counseling clients with, 246
Strong, E. E., 222
subjectification, people as objects of knowledge, 41–42
Sullivan Commission, 135
Summer Youth Employment and Training Program (SYETP), 135
Super, Donald, 53–54, 258
Supplemental Security Income, 189
Supreme Court, employment discrimination, 91
survival
adult worker and work as, 302
gender and working as, 93–95
need for, through work, 63–64
race and work as, 79
T
Talent Development High Schools, 283
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 129–130, 138, 298
Terkel, Studs, 225–226
theory of work adjustment (TWA)
career development, 49
person-environment fit theory, 52–53
They're Tearing the Labor Camps Down, Haggard, 228
Thurstone, L. L., 225
Titchner, E. B., 225
tolerance, diversity, 108–109
Tools for Tomorrow, 285
training. See also adult workers
adult, and employment services, 296–301
career coaching, 297
community colleges and vocational, 300–301
faith-based programs, 297–298
older workers, 165–166
one-stop career centers, 299–300
vocational theory for adult employment, 305–306
transgendered people. See also LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender)
LGBT vocational psychology, 103–105
Treaty of Waitangi, 28
U
Undercover Boss, 227
underemployment, interventions, 14
unemployed
barriers, supports and meaning of work, 244
counseling for work-based challenges, 243–245
helping clients change, 244–245
unemployment
adults with disabilities, 239
interventions, 14
liberatory emancipatory approach to, 133–134
older workers, 161
persons with disabilities, 185
poverty and, 133
psychology of working, 9
relational research, 43
research into, 46
Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation, 194
United States
American Dream, 129, 273, 274
career development, 212
country of opportunity and wealth, 71–72
defining the older worker, 162–164
demographic patterns, 73
educational and labor force statistics, 73–74
employment and economy, 292–293
gender participation and pay in labor force, 86–88
market work changes, 150–151
public policies for care work, 149
public policy in, 315–316
racial groups, 72
racism in workplace, 72, 80–81
social class in, 73
unemployment rate, 314
women in upper-level government positions, 95
University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), 284
U.S. Census Bureau, poverty, 243–244
U.S. Department of Labor, 137, 275
useful field of vision (UFOV), older adults, 172
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 74, 92
U.S. Peace Corps, 212
V
values, psychology of working, 7
Veterans Administration Vocation Rehabilitation and Education Service, 319
Vico, Giambattista, 38
victim-blaming, 21, 23–24
Vienna Circle, 39
Vietnam War, 163
virtual parenting, 312
vision, changes in older adults, 171–172
visual acuity, older adults, 172
vocation, 40, 267
vocational choice, 62–63
Vocational Choice Model, sexual minority clients, 243
vocational counseling
career counseling vs., 133
liberatory psychology and, 133–134
narrative, 44–45
vocational guidance, 4, 62
Vocational Guidance Bureau, 258
vocational psychology, 40
adult workers, 292–293
career construction theory, 61–62
counseling for work and relationships, 62–63
history of, 59
Holland's theory of, 51–52
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender), 103–105, 122–124
life design paradigm, 61–62
literature, 40
the other, 43–44
person-environment fit theories, 51–53
poverty and, 130–133
psychology of working, 293
relational self, 43–44
role of power/knowledge, 42
Super's life-span, life-space theory, 53–54
training future, 81
unemployment and poverty, 133
workplace sexual identity management, 114–122
vocational rehabilitation (VR)
meaning of work, 191
people with disabilities, 186
Völkerpsychologie, 225
Vygotsky, Lev, 39
W
wages, working, and poverty, 128–130
Wagner–Peyser Act of 1935, 299, 319
welfare queen, 128, 130
welfare reform, legislation, 129–130, 133
Welfare-to-Work (WTW), 223, 296, 298–299
well-being
critical approach to, 26–29
epistemic values, 28
interdependence, 26–27
justice, 27–28
moral values, 26–28
proactive change, 29
professional values, 28–29
worker, 19
What's On the Workers’ Mind, Williams, 225
“When Work Disappears,” Wilson, 15
White Americans. See also race
age-related health status, 170–171
career transition, 295
labor and education, 73
labor force projections, 165
racial group, 72
women to men's earnings ratios, 888
working, wages and poverty, 128–130
(p. 332) Williams, Whiting, 225
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 39
Women. See also gender
cult of domesticity, 143
labor force during World War II, 85–86
poverty and, 132–133
sexual harassment in workplace, 92–93
Woodworth Personality Inventory, 219
work, 10. See also redefining work
21st-century views of, 59–64
ability to make choices, 49
career counseling, 50
career psychology and, 29–32
celebrating, 228
changing world of, 275–276
counseling clients, 233–234
counseling for, and relationships, 62–63
decision making, 50
discourse analysis, 31–32
education reform, 276–278
functions of, 63–64
meaning of, 191–192
meanings of, 40–41, 78–79
part of people's lives, 49–50
predictable world of, 50
race and meaning of, 78–79
work and family. See also family
changing work patterns in market and family, 147–149
literature, 142
psychology of working, 141–142
work-family conflict, 145
work-family expansion, 146–147
work discrimination. See also discrimination
coping strategies, 107
discrimination management strategies, 107–108
identity management, 107
Organizational Diversity Climate Scale, 112–113
workers, career development professionals and context of, 311–313
Workforce Investment Act (WIA), 296, 297, 313, 314, 317
work identity. See also redefining work
enriching, 209–210
organizations engaging, 208
who I am, 207–209
working, 3–4, 10. See also aging and working; psychology of working
community-based interventions and public policy, 12–13
context of, 11–12
counseling and psychotherapy, 12
psychology of, 41
relational theory of, 64
social constructionism, 37–38
wages and poverty, 128–130
Working, Terkel, 226
working poor, counseling, 243–245
workplace
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 163, 176–177
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 177
collaborative workspaces, 213
design and older workers, 178–179, 180
encouraging diversity, 227–228
equity, sexism and work, 91–93
families and, 312–313
making it better, 229
racism and sexism, 75
workplace climate. See also work discrimination
descriptions by LGBT workers, 105–106
focus on interpersonal aspects of, 109–111
“gay-friendly” environment, 119
identity complexities of LGBT workers, 111–113
inclusivity for LGBT workers, 123–124
psychology of work perspective on LGBT, 113–114
sexual identity management, 114–122
understanding, 105
work on measuring, 106
work psychology, humanitarian, 32
Work Responsibility and Personal Opportunities Act (1996), 152
work transitions
adults, 293–296
cultural context in career transition, 295–296
entry and reentry, 294
work to nonemployment transitions, 295
work to other, 294–295
World Health Organization (WHO), 187, 188f
World War I, 258
World War II, 85–86, 258, 275
Wundt, Wilhelm, 225
Y
Yellow Dog contracts, 220
Yerkes, Robert, 219