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date: 28 February 2020

(p. 623) Index

(p. 623) Index

A
abductive processes, 32
Abernethy, B., 149
Abrahamson, Stephen, 339
absolute risk (AR), 116
Abstract Function, 245
AC13, 362
accident evolution, 363
accommodation, 526
accumulator models, 453
accuracy
empirical, 71
predictive, 491
of recognition heuristics, 493
speed trade-off, 22
Ackerman, P. L., 151
acquisition, 128–29
action
anticipative, 28
collective, 543
courses of, 328
decision, 358
decisive, 357
exploratory, 25, 28
perception and, 31
performatory, 25
temporal, 354, 358
activity theory, 203
ACT-R theory, 60, 129–30, 132, 172, 416, 417, 419, 420, 428, 504
acute care cognition, 306
Adams, J. A., 386
adaptive alarms, 49
adaptive automation (AA), 167–68
advantage of, 596
conceptual representation of, 597f
defined, 594–95
function allocation strategies, 598–99
future directions, 606–7
hybrid triggering strategies, 601–2
model-based triggering approaches, 600
models, 598
parameters of, 596–98
performance-based triggering approaches, 600
physiological measurement triggering approaches, 600–601
research on, 595–96
situation awareness and, 601
surprises in, 596
triggering mechanisms, 599–602
adaptive control systems
design styles, 29f
inner loops in, 29, 29f
outer loops in, 29, 29f
adaptive maneuvers, 288, 289t
adaptive systems, neuroergonomics and, 167–68
adaptive workload management system (AWMS), 460
adaptivity, 24
Adelman, L., 316, 318
Adjustment interruption, 64
aerospace, 187–90, 192–94
face-to-face communication in, 187–88, 193–94
remote communications in, 188–90
AFA problem, 40–41
affect, 112
agent behaviors, 358–60
aggregate behavior, 506
aging, 286–87
attitude and, 292
changes related to, 290–93
cognition and, 291–92, 291f
describing, 287
design heuristics, 299–300
future research directions, 300
illustrative examples, 292–93
memory and, 292
movement control and, 291
perception and, 291
population demographics and, 287
preferences and, 292
prior experience and, 293–97
reference material design, 297–98
sensation and, 291
speed and, 291
Aida, S., 110
Aigner, W., 585
airborne traffic alert (TCAS), 41
Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS), 269, 319, 324
cognitive re-engineering of, 316–18
aircraft position
dynamic, 28
lateral, 27
prediction, 22
Aircrew Evaluation Sustained Operations Performance (AESOP), 316, 317
Air Florida, 80
Air-MIDAS model, 359, 360
airspace operations, 361–62
air traffic control (ATC), 97, 109, 162, 189, 598
air traffic display, 44f
alarm systems, 40–41
alert compliance, 40
alert dependence, 39–41
alerted-monitor system, 473
alerting, 38–40
alert salience, 38–39
Allen, P. A., 551, 552
allocation policy, 47–48
Alm, H., 60
American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA), 337
amnesia, 338
amygdala, 456
analysis of variance (ANOVA), 323–24
Anderson, J. R., 128, 133, 151, 425, 457, 460, 612
Andre, A. D., (p. 624) 585
Andriole, S. J., 316
Anesthesia Coordinator (AC), 302–3
Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF), 337
anesthesiology, 337
animation, 583–84
anion gap, 310f
anonymity, 411
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 166, 456
anterior-dorsal prefrontal cortices (ADPFC), 456
anthropomorphizing, 120
anticipation, 149
anticipative actions, 28
anxiety, 102–3
applied cognitive work analysis (ACWA), 257
areas of emphasis in, 267f
decision-centered design and, 264
applied psychology, 202
architectural models, 453–54
Arciszewski, H. F. R., 601
Argus synthetic task environment, 319
Argyris, C., 405
Army Research Lab (ARL), 450
Arrow, K. J., 388
Arruda, J. E., 585
artificial neural network (ANN), 168
Ashby, W. R., 540
assimilation, 526
asymmetry, 538
asynchronous communications, 614
attention
alert dependence, 39–41
alerting in, 38
alert reliability, 39
alert salience, 38–39
allocation, 37
automaticity in, 37–38
concurrent task performance, 47
defined, 36–37
in design, 37
divided, 36, 47
in dual-task environment, 39–41
guiding, 81–82
hybrid models, 49
in information processing display layout, 41–43
multiple resources in, 47–49
noticing in, 38
object, 560
proximity compatibility principle in, 43
research on, 57
SEEV model in, 43–44
selective, 36, 38
sequential performance, 48–49
single-channel theory, 37–38
switching, 40
to tasks, 47–49
travel, 41–43
attentional narrowing, 49
attentional tunneling, 49
in situation awareness, 102
attention-capturing processes, 39
attention-tuning processes, 39
attractors, 535, 539
attunement, 518
authority, 388
automaticity
attention in, 37–38
expertise and, 150–52
automation, 50–51, 344. See also adaptive automation
bias, 79, 171
complacency, 118
as heuristics, 78
invocation authority, 602–4
levels of, 384, 401, 594, 598
non-optimal trust in, 117–20
omission errors, 79
optimal trust in, 117–20
Parasuraman on, 114, 118–19, 219–20, 487, 594–95, 598, 600–602
Sheridan on, 114, 119, 594–95
trust and, 110–11
autonomous platform (AP), 368
behavior metric class, 369
autonomy, dynamic, 384–85
autopilot behavior, 438
availability, 78
avalanche, 537
Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 411
AWARE Architecture, 186
awareness, 201
constraints, 30
ideal, 478
obtainable, 478
Ayaz, H., 604
B
Bachmann, R., 110
Back, J., 445, 476
back end decision making, 68
Baddeley, A., 456
Bailey, B. P., 61, 62, 603
Bailey, N. R., 594
Bakker, G. J., 363
Baldwin, C. L., 161
Barley, S. R., 303
barrier model, 363
Basapur, S., 586
base rate bias, 482
Bayesian modeling, 466–67
Bayesian networks, 467–68
naive, 467
Bayesian reasoning, 468–70
Bayesian satisficing model, 504, 505
Bayes’ theorem, 465, 466–67, 509
decision making and, 471–72
Beck, M. R., 588
Beecher, H. K., 337
behavior
agent, 358–60
aggregate, 506
autopilot, 438
chaotic, 536
cry wolf, 39–41
dynamic, 524–25
emergent, 361–62
metric class, 368
observable, 353
precursors metric class, 369
skilled, 126, 133–34
trust as, 113–16
behavioral decision making (BDM), 487
behavioral markers, 558–59
behavioral psychology, 128
belief, 32
Beltowska, J., 64
Benartzi, S., 495
benevolence, 617
Bennett, K. B., 518, 531
Benwell, G. L., 580
Bernstein, N. A., 30
Beyer, H., 576
bias, 77–78
base rate, 482
regression, 482
sensitivity and, 472–73
bifurcation, 535, 538, 544
Bigelow, Julian, 19, 22, 25, 32
Bilalic, M., 153
Billings, C. E., 596, 602
binary cue, 119
binding problem, 201
biocybernetics, 169
biohazard symbol, 527, 529f
biological control systems, 25
coordinative systems and, 30
Bisantz, A. M., 241, 251, 253, 257, 488, 581–83, 586, 588–89
Blandford, A., 445, 476
Blok, C. A., 587
Blom, H. A. P., 363
blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 309
Blosseville, J. M., 401
Bluetooth, 530f
blurriness, 582–83
Bobrow, D. G., 613
Boeh, H., 541
Boehm-Davis, D. A., (p. 625) 61, 62, 321
Bogunovich, P., 63
Borst, J. P., 62
Botchen, R. P., 584
bottom-up processing, 90–91
Bouchard, C., 150
Bradshaw, J. M., 386
brain computer interfaces (BCIs), 166
invasive, 169
neuroergonomics and, 168–69
noninvasive, 169
brain-inspired computational modeling, 171–72
brain work, 161
Brandstaetter, 495
Break interruption, 64
Bredereke, J., 445
brightness, 581
Brighton, H., 491, 496
Broeder, A., 495
broken ergodicity, 542
broken symmetry, 542, 551
Brookings, J. B., 162
Brooks AFB, 316, 317
Bruner, J., 5
Brunswik, Egon, 68, 480, 483, 487
Bryan, W. L., 137
Burke, C. S., 207, 539
Burns, C., 241, 253, 257, 576
Buttenfield, B. P., 589
butterfly effects, 29
Byrne, M. D., 420, 425, 457, 460
C
Camasso, M., 73
Campion, M. A., 546
Carayon, P., 216, 219
carbon dioxide, 309
Card, S. K., 580
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 339
Carley, K. M., 552
Carpendale, S., 192
CASA studies, 110
Casscells, W., 468, 470
Castelfranchi, C., 398
catastrophe models, 535–36, 538–39, 540
categorization trees, 496–97
causal texture, 612
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 547–48
central nervous system (CNS), 309
certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNA), 302
CERTT UAV-STE, 334
Challenger, 406, 408
Chalmers, B. A., 250, 251, 257, 258
Chan, Y., 588
change blindness, 38
chaos, 536
Chapanis, A., 519
Chase, W. G., 146, 147, 148
Chesney, G. L., 161
chess, 147, 148
Chin, M., 254
chlorine, 309
choice, 32
CHRNA4, 170
circular causality, 19
CiteUlike, 508
CIVET, 362
Clamann, M., 602, 607
Clark, A., 160
Clark, C. W., 507
classical decision theory (CDT), 487
classification and regression trees (CART), 497f, 498
Clausing, D. P., 498
Clausner, T., 586
Cliburn, D. C., 581, 589
clinician performance, 339–40
closed-loop communications, 188
closed-loop dynamics, 20
cognitive theory and, 32
comparator problem in, 25–29
decision making in, 31–32
future directions in, 33–34
linear, 24
open-loop systems and, 22
problem solving in, 31–32
regulator paradox, 22–25
self-organization of, 31
situation awareness and, 30–31
smart mechanisms and, 30–31
speed-accuracy trade-off in, 22
stability problems, 20–22
cluster membership, 7, 14f
clutter avoidance, 43
Cockpit Information Manager (CIM), 603
code processing, 47
cognition
acute care, 306
age and, 291–92, 291f
continuance of activity in, 206
distributed, 203, 206, 304–7, 542
dynamic, 206
embedded, 206, 539
embodied, 33–34, 526, 539
higher-order, 138–39
individual, 304–7
naturalistic observations of, 34
resource allocation in, 60
situated, 33–34, 203, 416
social, 202
threaded, 49, 62
undistributed, 308–9
united theories of, 454
Cognition in the Wild (Hutchins), 216
cognitive anchoring, 78
cognitive artifacts, 182–83, 302–3
distributed cognition and, 304–7
domain semantics, 307–8
future research directions, 312–13
individual cognition and, 304–7
informal, 308
representation of, 309–10
study of, 304
undistributed cognition and, 308–9
Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT), 71–72
cognitive cooperation, 398–99
Cognitive Decision Aiding System (CDAS), 603
cognitive demands, 221
cognitive engineering, 128, 429
areas of emphasis in, 267f
defined, 3
ecological nature of, 6
evaluation of, 315–25
goals of, 5–6
in health care, 336–37
historical foundations, 4–7
of procedures, 321–24
task characteristics, 318–21
Cognitive Engineering Based on Expert Skill (CEBES), 429
Cognitive Engineering Research on Team Tasks. See CERTT UAV-STE
cognitive feedback, 236
cognitive interface, 59–61
cognitive lockup, 81
cognitive misers, 77–78
cognitive psychology, 128, 144
cognitive science, 160
cognitive stressors, 425
computational process models of, 425–28
emotions as, 426–27
cognitive subnetwork, 456–57
cognitive systems, 25
cognitive task analysis (CTA), 203, 576
components of, 231–33
defined, 230–31
elicitation in, 231–33
envisioned world problem, 237–38
expertise and, 235–36
information technology and, 236–38
methods, 233–35
rapid changes and, 237
representation, 233
training and, 235–36
usefulness of, 229–30, 235–36
work complexity and, (p. 626) 237
cognitive theory, 32
cognitive work analysis (CWA), 576
analysis layers of, 242t
applied, 257, 267f
areas of emphasis in, 267f
decision-centered design and, 264
defined, 240–41
formative modeling approach, 242–44
framework elements, 241–42
future directions in, 257–58
historical roots, 241–42
motivation, 241–42
Rasmussen and, 264
schematic representation of, 247f
variations, 256–57
cognitive workload, 540
CogTool, 422
Cohen, J., 170
coherence, 83, 487
domains driven by, 519, 530
expanded model of, 78
expertise and, 79
judgment and, 71
models, 77–80
prediction and, 71
Coleman, J. S., 117, 502
Coles, M. G. H., 167
collaborative intelligence, 385
collaborative metric class, 369–70
collective action, 543
collective intelligence
common themes, 551
future research directions, 552
group size in, 546
principles of, 542–43
problem solving and, 544–45
team coordination and, 545–46
color
common, 44
uncertainty and, 581–82
Colquir, J. A., 319
Columbia (shuttle), 406, 408
Combéfis, S., 445
Comfort, L., 547
commercial aviation pilots, 91t–96t
commission errors, 119
common color, 44
common frame of reference (COFOR), 397, 400
common information spaces, 192
communication, 8, 341
asynchronous, 614
closed-loop, 188
effective, 189
in extended tasks, 190–94
face-to-face, 181, 185, 187–88, 191, 193–94
failed, 342–43
future directions in, 195
grounding and, 181–83
handoff, 190–93
laboratory research, 183–84
miscommunication, 185
remote handoff, 192
in short-term tasks, 184–86
in socio-technical systems, 178–95
textbooks on, 179t
communities of practice
defined, 611–12
distributed, 614–15
domain of, 611
functions of, 612
comparator problem
in closed-loop dynamics, 25–29
feedback sources in, 28
human limitations and, 30
competence, 616
complementarity, 557
complex adaptive systems (CAS), 539–40, 541
complex dynamics in NDS, 536–37
complexity, 382–83, 418, 540
creep, 103
theory, 537
work, 237
complex relationships, 572, 574
complex work domains, 338
complex work environments, 353
descriptions of, 354–56
future research directions, 364–65
modeling, 353–60
performance in, 358–60
simulating, 358
structures, 356–58
compliance, 114
measuring, 116
comprehension, 89
comprehensive understanding, 374
computational cognitive modeling
approaches to, 418–21
defined, 415–16
environment characterization, 418
future directions, 429
issues, 416–18
mediated environments in, 419–20
opportunities, 416–18
reverse engineering in, 419
software in, 419
computational constraints, 30
computational models, 38, 128
brain-inspired, 171–72
computational process modeling, 425
Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE), 345
computers, 110
computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), 388
concept mapping, 231, 232f
concurrent multitasking, 58–61
cognitive interface in, 59–61
motor interface, 58–59
perceptual interface, 58–59
concurrent task performance, 47
confidentiality, 411
configural displays, 517–18, 520
design, 521–26
domain constraint mappings, 521
force ratio, 523–24
force ratio trend, 524–25
friendly combat resources, 522–23
polar coordinate, 521–22
configural stimulus dimensions, 521
confusion, 48
conjunction fallacy, 77
consistency, 483, 485
construct validity, 374–75
consumer product design, 268–69
content dimension, 253
context sensitive mechanisms, 41
contextual inquiry, 576
continuous variables, 117
control, 32
Control Airspeed, 354
control problem, 25
control task analysis, 242, 248–52
control theory, 31
Cook, R., 303, 306
Cooke, J. D., 165
Cooke, N. J., 236, 255, 429
cooperation analysis, 253–55
coordination, team, 201–2, 545–46
coordinative structures, 30
biological control systems and, 30
extrinsic, 32
fixed, 30
Coovert, M., 73
coping strategies, 540
Corker, K. M., 359
Cornwell, J., 426
Correa, C. D., 588
correct rejection, 75
correlation coefficient, 481f
correspondence, 478, 487
domains driven by, 519, 530–31
judgment and, 70–71
models, 73–77
prediction and, 70–71
Corrigan, B., 495, 496
Cosmides, L., 469, 470
coupled oscillators, 537f
courses of action (COAs), 328
Coyne, J., 161
Craik, K. W. J., 450
Crandall, J. W., 382
CREATE Model of Aging and Technology, 288–89, 290f
creatinine, 309
creativity, 544–45
Creelman, C. D., 473
Crévits, I., 400
Crew Resource Management, 134
Critical Decision Method (CDM), 231, 266, 316
critical events
amnesia and, 338
analysis of, 337, 344–45
future research agenda, (p. 627) 343–45
in health care, 336–38
prevention of, 344
cross-domain topics, 4
cross-modal information processing, 558–59
cry wolf behavior, 39–41
cubic logistic structure, 535
cue-based heuristics, 494
cue utilization, 483
Cummings, M. L., 251, 381, 386
Curry, R. E., 110
Curzon, P., 445
cusp catastrophe model, 538f, 539f
for fatigue, 541f
for innovation diffusion, 550f
cusp response surface, 538
customized executive processes, 60
Cutler, H. A., 585
Cutrell, E. B., 62
cybernetic hypothesis, 19
Cybernetics (Wiener), 25
cytosine, 170
Czaja, S. J., 290
Czerlinski, J., 496
Czerwinski, M., 62, 580
D
Dabbish, L. A., 64
Dainoff, M. J., 223
danger state, 39
Darwin, Charles, 494
database overlay, 42
geographical, 43
data-driven processing, 90–91
data overload, 103
Davis, J. H., 118
Dawes, R. M., 495, 496
DBH genotype, 171
Deal, S., 270
Dearden, A., 399
Debernard, S., 400
de Bruin, A., 147
DeChurch, L. A., 205, 208
decision actions (DA), 358
decision-centered design, 261–62, 265
ACWA and, 264
analysis and representation phase, 262–63
application design phase, 263
areas of emphasis in, 267f
CWA and, 264
evaluation phase, 263
examples of, 267–69
future directions in, 270
knowledge elicitation in, 262
in other frameworks, 264–67
overview, 262–64
requirements table, 263f
similarities in, 266–67
stages of, 262f
decision heuristics, 8
decision ladders, 526, 530
decision making. See also Tactical Decision Making Under Stress
back end of, 68
Bayes’ theorem and, 471–72
behavioral, 487
in closed-loop systems, 31–32
distributed dynamic, 332, 333f
dynamic, 97f, 548–49
errors, 342
front end of, 68
heuristics in, 491
ignorance-based, 492
multiple, 473
naturalistic, 68, 75–76, 77, 79, 328
primed, 98–99
recognition-primed, 76
technology in, 74
TSD and, 471–72
decision support system (DSS), 81, 268, 388
decisive actions, 357
declarative information, 136
declarative knowledge acquisition, 128–29
declarative learning, 131
decomposition of skill score, 482
Deep Blue, 416
default heuristic, 494
deferrable interruptions, 63
Degani, A., 439
de Greef, T. E., 594, 598, 601
DeGreene, K. B., 543
de Groot, A. D., 144, 146, 148
Dekker, S. W. A., 120–21
deliberate practice, 146–47
simulation and, 152
del Millan, J., 167
demand, 308
DeMiguel, V., 495
Demiris, G., 290
Denson, J. S., 339
dependability, 111
descriptive characterization, 252
descriptive models, 243
Designing Displays for Older Adults (Pak & McLaughlin), 290
Designing for Older Adults (Fisk, Rogers, Charness, Czaja, & Sharit), 290
Designing Telehealth for an Aging Population: A Human Factors Perspective (Charness, Demiris, & Krupinski), 290
Designing Training and Instructional Programs for Older Adults (Czaja & Sharit), 290
de Visser, E., 171
Diggles, V. A., 165
Di Nocera, F., 168
directed acyclic graph, 467
direct measures, 382
direct perception of affordances, 31
disambiguation, 557
discrete variables, 116–17
Dismukes, K., 63, 430
display-control compatibility, 42
display integration, 51. See also specific displays
clutter, 45
design principles, 44–45
linking, 44
proximity, 45
proximity compatibility, 45
display layout
attention in, 41–43
clutter avoidance in, 43
consistency in, 42
flexible reconfigurable, 42
grouped, 42
integrated, 42
related, 42
dissipative systems, 536
distributed artificial intelligence (DAI), 389
distributed cognition, 203, 206, 542
cognitive artifacts and, 304–7
distributed communities of practice
access and use, 615–16
challenges of, 614–15
defined, 614
designing, 615
future research directions, 619
governance in, 618–19
interaction stimulation, 617–18
Distributed Dynamic Decision-Making (DDD), 332, 333f
distributed information fusion, 389–90
distributed learning, 132
divided attention, 36, 47
Dixon, S. R., 114
DNH gene, 170
document editing, 61–62
domain-specific skills, 153
Dominguez, Cindy, 270
domino theory, 363
Donchin, E., 161
Donders, F. C., 452
Dooley, K. J., 539, 552
Dorsey, D., 73
dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), 456
do-what-the-majority-do heuristics, 494
Drewes, F., 445
Driver, J., 559
drivers, 536
DriveSafety, 460
Drury, J., (p. 628) 384, 388
dual-task environments, 39–41
Duncker, K., 132
Durso, F. T., 90, 429
dynamic autonomy, 384–85
dynamic behavior, 524–25
dynamic cognition, 206
dynamic decision making, 97f, 548–49
dynamic function allocation, 400–401
dynamic non-events, 363
dynamic simulation, 360–61
dynamism, 418
E
ecological interface design (EID), 45, 82, 518–20
complex relationships in, 572, 574
configural, 520–26
context design in, 572, 574
defined, 566
design requirements, 567–68
design seeds, 571–73
future directions in, 531, 577
general display constraints, 519
general domain constraints, 519
integration with other methods, 574–77
means-end relationships and, 572–74
method, 566–67
objectives, 568–69
pictorial, 526–31
strategies, 519–20
system boundary, 567, 568t
WDA and, 567–68
ecological rationality, 496
ecological validity, 483
e-commerce, 112
economics, 307
Eddy, D. M., 80
efficiency, 307–8
multitasking and, 388–89
effort-reward model, 221
Ehlschlaeger, C. R., 583
Einhorn, H. J., 495, 496
Einstellung effect, 153
electrocardiograph (ECG), 596
electroencephalography (EEG), 160, 596, 605
electronic medical records (EMRs), 186, 192
electronic opaqueness, 70
electronic preciseness, 69
electrooculography (EOG), 596
elementary dynamics in NDS, 535–36
Elias, J., 202
elicitation
in CTA, 231–33
knowledge, 262
email filing, 61–62
embedded cognition, 206, 539
embodied cognition, 33–34, 526, 539
embodied cognitive fidelity (ECF), 209
Emergency Management Response system, 246, 246f
emergency response, 546–49
dynamic decisions in, 548–49
sensemaking in, 547–48
situation awareness in, 547–48
stag hunt in, 549
time ecologies in, 546–47
emergent behaviors, 361–62
emergent features, 44
emergent phenomena, 534–35, 537, 541
Emotion and Adaptation (Lazarus), 426
emotions, 426–27
multitasking and, 65
social, 112
encoding, 204
Endsley, M. R., 81, 90, 281, 595, 601
automation taxonomy of, 594, 598, 599
SA model, 476, 479, 482, 487
engineered environments, 69–70
entropy, 536
environments
Argus synthetic task, 319
complex work, 353–60, 364–65
in computational cognitive modeling, 418
computer-assisted virtual, 345
cues from, 63
dual-task, 39–41
engineered, 69–70
learning, 133–34
perception and, 89
physical, 289
predictability and, 483
situational awareness and, 89
social, 289
support from, 298–99
synthetic task, 34
technology as, 74
virtual, 557
Environmental Press Model, 288, 289f
envisioned world problem, 237–38
EPIC, 172, 416, 419
epistemic action, 612
equipment-related events, 343
Ericsson, K. A., 144, 146, 147, 148, 151, 340
Eriksen, B. A., 165
error
in automation, 79
of commission, 119
decision making, 342
in lens model, 483
mean square, 22, 480
neuroergonomics and, 164–67
of omission, 79, 119
error-related negativity (ERN), 165–66
etiquette, 113
Euerby, A., 576
Eureka II, 612–14
eutactic adjustments, 40
event abstraction, 442–45
event discrepancy, 437–38
event-related potentials (ERPs), 154, 160, 161, 460
exceptional performance, 146–47
neurocognitive foundations of, 150
exemplar, 527
expanded lens model, 484–86
components of, 486t
expectancy, 38
expediency, 153–54
experience, 340
expertise
as adaptation, 148
anticipation and, 149
automaticity and, 150–52
coherence and, 79
CTA and, 235–36
defining, 144–45
development of, 145–46
domain-specific skills, 153
exceptional performance and, 146–47
expediency and, 153–54
experience and, 340
future research directions, 155
genetic influences, 149–50
inflexibility and, 153
laboratory studies on, 145f
learning and, 133
limits of, 152–53, 154
long-term working memory and, 148
neurocognition and, 150
physiological adaptation, 149
planning and, 149
simulation, 152
skill acquisition and, 150–52, 154
studying, 144–45
10-year rule, 147
explicit learning, 131–32
exploratory action, 25
hypothesis testing through, 28
extended tasks, 190–94
extrinsic coordinative structure, 32
extrinsic representations, 580–81
eye trackers, 376
F
Facebook, 614
face-to-face communication, 181, 185, 191
in aerospace, 187–88, 193–94
laboratory research, 183
failure, 404–5
causal interchangeability in, 409–10
drifting into, (p. 629) 406–8
future research directions, 411–12
learning from, 405–8
scope of, 409
faith, 113
Falkenstein, M., 165
false alarm, 75
false alert rate, 40
fan-out, 380
models, 382–83
Farazmand, A., 547
fast and frugal heuristics, 491–92
fast and frugal trees, 496–97
robustness of, 497–98
fatigue, 340–41, 541–42
cusp catastrophe model, 541f
situation awareness and, 102–3
Feary, M., 445
Feddema, J. J., 581, 589
feedback concept, 20, 22
in comparator problem, 28
in inertial systems, 27
output position and, 26f
output velocity and, 26f
sources of, 27
state variables in, 27–28
feedback system, 21f
Felton, E. A., 169
Feltovich, P. J., 386
Ferrez, P. W., 167
Ferris, T., 559, 560
Fidelity of the Information System, 485
fiduciary responsibility (FR), 111
final recommendations, 317t
Finger, R., 581, 583
Fiore, S. M., 201, 202, 207, 208, 210
first-order lag, 27
first-person perspective principle, 265
Fischer, Bobby, 147
Fischer, U., 205, 208
Fisher, D., 580
Fisher, M., 586
Fisk, A. D., 290
Fitts, P. M., 150, 399
Fitts’ law, 169
fixed coordinate systems, 30
Flach, J. M., 6, 478, 518, 531
Fleetwood, M. D., 420
flexible reconfigurable display layouts, 42
Flight Management Systems, 121
flip video camera, 293f
focus-periphery organization principle, 265
Fogg, B. J., 110
Foley, J. D., 445
Fong, T., 386
forced interruptions, 61–63
force ratio display, 523–24
force ratio trend display, 524–25
Forest, L. M., 251
formal verification, 439
formative characterization, 252
formative modeling approach, 242–44, 257
form dimension, 253
Fossella, J., 170
Foushee, H. C., 188
Fox, J., 586
framing effects, 78
Frantz, T. L., 552
freedom, degrees of, 537–38
Freeman, F. G., 600
frequentist description, 469–70
friendly combat resources display, 522–23
front end decision making, 68
Fu, W. T., 319, 321, 420
Fuller, H., 461
functional field of view (FFOV), 292
function allocation (FA), 396
dynamic, 400–401
HMC and, 399–401
static, 399–400
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 154, 160
functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR), 160, 162, 604
functional purpose, 244
in work domain analysis, 568–69
function delegation mode, 401
fundamental causal instability, 408
Fundamental Regulator Paradox, 24–25
Futusho, C. Y., 251
G
Gaba, David, 339
gain, 20, 23
aircraft dynamic and, 28
in human-machine systems, 22
output behaviors as function of, 21–22, 21f
scheduling, 28
in second-order control systems, 26f
in simple observer systems, 24f
time-varying, 24
Galanter, E., 19
Galison, P., 408, 409
Galton, Francis, 145
Gao, J., 386
Garland, D. J., 281
Garlappi, L., 495
Garner, W. R., 521
Garrett, A. J., 477
Gartenberg, D., 164
Gatto, Anthony, 143
Gehring, W. J., 165
Geis, I., 580
Geldard, F. A., 560
Gendron, M. L., 588
general display constraints, 519
general domain constraints, 519
Generalized Function, 245
generation effect, 51
genetics
expertise and, 149–50
molecular, 169–71
geographical database overlay, 43
Gestalt psychology, 534
Gibson, C. P., 477
Gibson, James J., 6, 25, 26, 31
Gick, M. L., 132
Gigerenzer, G., 469, 470, 491, 495, 496
Gillis, P. D., 428
Gluck, K. A., 419, 425
glucose, 309
Glumm, M. M., 477
glyphs, 584–85
goal-directed task analysis (GDTA), 274–75, 275f, 277f, 281
goal-directed view of socio-technical systems, 180–81
goal-driven processing, 99, 100f
Gober, F., 153
Goldstein, D. G., 496, 537
golfing, 30
GOMS, 133, 454, . 455
Goodchild, M. F., 583
Goodrich, M. A., 388
Goodwin, G. F., 207
Gopher, D., 160
Gorman, J. C., 255
governance, 618–19
Gray, W. D., 319, 321
Green, L., 497
Greenwood, P. M., 170, 171
Gregor, S., 370
Gregson, R. A. M., 535, 538
Griffiths, T. L., 468
Gronlund, S. D., 90
Grote, G., 399
grounding, 181–83, 191
group sense making, 206
group size, 546
guanine, 170
Guastello, S. J., 535, 538, 541, 550
gulf of evaluation, 4
gulf of execution, 4
H
Haber, E. M., 206
Hackman, J. R., 218
Halmeed, S., 560
Halpin, S., 110
Hammond, K. R., 71, 73, 429
Hancock, P. A., 478
handoff communication, 190–91, 193
remote, 192
Hannen, M. D., 604
Harrison, M., 399, 445
Harter, N., 137
Head, H., 162
Healey, M. P., (p. 630) 216
health care, 184–86, 190–92
cognitive engineering in, 336–37
critical events in, 336–38
simulation in, 339, 342–43
Hedlund, J., 319
Helm, B., 118
Hendriks, P., 614
Hennessy, R. T., 110
heroic recovery, 364
Hertwig, R., 470, 491
heuristics, 77–78, 490
automation as, 78
cue-based, 494
decision, 8
in decision making, 491
default, 494
design, 299–300
do-what-the-majority-do, 494
fast and frugal, 491–92
future research directions, 498–99
less-is-more effect in, 492–93
lexicographic, 494–95
priority, 495
recognition, 492, 493
social, 494
take-the-best, 494–95, 496
tallying, 495–96
Heymann, M., 439
higher-order cognition, 138–39
high-performance aircraft, 22
high-reliability organizations (HROs), 222
Hilburn, B., 596, 600
Hinsz, V. B., 204, 205
Hinze, A., 445
Hirst, W., 60
Hitchcock, E. M., 163
Ho, C., 562
Hoc, J. M., 400, 401
Hodgkinson, G. P., 216
Hoffrage, U., 469, 470
Hogarth, R. M., 495, 496
Holland, J. H., 537
Hollenbeck, J. R., 319
Hollnagel, E., 120, 206, 357, 363, 409, 541
Holtzblatt, K., 576
Holyoak, K. J., 132
Hong, S. L., 541
Horrey, W. J., 74, 488
Horswill, M. S., 101
Horvitz, E., 62
House, J., 220
Howell, W. C., 236, 430
Huberman, B. A., 506
hue, 581
Huff, D., 580
Hughes, E. R., 375
human-automation interaction (HAI), 6
dynamic simulation, 360–61
situation awareness and, 487
human behavior
metric class, 368
precursors metric class, 369
human-centered design, 397
human-computer interface, 395
for time pressure evaluation, 319f
Human Genome Project, 170
human-human interaction, 112
human-information interaction, 503–4
human information processing, 204–5
human limitations, 30
human-machine cooperation (HMC), 396
function allocation and, 399–401
function delegation mode, 401
future directions, 402
mutual control mode, 401
perception mode, 401
shared control mode, 401
human-machine interaction, 112
alternate user model, 438
elements of, 434–37
event abstraction in, 442–45
formal verification, 439
machine model, 438
modes and transitions in user model, 442, 443f, 444f
running example, 440–45
user model, 438–39
user model generation, 440
user model verification, 436
verification procedure, 436–37
human-machine systems (HMS), 396
cognitive cooperation in, 398–99
design, 397–98
gain in, 22
machine design, 396–98
Rasmussen’s designs of, 241
Human Patient Simulators (HPS), 339
human performance. See performance
human-robot interaction (HRI), 380
configurations, 386f
human supervisory control (HSC), 367, 368f
comprehensive understanding, 374
construct validity, 374–75
experimental constraints, 374
future directions in, 377
metric class summary, 373
metric selection, 373–74
multiple operator-multiple automated planner/process model, 372–73
single operator-multiple autonomous platform/process model, 370–72
single operator-single autonomous platform/process model, 368–70
human-technology-environment systems, 6
human-technology systems, 4, 6
Humphrey, C. M., 386
Hursch, C. J., 479
Hursh, S. R., 428
Hurst exponent, 536
Hutchins, E., 6, 32, 216
hybrid ecology, 69t
judgment and, 69–70
hybrid formats, 194
hybrid simulation, 345
hysteresis, 539
I
iconic objects, 526
ideal awareness, 478
ignorance-based decision making, 492
Ilgen, D. R., 319
illusory conjunctions, 560
immersive simulation, 345
implicit learning, 131–32
IMPRINT, 171, 450, 461
Inagaki, T., 603
inattentional blindness, 38
individual cognition, 304–7
inductive logic, 32
inertial systems, 27
inferior frontal gyrus (GFi), 457
inflexibility, 153
informal artifacts, 308
information access cost, 42
information filtering, 280
information flow map, 252f
information foraging, 504–6
social, 506–8
information processing
cross-modal, 558–59
display layout, 41–43
human, 204–5
multimodal, 559–60
open-loop, 24, 32
view, 179
Information Processing and Human-Machine Interaction: An Approach to Cognitive Engineering (Rasmussen), 5
information sharing, 205
information technology (IT), 186
CTA and, 236–38
information transmission models, 451–53
informative alerts, 41
infotainment systems, 447
inner loop, 28
in adaptive control systems, 29, 29f
outer loop combined with, 29f
innovation, 550–51
cusp catastrophe model, 550f
inpatient operating room (IOR), 302–3, 304, 309
Inquiry interruption, 64
in sequence tasks, 47
Institute of Medicine (IOM), 336
instruction, principles of, 297t
intact crystallized knowledge, 293–95
integrated display, 42
integrators, (p. 631) 20, 23
intensive care unit (ICU), 309
pediatric, 311–12
intent-driven domains, 519, 530
intentional agents, 380
interactive determinism, 542
interactive view of socio-technical systems, 180–81
interdependence, 201
interfaces. See also ecological interface design
brain computer, 166, 168–69
cognitive, 59–61
efficiency curve, 386, 387f
human-computer, 319f, 395
motor, 58–59
olfactory, 561
perceptual, 58–59
proximal, 5
tactile, 560–61
internal model, 29, 31
International Standards Organization, 286
Internet chain letters, 503
interpersonal interaction, 616
interpersonal trust, 616–17
Interrante, V., 584
Interrogation Friend or Foe (IFF), 320
interruptions
Adjustment, 64
Break, 64
deferrable, 63
forced, 61–63
Inquiry, 64
lag, 61
management, 48
Recollection, 64
recovery, 65
Routine, 64
self, 63–64
timeline, 61f
Trigger, 64
Wait, 64
Intersection game, 545–46
intraparietal sulcus (IPS), 457
intrinsic representations, 580–81
intuition, 71–73, 72t
invasive BCIs, 169
iPhone, 529
Iqbal, S. T., 61
ISO-20282–1, 286
Isreal, J. B., 161
iterative testing, 281f
J
Jacob, Q., 445
Jacobsen, J. J., 550
Jagannathan, R., 73
James, W., 57
Jamieson, G. A., 248, 251, 256
Jayaraman, S., 560
Jin, J., 64
Job Characteristics Model, 218–19
job design, 218–19
Job Strain model, 221
job stress
cognitive demands and, 221–22
cognitive performance and, 221–22
organizational design and, 220–21
social support in, 221
Johns, M., 426, 459
Joint Commission, 190
Jones, R. M., 427
judgment
absolute distance measures of, 480–81
analysis in, 71–73
coherence models, 77–80
correspondence and, 70–71
correspondence models, 73–77
data presentation in, 80–81
empirical accuracy, 71
engineered environments and, 69–70
enhancing, 80–83
future research directions, 83
hybrid ecology and, 69–70
intuition in, 71–73
practical considerations, 486–87
situation awareness and, 477
skill score and, 481
strategies, 70–73
tactics, 71–73
uncertainty and, 478–79
judgment analysis
for cognitive engineering, 477–80
diagnostic approach, 479
functional approach, 479
systems approach, 477–78
K
Kaber, D. B., 81, 594, 596, 598–602, 607
Kahneman, D., 77, 160, 468
Kalman filter, 23–24
Kanfer-Ackerman air traffic control task, 419
Kanki, B. G., 188
Karasek, R. A., 221
Kardos, J., 580, 584
Karjakin, Sergey, 147
Kassirer, J. P., 80
Katsikopoulos, K. V., 493, 495, 498
Kauffman, S. A., 537
Kaye, J., 561
Kelly, K., 534, 542
Kessler, L., 251
Kestin, I., 40
Kesvadas, T., 586
Kieras, D. E., 422, 458, 459
Kilgore, R. M., 256
Kintsch, W., 148
Kiris, E., 594
Kirlik, A., 74, 420, 429, 488, 495
Kirschenbaum, S. S., 585
Kirsner, K., 153
Klein, G., 79–80, 98, 235, 269, 270, 386, 487
Klein, L. C., 426
Klein Associates, Inc., 316
Kleinberg, J., 503
Klinger, D. W., 316
knowledge
in decision-centered design, 262
elicitation, 262
in lens model, 483
management, 610
model, 29
procedural, 129–30
Rasmussen on, 128–29, 129f
representation, 234f
sharing, 617–18
skills, rules, and, 254
usefulness of, 618
workers, 5, 207
Knowledge Audit, 231
Koehler, G., 547
KOMPASS, 399
Kraak, M. J., 587
Krampe, R. T., 147
Krupinski, E., 290
K-server, 454
Kugler, P. N., 33
Kuipers, B., 80
Kumar, R., 170
L
laboratory value diagrams, 309f
Laird, L. E., 426
Lakoff, G., 526
Lamoureux, T. M., 250, 251, 257, 258
lane keeping warning system (LKWS), 401
Lange, I., 206
Lankenau, A., 445
lateral control problem, 27
representation of, 27f
state variables in, 27, 27f
Laughery, K. R., 359
law-driven domains, 519
Lawton, M. P., 288
Layton, C., 79
Lazarus, R. S., 426
learning
alternative views on, 130–31
complex environments and, 133–34
curve, 128f, 137f
declarative, 131
declarative knowledge acquisition in, 128–29
defined, 125
design and, 136–38
distributed, 132
expertise and, 133
explicit, 131–32
failure and, 405–8
future research directions, 139
higher-order cognition and, 138–39
improvements from, 126–27
innovation and, 550–51
massed, 132
mathematically predicting, 127
organizations, 549–51
polyvocal, 410–11
principles of instruction, 297t
procedural, 129, 131
retention and, 135
skilled behavior and, 126, 133–34
skill tuning of procedural knowledge, 129–30
social, 612, 613f, 614
stages, 130
strategies, 551
theories of, 128
transfer of, 132–33
Lee, B., 580
Lee, J. D., 39, 111, 112, 386
Lehmann, A. C., 146
Lehner, P. E., 321–22
Lemoine, M. P., 400
lens model, 68, 73–74, 74f
consistency in, 483, 485
environmental predictability, 483
expanded, 484–86, 486t
knowledge in, 483
model error in, 483
operator side of, 483
situation side of, 483
lens model equation (LME)
components of, 484t
expanding, 484–86
skill score and, 483
LePine, J. A., 319
less-is-more effect, 492–93
levels of automation (LOA), 384, 401, 594, 598
Lewandowsky, S., 153
Lewis, R. L., 426
lexicographic heuristics, 494–95
Liben-Nowell, D., 503
Lichtenstein, B. B., 537
Licklider, J. C. R., 168
lightness, 581
likelihood alarms, 41
likelihood ratio, 466
Lin, M. K., 171
Linde, C., 187
Lindsey, S., 470
linear closed-loop control models, 24
linguistic representations of uncertainty, 587
LinkedIn, 614
Lintern, G., 257, 270
Linux, 137
Lipshitz, R., 487
Liu, Y., 172, 452, 460, 461
loafing, 546
local expectations, 28
local minima, 29
locational uncertainty, 585
Lockhart, C., 40
Lodha, S. K., 584, 586
logistic regression (LR), 497f, 498
Lohrenz, M. C., 588
long-term working memory, 148
Lorenz, B., 168
Lozito, S. C., 188
Lusk, C. M., 479, 484–85, 487
Lussier, J. W., 152
Lyapunov exponent, 536
M
Ma, K. L., 588
MABA-MABA list, 399
MacEachren, A. M., 581, 583
Macey Foundation, 19
machine-centered design, 396–97
machine model, 438
specification classes, 441
Mackinlay, J. D., 445, 446, 580
Mackworth, N. H., 162
Macmillan, N. A., 471, 473
macrocognition, 205–7
supporting functions, 230
Madhavan, P., 112
Madsen, M., 370
Maglio, P. P., 206
magnocellular stream, 456
Maguire, E. A., 150
Malignant Hyperthermia Society of the United States (MHAUS), 342
Malik, P., 445
Malik, R., 445
management meta-task, 384
Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents (Reason), 216
Mandiau, R., 399
Mangel, M., 507
manual dialing methods, 59
manual-tracking task, 62
Manzey, D., 118
marginal probability, 466
Mariner, R. P., 426
Markov property, 468
marriage, 494
Mars, F., 401
Marshak, W. P., 477
Marsiglio, S., 581, 583
Maslow, A. H., 144
massed learning, 132
Master Schedule, 302–3
prototype, 307f
Max trees, 498
Mayer, R. C., 118
McCoy, C. E., 79
McDermott, R., 611
McKelvey, B., 537
McKenna, F. P., 101
McLaughlin, A. C., 290
McLeod, P., 153
McLlroy, R. C., 256, 258
McRuer, D. T., 22
meaning, 542
processing, 518f
means-end relationships, 572–74
mean squared control speed, 22
Mean Square Error (MSE), 22, 480
measurement technique efficiency, 376
media-related resources, 181
medical record (MR), 310
Medina, M., 445
Medsker, G. J., 546
Mehr, D. R., 497
Mekdeci, B., 386
memory
aging and, 292
for goals, 62
long-term working, 148
procedural, 292
prospective, 49, 63
semantic, 292
span task, 60
traps, 102
working, 292
mental model, 29
developing, 237
errant, 103
as organizing construct, 208–9
shared, 82, 201, 208–10
of situation awareness, 97–98, 98f, 100f
mental workload, 49–51
assessment, 49–50
neuroergonomics and, 160–62
Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., 205, 208
metacognition, 29
aiding, 82–83
meta-information, uncertainty and, 590
meta-rules, 545
Methodology for Analysis and Modeling of Individual Differences (MAMID), 426
metric class summary, 373
Meyer, J., 39, 119
microcognition, 205
Micro Saint, 461
micro-to-macro link, 502–3
microworlds, 327–28
design considerations, 329–30
Distributed Dynamic Decision-Making and, 332, 333f
experimental considerations in, 330–32
lengthy experimental sessions, 331
measures, 331
modifying, 330
NeoCITIES, 332–33, 333f
participant controlled scenarios, 331–32
participant scheduling, 330–31
scripted scenarios, 331–32
selecting, 330
uses of, 332
middle cerebral artery (MCA), 163
Miles-in-Trail (MIT), 361
milieu-dependent strategies, 70
military simulation, 338–39
Militello, L. G., 235
Miller, A., 254
Miller, B., 40
Miller, C. A., 248, 303, 602, 604
Miller, G. A., 19
Miller, J., 270, 581, 589
Miller, S. L., 318
Millot, P., 399, 400
miscommunication, 185
misplaced salience, 103
missile guidance, 22–23
mission effectiveness, 370
mistakes, 165
Mitchell, I., 446
MITRE Corporation, 322
mixed initiative interaction, 385
modality processing, 47
modality shifting, 558
model error, 483
Model Human Processor (MHP), 454
model reference control, 28–29
molecular genetics, 169–71
Monk, C. A., 61, 62
Monte Carlo simulations, 421
Moon, Y., 110
Moore, A. B., 580
Moray, N., 111, 112, 118–19, 160, 602
more-is-better maxim, 498
Mosier, K. L., 79
Moskowitz, A. J., 80
motor interface, 58–59
motor subnetwork, 457
movement control, 291
Moving Target Problem, 237
Moylan, A., 249
Muir, B. M., 110–11, 112, 118
Mullet, K., 531
multi-agent systems, 355
Multi-Attribute Task (MAT), 598
multidimensional uncertainty, 590
multi-level models
future directions in, 511–12
of human-information interaction, 503–4
semantic imitation, 508–11
multimodal displays, 556
design concepts, 558
future directions in, 562–63
guidance for, 561–62
introduction opportunities for, 557–58
processing, 558–60
multimodal information processing, 559–60
multi-operator supervisory channel, 385–86
multiple decision makers, 473
multiple operator-multiple automated planner/process model, 372–73
multiple person-machine systems, 543–44
multiple resource theory (MRT), 558
multi-robot management, 379–90
multitasking, 47–49, 57–58, 379
concurrent, 58–61
concurrent task performance, 47–48
continuum, 58f, 64
design and, 386–90
dynamic autonomy and, 384–85
efficiency and, 388–89
emotional factors, 65
fan-out models and, 382–83
fundamentals, 380–86
future research directions, 65
hybrid models, 49
mixed initiative interaction, 385
modeling, 454–61
organizational size, 388–89
in QN-MHP, 459–61
research on, 57
sequential, 61–64
switch costs, 386–87
task management in, 48–49
Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), 375
Munch, J. L., 581, 583
Münsterberg, Hugo, 202
Murphy, A. H., 481, 482, 484, 487
mutual control mode, 401
Myung, R., 601
N
Nagel, T., 410
Nahemow, L., 288
Naikar, N., 249, 256
naive Bayesian network, 467
Nass, C., 110
National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA), 405–6, 408
naturalistic ambiguity, 69
naturalistic decision making (NDM), 68, 75–76, 328
domains examined by, 77
Navarro, J., 401
Navon, D., 160
N-back task, 62
necessary violations, 363
negative transfer, 295–96
in pictorial displays, 527
neglect tolerance, 385
Nehme, C. E., 251
Neisser, U., 60, 126, 478
Nemeth, C. P., 206, 306
NeoCITIES, 332–33, 333f
network models, 449–50
task, 450–51
network representation, 15f
neurocognition
exceptional performance and, 150
expertise and, 150
neuroengineering, 168–69
neuroergonomics, 604
adaptive systems, 167–68
BCIs and, 168–69
defined, 159–60
future directions, 173
mental workload and, 160–62
molecular genetics and, 169–71
Parasuraman on, 604
vigilance and, 162–64
neuroscience, 160
multimodal information processing and, 559–60
Newell, A., 425, 454
Newell, B. R., 495
news bulletins, 544
NGOMSL analysis, 458–59
Nilsson, L., 60
noise, 23
noninvasive BCIs, 169
nonlinear dynamic systems (NDS)
complex dynamics in, 536–37
elementary dynamics in, 535–36
freedom in, 537–38
phase shifts in, 538–39
principles of, 535–40
non-optimal trust, 117–20
nonroutine events (NRE), 336, 338
normal line of sight (NLOS), 42
Norman, Donald A., 4, 304, 315
normative models, 243
no-task condition, 62
noticing, 38, 39
Nowinski, J., 63
N-SEEV, 39, 43
nuclear power, 338
emergency response organizational redesign, 267–68
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 338
numeric uncertainty, 588
Nursing Coordinator (NC), 302–3, 308
O
object-based attention, 560
object form, (p. 634) 584–85
objection integration, 44
objective versus structural examinations (OSVE), 340
O’Brien, K., 426
observable behaviors, 353
observation, control and, 32
observer problem, 25
observer ratings, 282t
Obstfeld, D., 410
obtainable awareness, 478
occupational health, 220–21
odds ratio (OR), 116–17
off-nominal condition performance, 37
Oishi, M., 446
older adults. See also aging
age-related changes in, 290–93
describing, 287
designing for, 287–90
flip video camera and, 294t
population projections, 288f
Oldham, G. R., 218
olfactory interfaces, 561
omission errors, 79, 119
omni-directional, 39
ongoing task (OT), 48
online queries, 283t
on-the-job training, 236
open-loop information processing, 24, 32
open-loop systems, 20, 21
closed-loop systems and, 22
operating room, 337
Operation Desert Storm, 268
operator functional state (OFS), 168
operator side, 483
optimal control model, 24
optimal foraging theory, 504
optimal trust, 117–20
optimization models, 495
OR. See odds ratio
Orasanu, J., 205, 208, 487
organizational analysis, 253–55
organizational change, 222–23
organizational design, 216–17
future directions in, 223
job stress in, 220–21
occupational health in, 220–21
resources and support, 220
tools and technology, 219–20
worker adaptation and, 222–23
work system model, 217
organizational size, 388–89
organizational slack, 389
Orr, J. E., 303
OT. See ongoing task
Otiker, J., 445
outer loop
in adaptive control systems, 29, 29f
hypothesis, 28, 29f
inner loop combined with, 29f
Out of Control (Kelly), 534
out-of-the-loop syndrome, 103–4
out-of-the-loop unfamiliarity (OOTLUF), 595
output position, 26f
output velocity, 26f
P
Pachur, T., 491
Pak, R., 290
Pang, A. T., 584
Papper, E. M., 546
parallel processing, 280
parallel search, 47
Parasuraman, R., 168, 170–72, 384
on neuroergonomics, 604
on vigilance, 163–64
Parker, S., 218
Parnas, David, 445
Parra, L. C., 166, 167
part-whole decomposition, 245
parvocellular stream, 456
Pasteur’s quadrant, 34
patient monitoring equipment, 82
patient safety, 337
Patterson, E. S., 270
Pearce, B., 249
Pecheur, C., 445
pediatric ICU, 311–12
Peirce, C. S., 32
people, trust and, 110–11
Perceive-Decide-Act cycle, 126
perception
action and, 31
aging and, 291
of environmental elements, 89
mode, 401
space, 31
perceptual interface, 58–59
perceptual subnetwork, 456
performance
clinician, 339–40
in complex work environments, 358–60
concurrent tasks, 47
exceptional, 150
gauging, 33
indicators, 263f
job stress and, 221–22
multitasking and, 47–48
in off-nominal conditions, 37
outcome measures, 282t
routine, 37
sequential, 48–49
simulation and, 338–40
technically competent, 111
performance moderator functions (PMFs), 426
Performance Moderator Function Server (PMFserv), 426
performance-resource function (PRF), 37–38, 38f
performance shaping factors (PSF), 339
performatory action, 25
period doubling, 535
Perrow, C., 363, 407
person-machine systems (PMS), 534
multiple, 543–44
self organization in, 543
Pew, R. W., 90, 478
Pfautz, J. D., 255
Pfautz, S., 255
Pfeiffer, J. J., 581
phase shifts, 538–39
phase transition, 542
philosophy of mind, 160
physical environment, 289
Physical Form, 245
Physical Function, 245
Piaget, J., 526
pictorial displays, 517–18, 526–31
iconic objects in, 526
metaphor categories in, 527–28, 528t
negative transfer in, 527
skill development, 526–27
spatial metaphors in, 526
users of, 527
Pierce, L., 529
Pierce, P., 73
Pirolli, P., 420
Plans and the Structure of Behavior (Miller, Galanter, and Pribram), 19
playbooks, 382
polar coordinate display, 521–22
policy capturing, 73
politeness, 182
Polson, P. G., 148
polyvocal learning, 410–11
Pomerantz, J. R., 521, 531
Pope, A. T., 607
positive sensor analysis template, 323f
positron emission tomography (PET), 162
Posner, M. I., 150
Post-Anesthesia Care Unit, 304
post-test questionnaires, 283t
potassium, 309
power-law distributions, 536
power plant display, 574
practice, 144, 145
prediction
analysis in, 71–73
coherence models, 77–80
correspondence and, 70–71
correspondence models, 73–77
data presentation in, 80–81
enhancing, 80–83
future research directions, 83
intuition in, 71–73
problem, 25
strategies, 70–73
tactics, 71–73
preemption, 558
preferences, 292
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 161
Pre-Operative Care, 304
prescriptive models, 243
Pribram, K. H., 19
primed decision making, 98–99
principles of instruction, 297t
Prinzel, L. J., 600, 607
prior experience, 293–97
negative transfer and, 295–96
strategy differences, 296–97
priority heuristic, 495
prior predictive probability, 466
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 545
Pritchett, A. R., 361
probabilistic description, 469
probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), 343
problem solving
in closed-loop dynamics, 31–32
in collective intelligence, 544–45
problem state, 63
problem-vantage-frame principle, 265
proceduralization, 129
procedural knowledge, 129–30
procedural learning, 129, 131
procedural memory, 292
process diagramming, 231
processing objectives, 204
process mapping, 209–10
production pressure, 340
program-evaluation-and-review technique (PERT), 452
ProModel, 459
prospective memory, 49, 63
prototypical situations, 98–99
proximal interface, 5
proximity compatibility principle, 43
Psychological Refractory Period (PRP), 60, 454
psychology
applied, 202
behavioral, 128
cognitive, 128, 144
Gestalt, 534
social, 110, 115
trust and, 111–13
psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), 164
Q
Q-morphisms, 100
QN models. See queuing network models
quasi-rationality, 72
queuing models, 449–50
future research directions, 461–62
single-server, 450
Queuing Network Model Human Processor (QN-MHP), 171–72, 455, 457
concurrent goal processing, 459
multitask modeling, 459–61
NGOMSL analysis and, 458–59
simulation, 459
queuing network (QN) models, 451
cognitive subnetwork, 456–57
function and time processing in, 457
motor subnetwork, 457
perceptual subnetwork, 456
relationships between, 455f
RT and, 451–54
Queuing Network Reflected Multidimensional Diffusions (QN-RMD), 451, 454
quick reference handbook (QRH), 134
Quigley, K., 426
Quinn, R. E., 222
Quinn-Walsh, C., 172
R
Rabbitt, P. M. A., 165
Radwin, R. G., 169
random utility model (RUM), 509
rapid changes, 237
RAPTOR, 521, 525
Rasmussen, Jens, 4, 134, 223, 253, 275, 407, 409
CWA and, 264
decision ladder of, 526, 530
HMS designs of, 241
on knowledge, 128–29, 129f
on WDA, 244–45
on work system design, 220
rational choice under uncertainty, 504
rational taggers, 509
reactance, 114–15
reaction time (RT), 451
mathematical models of, 452t
QN and, 451–54
Reason, J., 216, 352, 363, 364
recall, 131
Receive conditions, 320f
receiver operating characteristic (ROC), 472–73
recognition, 32, 131
heuristic, 492, 493
recognition-primed decision-making model (RPD), 76, 487
Recollection interruption, 64
redistribution principle, 541
Red River Valley floods, 548
Reed, M., 461
reflecting line, 524
regression bias, 482
regulator paradox, 22–25
Reifers, A., 426
Reimer, T., 493
Reinerman-Jones, L., 607
Reisner, P., 445, 446
relative risk (RR), 116
reliability, 540
reliance, 116
remote communications, 186
in aerospace, 188–90
laboratory research, 183–84
remote handoff communication, 192
remote-sensing analysis task, 322f
Rempel, J. K., 111
Renooij, S., 468
repeller, 539
representativeness, 78
requisite memory trap, 102
requisite variety, 540
resilience, 365, 539, 541
engineering, 343–44
resource allocation
in cognition, 60
supply-demand curve, 50f
resource theory, 161
resumption lag, 61
retention
design and, 136
of learning, 135
process of, 135–36
system design and, 138
theories of, 135f
reward structures, 615
Rikers, R. M. J. P., 147
Riley, J. M., 596, 600, 607
Riley, V. A., 118
risk, 343
risk taking in relationship (RTR), 118
Ritter, F. E., 426
Rizzo, M., 172
road blocks, 329
Robertson, G., 580
robustness, 491, 540
of fast and frugal trees, 497–98
Rogers, E. M., 550
Rogers, W. A., 290
Rogers, Y., 527
Rogers Commission, 406
Rosen, M. A., 207
Rosenblueth, Arturo, (p. 636) 19
rotary pilots associate (RPA), 603
Rotello, C. M., 471
rote mechanisms, 30
Roth, E. M., 253, 257, 264
Rothrock, L., 495
Rottger, S., 168
Rouse, W. B., 596, 597
route planning, 61–62
Routine interruption, 64
routine performance, 37
rugged landscape, 536
Rukšėnas, R., 445
Runeson, S., 30
Rushby, John, 445
Russell, C. A., 596, 602
Russell, D. G., 149, 168
Rye, K., 601
Ryser, C., 399
S
Saint-Pierre, P., 446
Salas, E., 201, 207, 339, 487
Salganik, M. J., 503
salience, 520
alert, 38–39
misplaced, 103
Salthouse, T. A., 149
Salvucci, D. D., 63, 64, 417, 418, 420
Sanderson, P., 241
sandpile scenario, 536
Sano, D., 531
Santoro, T. P., 422
Sarter, N., 81, 478, 559, 560, 562
SA-Subjective Workload Dominance Technique (SA-SWORD), 282t
saturation, 581
Savelsbergh, G. J. P., 149
scale-free networks, 503
scenario design, 236
scenario manipulation, 282t
Scerbo, M. W., 595, 597, 604, 605
Schaefer, D., 585
Scheffers, M. K., 167
Schelling, T. C., 502, 511
schema, 540
Schimmels, M., 541
Schlenker, B. R., 118
Schmidt, G. S., 589
Schmidt, H. G., 147, 585
Schneiderman, B., 580
Schoelles, M., 426
Schooler, J. W., 208, 210
Schoorman, F. D., 118
Schroeder, B., 81
Scöhn, D. A., 405
Scott, S. D., 251
screen clutter, 588
S-curves, 550f
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), 470
secondary cues, 485
second-order control systems
gain in, 26f
stable goal following in, 26f
SEEV model, 81
in attention, 43–44
SegMan, 421
Seibel task, 126
selective attention, 36, 38
selective highlighting, 46
self-interruptions, 63–64
self-organization, 536, 542
in PMS, 543
self-ratings, 282t
self-satisfaction, 118
self-termination, 47
semantic congruence, 560
semantic imitation model, 508–11, 509f
semantic memory, 292
Send conditions, 320f
sensation, aging and, 291
sensemaking, 547–48
sensitivity, 472–73
sequential information sampling models, 453–54
sequential multitasking, 61–64
deferrable interruptions, 63
forced interruptions in, 61–63
self-interruptions in, 63–64
sequential performance, 48–49
serial self-terminal model (STSS), 46–47
servomechanism design, 22–23
Shadrick, S. B., 152
Shah, A. P., 361
Shannon, C. E., 179
shared control mode, 401
shared goals, 201
shared mental models (SMM), 82, 201
as organizing construct, 208–9
process mapping and, 209–10
shared versus separate research, 47
Sharit, J., 290
Shaw, J. C., 425
Sheehan, R. E., 586
Sheridan, Thomas B., 6, 110, 384, 399, 598, 599
on automation, 114, 119, 594–95
Sherrington, Charles, 161
Sherry, L., 445
shortcuts, 492
Shortridge, A. M., 583
short-term tasks, 184–86
Sibley, C., 604
Siegrist, J., 221
signal detection problems, 24. See also theory of signal detection
signal detection theory, 75
signal-noise enhancement, 46
sign-out sheet, 310–11, 310f
Silverman, B. G., 426
Simon, H. A., 146, 147, 148, 242, 425
simple observer systems, 23
gain and, 24f
simple tasks, 127f
simulation
clinician performance and, 339–40
in complex work domains, 338
of complex work environments, 358
dynamic, 360–61
future research agenda, 343–45, 364–65
in health care, 339, 342–43
human performance and, 338–39
hybrid, 345
immersive, 345
incorporation of, 365
military, 338–39
QN-MHP, 459
technology, 345
simulation for safety, 8
simulation interviews, 232
single-channel theory, 37–38
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 171
single operator-multiple autonomous platform/process model, 370–72
single operator-single autonomous platform/process model, 368–70
single-server queuing models, 450
Singley, M. K., 133
situated cognition, 33–34, 203, 416
situation awareness (SA), 7, 50–51, 88, 344, 367, 476–77, 594
adaptive automation and, 601
anxiety and, 102–3
areas of emphasis in, 267f
attentional tunnelling in, 102
bottom-up processing in, 90–91
challenges in, 96–97
closed-loop dynamics and, 30–31
commercial aviation pilot requirements, 91t–96t
complexity creep and, 103
data-driven processing in, 90–91
data overload and, 103
decision-oriented design and, 265
definition of, 88–89
developing, 90
in dynamic decision making, 97f
elements of, 90
in emergency response, (p. 637) 547–48
factors affecting, 97f
fatigue and, 102–3
future research directions, 104–5
future status projection in, 89–90
global, 280
in goal-driven processing, 99, 100f
HAI and, 487
interrelationship between levels in, 99–101
judgmental aspects of, 477
measurement, 280–83, 282t–283t
mental models, 97–98, 98f, 100f
misplaced salience and, 103
out-of-the-loop syndrome and, 103–4
perception of elements in environment, 89
practical considerations, 486–87
prototypical, 98–99
requirements analysis, 274–75
requisite memory trap in, 102
schema of, 98–99
situation comprehension in, 89
sources of, 89f
stressors and, 102–3
top-down processing, 98f
workload and, 102–3
Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), 281, 283t, 477, 479, 484, 606
situation awareness-oriented design, 272–73
future directions, 284
principles, 276–80
process, 274–83
summary of, 278t–279t
Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART), 282t, 477
situation side, 483
skill acquisition, 151
expertise and, 150–52, 154
skilled behavior, 126, 133–34
skills, rules, and knowledge (SRK), 254
“Skills, Rules, and Knowledge; Signals, Signs, and Symbols, and Other Distinctions in Human Performance Models” (Rasmussen), 5
skill score (SS)
decomposition of, 482
judgment and, 481
lens model equation and, 483
skill tuning of procedural knowledge, 129–30
Skinner box, 395
slaves, 536
sleep deprivation, 340–41
slips, 165
Slocum, T. A., 581, 589
Slovic, P., 77
smart mechanisms, 30–31
Smith, C. A., 251
Smith, J., 144
Smith, K., 478
Smith, M. J., 216
Smith, P. J., 79, 476
Smits, N., 147
Smolensky, M., 281
smoothing, 23
SNIF-ACT, 504–6, 506f
Snow, John, 337
Snyder, W. M., 611
Soar cognitive architecture, 129, 172
social analysis, 253–55
social cognition, 202
social emotions, 112
social environment, 289
social heuristics, 494
social information foraging (SIF) model, 506–8
social learning, 612, 613f, 614
social loafing, 546
social networking, 614
social norms, 182
social psychology, 110, 115
social reciprocity, 221
social responses to technology, 113t
social tagging system, 508
socio-computer interaction, 501–2
socio-technical systems, 178
future research directions, 195
goal-directed view, 180–81
information processing view, 179
interactive view, 180–81
selective literature review, 183
structural view, 180
theoretical approaches, 179–81
sodium, 309
Sonnentag, S., 206
space perception, 31
span of control, 380, 388
spatial metaphors, 526–30
speed, aging and, 291
Spelke, E., 60
Spence, C., 559
spillover, 114–15
SS. See skill score
St. Amant, R., 421
stability problem, 20–22
in second-order control systems, 26f
stage processing, 47
Stag Hunt, 545
emergency response and, 549
standard operating procedures, 182
Stanton, N. A., 256, 258
state variables
feedback of, 27–28
in lateral control problem, 27, 27f
static function allocation, 399–400
St-Cyr, O., 256
Steiner, I. D., 201
step functions, 20
step input, 21f
Sternberg, R. J., 147, 612
Stewart, T. R., 479, 484–85, 487, 488
stochastic determinism, 542
stochastic process theory, 504
storage, 205
stories, 617–18
strategies analysis, 242, 252–53
example output of, 253f
Strauss, R., 488
stressors, 340
cognitive, 425–28
situation awareness and, 102–3
Stroeve, S. H., 363
structural view of socio-technical systems, 180
substitution, 557
Sulis, W., 542
superior colliculus (SC), 559
superior frontal gyrus (SFS), 457
supervenience, 537
supervisory control, 6, 381–82
supply-demand curve, 50f
SurgiCenter, 302
Sutcliffe, K. M., 410
Swain, C. R., 162
Swissair crash, 134
switch costs, 386–87
symbolic interactionism, 304
symbolic models, 454
synchronicity, 543
synergetics, 545
synthetic task environments, 34
system boundaries, EID, 567
design space and, 568t
systems analysis of integrated networks of tasks (SAINT), 450
T
Taatgen, N. A., 425
TacAir-Soar model, 427
Tactical Decision Making Under Stress (TADMUS), 265, 430
tactile interfaces, 560–61
tactons, 560
take-the-best heuristics, 494–95
ecological rationality of, 496
tallying heuristics, 495
ecological rationality of, 496
Tang, C., 192
Tanker Airlift Control Center, 265
target enhancement, 46
target expectancy, 46
task. See also multitasking
characteristics, 318–21
demands, 289
extended, 190–94
manual-tracking, 62
memory span, 60
multi-attribute, 598
N-back, 62
network models, (p. 638) 450–51
ongoing, 48
psychomotor vigilance, 164
remote-sensing analysis, 322f
Seibel, 126
in sequence, 47
short-term, 184–86
simple, 127f
specifications, 434, 435
switching, 48
systems analysis of integrated networks of, 450
time-shared, 47
Taylor, R. M., 477
teaching, 308
team cognition
defined, 200–201
foundations of, 201–7
future directions in, 210–11
historical underpinnings of, 202–4
mental models, 207–8
nomenclature coordination, 201–2
team coordination, 201–2, 545–46
teamwork, 82, 341, 355
failed, 342–43
technically competent performance (TCP), 111
technological stewards, 619
technology
as cue, 74
as decision maker, 74
demands, 289
as environment, 74
social responses to, 113t
Tedeschi, J. T., 118
teleoperation, 381–82
telepresence, 344
temporal actions, 354, 358
10-year rule, 147
Tenenbaum, J. B., 468
Tenerife disaster, 188
Tenney, Y. J., 90
Terman, L., 145
Tesch-Römer, C., 147
Test-Operate-Test-Exit (TOTE), 19–20
test set, 496
text editors, 128, 131
texture, 584
Thaler, R., 495
theory of signal detection (TSD), 465
decision making and, 471–72
extensions of, 473
Thimbleby, H., 445
Thom, R., 538
Thompson, H. L., 540
threaded cognition, 49, 62
time delay, 20, 21, 23
time ecologies, 546
time-out procedures, 185
time pressure, 318–21
human-computer interface for, 319f
Receive conditions, 320f
Send conditions, 320f
time-shared tasks, 47, 60
time-varying gain, 24
Tindale, R. S., 204
to-be-noticed event (TBNE), 43, 45
Todd, D. P., 337, 491
Tomasello, M., 113
Tomlin, C., 446
Tooby, J., 469, 470
top-down processing, 99
tourist information system (TIP), 445
trade-offs, 498
Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), 397–98
Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), 361, 362
Trafton, J. G., 61, 588
training
CTA and, 235–36
on-the-job, 236
program design, 296f
set, 496
transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), 160, 162–63, 170, 604, 605
transparency, 81, 581–82
Treisman, M., 472
triadic semiotic systems, 518f
triggers, 384
in adaptive automation, 599–602
interruption, 64
user-triggered events, 440
trust
automation and, 110–11
as behavior, 113–16
controversies over, 120–21
design implications of, 120
factors influencing, 115f
interpersonal, 616–17
non-optimal, 117–20
optimal, 117–20
people and, 110–11
as psychological entity, 111–13
response measurement on continuous variables, 117
response measurement on discrete variables, 116–17
Tucker, L. R., 479
Tufte, E. R., 580
turbine system graphic, 574
turbulence, 536
Turdukulov, U. D., 587
Turvey, M. T., 33
Tversky, A., 77, 468
Twitter, 614
U
uncertainty, 343, 487
animation of, 583–84
blurriness and, 582–83
categorization, 582f
color and, 581–82
design and research considerations, 588–90
detail and, 590
extrinsic representations, 580–81
future directions and, 590–91
glyphs and, 584–85
graphical representation of, 580–86
intrinsic representations, 580–81
judgment and, 478–79
linguistic representations of, 587
locational, 585
meta-information and, 590
multidimensional, 590
nodes, 588
numeric, 588
object form and, 584–85
rational choice under, 504
representing, 579
texture and, 584
transparency and, 581–82
visual analytics and, 587–88
undistributed cognition, 308–9
unified theories of cognition (UTC), 454
Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle-Synthetic Task Environment. See CERTT UAV-STE
United States population, 287f
UNIX, 129
Update Autopilot Target Speed, 354
Uppal, R., 495
Urness, T., 584, 585
user capabilities, 289
user-centered design, 273–74
User Centered Systems Design (Norman), 4
user model, 438–39
alternative, 438
formal verification, 439
generation of, 440
modes and transitions in, 442, 443f, 444f
verification of, 436
user-triggered events, 440
V
Values, Priorities, and Principles (VPP), 569–70
Vamos, T., 110
Vandehagegen, F., 400
Van Der Kamp, J., 149
Vaughan, D., 409
Verplanck, W. L., 399, 594, 598
Vibratese, 560
Vicente, K. J., 6, 241, 242, 249, 253, 275
Vidulich, M. A., (p. 639) 375
vigilance, 162–64
Parasuraman on, 163–64
Vincow, M., 42
virtual environments (VEs), 557
visual analytics, uncertainty and, 587–88
visual channels, 47
visual momentum, 45
visual search, 45–46
improving, 46
selective highlighting, 46
signal-noise enhancement, 46
target enhancement, 46
target expectancy, 46
voice dialing methods, 59
Vollrath, D. A., 204
W
Wäfler, T., 399
Wait interruption, 64
Wall, T., 218
Wallace, V. L., 445
Wallsten, T. S., 580, 589
Ward, P., 149
Ward’s method for hierarchical cluster analysis, 8, 9f
Ware, C., 580
Washington National Airport, 78
weaponeering, 268
Weaver, N., 179
web pages, 504–5
Wedgwood, Emma, 494
Weick, K. E., 222, 363, 364, 407, 410, 547, 548
Weik, S., 399
Weinberg, D., 24, 25
Weinberg, G. M., 24, 25
Weinger, M., 340
Wenger, E., 611
Wesler, M. M., 477
Whalen, J., 613
Wickens, C. D., 42, 74, 90, 114, 160, 161, 473, 487, 488
Wiegman, D. A., 112
Wiener, E. L., 110
Wiener, Norbert, 19, 22, 25, 32
Wiggins, S., 270
Williams, A. M., 149
Williams, J. C., 169
Wilson, C. M., 586, 596
Wilson, G. F., 162, 168, 602
Wilson, J. A., 169
Wilson, J. R., 217
Windischer, A., 399
Wittenbrink, C. M., 584
Woods, D. D., 6, 120–21, 264, 303, 386, 478, 562, 596, 602
word cloud, 7f, 10f, 11f, 12f
work-centered design
areas of emphasis in, 267f
decision-oriented design, 265
key differences in, 265–66
work complexity, 237
work domain analysis (WDA), 242, 244–48
abstraction-decomposition matrix representation of, 244t
attributes, 570
complex, 338
complex relationships in, 572, 574
components, 570
context design in, 572, 574
contextual constraints in, 573f
contextual questions asked in, 572f
design seeds, 571–73, 575f
EID and, 567–68
functional purpose in, 568–69
information requirements from, 570–71
levels of, 568f
means-end relationships and, 572–74
model boxes, 571f
models, 569f
objects in, 570
processes level, 570
Rasmussen on, 244–45
representation, 245f
variables at different levels, 571t
VPP in, 569–70
worker competencies analysis, 242, 255–56
working memory, 292
long-term, 148
workload, 340
cognitive, 540
mental, 49–51, 160–62
situation awareness and, 102–3
workpattern observations, 232–33
work schedules, 218
work structure, 356–58, 358f
work system model, 217
design, 218, 220
World War I, 202–3
World War II, 202–3
Wright, P., 399
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 316
Wu, C., 172, 460, 503
X
Xerox, 612
Xiao, Y., 254
X-Plane, 420
Xu, X., 487
Y
Yahoo!, 504
Yanco, H. A., 384, 388
Yeo, C., 318
Young, M. S., 401
Z
Zaheer, A., 110
Zanetti, G., 114
Zeier, H., 605
Zig trees, 498
Zuboff, S., 121