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date: 19 July 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The field of vocational psychology is moving toward examining ways to counsel clients with work-based challenges and insufficient resources to meet these challenges. This chapter will review the current realities of disenfranchised groups with work-based challenges, including real and perceived barriers to obtaining and maintaining work. In addition, it will discuss the meaning of work for those with few career choices. The discussion will include factors found to be related to attaining and maintaining employment, such as cultural and community values, and racial identity development. Finally, the chapter will review counseling strategies, models, and interventions that counselors can use to assist clients with insufficient resources.

Keywords: Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic/Latino(a)s, disabilities, sexual minority clients, poverty, homeless, working poor, nonworking poor

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