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date: 07 March 2021

(p. 541) Index

(p. 541) Index

Ââ, 151, 152f;
kaen and, 156–157
Academy:
learning/teaching in, 508–513;
Western, 501, 504
Acts of Memory: Cultural Recall in the Present (Bal), 166–167
Acupuncture, 321
Adolescents:
musicʼs role in, 79–84;
pediatric palliative care for, 455. see also Children
Africa:
“empires” and, 504;
HIV/AIDS in, 9, 164–183;
nganga, 326;
ngoma in, 9;
shamanic rituals, 326;
Tumbuka musical healing, 149–150;
Tumbuka people of, 9;
Uganda, HIV/AIDS in, 164–183
African American music:
slave, 87;
spiritual, 526, 526f
Age:
HeArts & Hope demographic and descriptive data, 453, 453t;
religion and, 56, 56f
Agency, 505
Aggression:
AD, music and, 189;
gangsta rap and, 79;
music promoting, 79
Agma Hindu, 249
Agma Tirta, 249
the AIDS Support Organization (TASO), 164–165
AIDS Widow Orphans Family Support (AWOFS), 180
Alzheimer, Alois, 206
Alzheimerʼs disease (AD):
affects of, 186;
aggression in, music and, 189;
alternative management of, 188–189;
behavioral symptoms, 187–188;
biomedical view of, 192–193;
caregivers, 187, 188;
case studies, 202–205;
causes, 186, 206;
course/severity scales for, 186–187;
cultural view of, 195;
diagnosis, 186, 202, 206;
effects of, 206;
entrainment and, 208- 209;
family stress and, 202–204;
healthcare costs, 187;
incidence/prevalence, 185;
living with, 195;
medical management, 187–188;
medications, 187–188;
music and culture as healing process in, 185–198;
music and, research problems of, 190–191;
music and, SNS effects of, 430;
music therapy for, 189;
nursing homes and, 188–189;
PLST and, 193;
randomized control trial, 189;
social interaction and, 209- 212;
stress and, dealing with, 193;
terminology, 187;
theoretical model for, 192–197;
treatment, 206
Alzheimerʼs disease care:
model for, 186;
person-centered approach to, 198
Ambulation:
dementia and, 210–213;
loss of, dementia and, 212–213
American Music Therapy Association (AMTA), 303
Analysis of variance (ANOVA), 113;
SBP, 114t
Anger, psychological flexibility shifting and, 124–125. see also Aggression
Anthropology of Music, The (Merriam), 224
Anxiety disorders:
autonomic flexibility decreased in, 130;
descriptors, 161n 12;
flexibility and, 142–143;
psychological flexibility and, 131;
somatic flexibility and, 131, 160n 12. see also State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Aql-tan-ruh/jân, 103
Arabo-Andalusian nuba, 365–366
Argentinean Mapuche, 24
Aricept. see Donepezil
Aristotle, 84
Artistic form, culture and, 34
Arts:
human society and, 86–90;
pediatric mental/behavioral health and, 72–92;
spirituality and, 74–77;
technology and, 444–459;
traditional, 495–496. See also specific arts
Atma, 247, 254, 262n 2;
ascension of, 254;
care of, 255, 256f;
care of, preventive, 257–259;
liberation of, 260
Aurum metallicum, Darbari linked to, 400
Austroasiatic languages, 39n 2
Autism:
adult, 478n 13;
causes, 478n 5;
challenges, 474;
cognitive flexibility and, 469–470;
diagnosis, 478n 5;
happiness, 474;
holistic view of, 467;
improvisation, child-directed and, 474–476;
incidence, 478n 1;
interaction, 474;
language, 463–465, 467;
personhood and, 467;
problematizing, 463–465;
psychological flexibility, 471;
sensory overstimulation, 479n 16;
therapies, 478n 4
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs):
behavior associated with, 470–471;
developmental challenges, 462;
diagnosing, 462;
disease/disability-based frame in, 464;
music and, 262;
pathology of, 461–462;
research, 462;
research, biomedicine and, 464;
sociomusical healing and, 461–479
(p. 542) Autonomic nervous system (ANS):
music and effects on, 414;
music and effects on, premature infant studies in, 416;
psychological flexibility correlates in, 130;
SNS and, 429
Awareness, music appreciation and, 527–530
Badakhshan, Tajikistan, 9–10;
etiology and belief, 103–104;
experiment, 111–113;
experiment, statistical results of, 112–117;
healers in, 103;
health care culture in, 102–103;
participants, 111;
team-building in, 110–111
Bahanarotu, 332
Balance:
cultural, 517–518, 521–522;
disposition, 372;
dualism, animal symbolism and, 356;
educationʼs role in creating, 502–503;
healing and, 358, 500;
humors, 372, 373;
vital force, 396
Bali Aga, 263n 4
Bali, Indonesia:
Agma Tirta, 249;
banjar, 249–250;
gamelan beleganjur, 248, 250, 266–267;
music, 262;
music and culture, 248–250
Balinese cremation ceremonies in, 246–263;
procession, early stages of, 255–257;
ritual preparation for, 255–257
Balinese ritual practice, 247;
gamelan beleganjur and, 251;
public, 249
Bal, Mieke, 166–167
Baluchi healing rituals, 361;
case studies, 386–388;
dance and, 390n 11;
death and, 387;
fiddle, case study of, 379–384;
hypnotic effect of, 379–381;
kinetic effect of, 379–381;
melodies in, 384–385;
music power in, 378;
payment for, 386;
psychological effects, 385;
skepticism, 388
Balungan:
change, 284;
disability and, 283;
fixed melody and, 282–287;
types, 283
Bancos, 336
Banjar, 249–250
Baraka, 95, 104, 117;
maddâh and, 104–105
Barnardoʼs, 178
Be-'asil, 39n 13
Beauty, attraction to, 75–76
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 427
Behavior:
AD and, 187–188;
ASD-associated, 471;
dementia music therapy and, 207–208;
group empathy, 295;
idiomatic, 289–290;
musical, 278;
music influence on, 426–427;
music research and, 426–427;
music therapy sessions and, 277, 280;
pulselike, 278;
religion and health, 63–64;
Beleganjur music, 246–263
Beyond the Roof of the World: Music, Prayer, and Healing in the Pamir Mountains (Koen), 9–10
Bhairavi, 400;
intensity, 401;
naturum muriaticum linked to, 401
Biological processes:
consciousness and, 322–323;
mediation of, 36
Biomedical axis, 29, 30f, 31f;
treatment of, 36
Biomedicine, ASD research and, 464
Biomedicine model:
healing, 309;
predicting outcomes in, 411
Biomedicine, Western:
music and, 7;
religion relationship with health and, 47
Biophysical transformation, 35–37
Black Bear, Ben, 485–486
Blige, Mary J., 40n 21;
“No More Drama,” 32–34
Body:
emotion and, 373–374;
flexibility, 138–139;
musical effects on, 371–372, 376;
emotion and, 373–374
“Body politic,” 34
Body systems:
music and response of, 424–429;
relaxation and involved, 419. See also specific systems
Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music, 416, 432
Bo soi, 154
Brain:
damage, stress and degree of, 194;
hemispheric neurological coherence, 319–320, 411;
states, psychological flexibility and, 130–131
Brain-wave patterns, meditative state, 317–318
Brujo, 332
Buddhism: “eightfold path,” 84–85;
emotional-switch flexibility in, 128;
zazen, 311
Bustillo, Juan, 349–353
Calderón, Eduardo:
curing ritual, 354–356;
dualism explained by, 348;
Hummingbird Staff, 354–355;
Serpent Staff, 355–356;
synesthesia and, 346
Campos, 336
Capitalism, 505–506;
imperialism and, 503;
placing of capital and, 506, 507
Career advancement, 507
Caregivers:
AD, 187, 188;
family, 214–215;
female, 214–215;
nursing-home training of, 189;
stress and, 188, 214–215
Caregivers, dementia:
interactions and, 196;
music therapy for, 214–215;
study on, 210
Cartesian duality, 94
Cause and effect thinking, 413
Center for Arts in Healthcare Research and Education (CAHRE), 451
Certification Board for Music Therapists (CBMT), 303
(p. 543) Chakras, 321;
consciousness and, 322;
music and energy flow through, 322
Children:
development, 76–77;
disabled, Balinese gamelan and, 266–267;
distraction therapy for ill, 456;
HIV/AIDS and musical communication with, 168;
hospitalized, 445;
Lakota, 497–498;
Lakota Hoop Dance and response of, 497;
medications, 444;
“Music Child,” 271;
musicʼs effects on, 86–87;
needs of, 78;
pediatric palliative care, 455;
personhood consciousness and, 476;
social dislocation of, 77–78;
values imparted on, 74, 78. see also Pediatric mental/behavioral health
Children, orphaned:
due to HIV/AIDS, 83, 168–170;
memory books created for, 177–180
Chungana rattle:
Curandero, 340–342;
sparks produced by, 341;
terms, 340
Chungana rattle, design of, 341–342;
symbolism and, 342
Cinceem, 23, 39n 5–6;
sounds of, 23
Circle, world of, 530–532;
thinking within, 532–533
Civilization, 77
Civilizing process, 90;
inner life and, 84–86
Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDRS), 186
Clothing:
flexibility, 141–142;
patterns, 156
Cognitive behavioral therapy, 456
Cognitive flexibility, 96, 106–109, 117–120, 117n 1;
autism and, 469–470;
framework, 106–107;
ideal self-images and, 141;
Isan musical healing, 150;
spiritual entrainment and, 107;
subtypes, 125–127
Cognitive function:
melodic expression and, 283–284;
songwriting and, 226
Cognitive performance, music interventions for, 190
Cole, Sheri Kathleen, 81
Collaboration:
music research, 416;
music therapy research, 439;
religious research, 53
Collective, 505
Colonization, imperialism and, 503
Colotomy, 276–282;
expression, 281;
music therapy, importance of, 280–281
Communication:
HIV/AIDS, through music, 168;
nonspeech forms of, 336;
supernatural, 357–358
Community:
building, music appreciation and, 527–530;
healing potential of, 326;
health-care environment, 444–459;
HeArts & Hope involvement with, 451–452;
humanity and, 501;
music and creating a sense of, 219;
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM):
critical thinking and, 478n 6;
education, 310;
popularity of, 309–310;
role of, 4;
scientific research validation of, 420. see also Integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine
Consciousness:
biology and, 322–323;
chakras and, 322;
characterizing, 76;
disembodied/dualistic state of, 94;
expansion of, 77;
limitations of human, 75;
music, medicine, culture and, 3–16;
music power and, 378;
music therapy and, 374;
shamanic rituals and, 316–317
Consciousness, personhood, 461–479;
pediatric, 476
Consciousness, states of:
modified, passing through, 376–377;
music-induced, 423
Coping:
religion and, 49, 50, 57–61, 57f;
ToP and illness, 196
Cortisol, 415;
factors affecting, 434–435;
interventions for lowering, 433;
measuring levels of, 433;
music therapy and levels of, 432;
stress and, 434
Creative Music Therapy, 271, 285;
music therapy sessions and, 291
Cremation rituals, 247;
Balinese, 246–263;
conclusion of, 260;
musical ladder to the upper world in, 259–260;
music in, 248;
tower in, 257f, 258
Creolization, 530
“Culture-biology dialectic,” 15
Cultural diversity, 11;
development and, 534–535;
education and, 534–535;
Emotional Intelligence and, 530;
music appreciation and, 516–517;
questions, 521;
treatment of, 516–517;
unity in, 12, 529f, 530
Cultural healing, 521;
education and, 510, 518, 519f;
educatorʼs role in, 500–537;
imperialism and, 503–505;
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 518–520
Cultural memory:
HIV/AIDS, 181;
HIV/AIDS, Uganda and, 164–183;
music and, 165–168;
rememorying, 168, 171–172
Cultural space, in nursing homes, 221–223
Culture, 13–14, 301;
AD and, 195;
AD and, healing process for, 185–198;
artistic form and, 34;
balancing, 517–518, 521–522;
Balinese, 248–250;
complexity, 501–502;
European, 516;
expression specific to, 496;
flexibility, 131–132, 135–136, 147;
flexibility primers and, 135–146;
fusions of, 530;
healing and, 4, 14;
health care, in Badakhshan, 102–103;
health, healing arts, sickness and effects of, 4;
human spirit and, 73;
imperialism, 505;
Middle Eastern, 519–520;
music and, 6, 13;
music and, research of, 421;
music and, use of, 309;
music, medicine and, 3–16;
music research and, 419;
pediatric mental/behavioral health and, 77–78;
perspectives from, presenting, 521;
psychological flexibility and, 136f, 137;
psychological flexibility and, promotion of, 136–137, 158–159;
qualities instilled by, 121–122;
racism and American, 526–527;
ragas and, efficacy of, 397–398;
ragas and, proving, 398–399;
shamanic rituals and, 349;
stereotypes, 519;
teaching and, 511;
transcendence of, Hoop Dance and, 495–496. see also Eastern culture; Islamic culture; Western culture
Curanderismo, 334–335
(p. 544) Curandero, 332, 340–342;
chungana rattle of, 340–342
Curanderos, 334–336;
animal symbolism and, 354–356;
dualism and, 348–349, 356;
mesa, 348;
naming and, 347;
ritual battles, 354;
tarjos, 344–346
Damâli, 361
Dance, 221;
Baluchi healing ritual, 379–381, 390n 1;
expression, 488;
flexibility and, 144–145;
Lakota and, 488;
patterns in Isan, 154–156;
reactive, 145;
secular v. sacred, 499n 2;
spirituality and, 488
Darbari, 397, 399–400;
aurum metallicum linked to, 400;
healing and, 399–400;
intensity, 401
Dare, 325–326
Death, Baluchi healing rituals and, 387
Dementia, 186;
acquisition of new songs and, 236–237;
ambulatory/nonambulatory status, 210–213;
bed-confined patients with, 211;
daily experience, 207;
disease trajectory, 207;
exercise, 210–211;
medical ethnomusicology, research implications for, 197–198;
medications, 188;
musical capacities, 207–208;
music interventions in, 192;
music interventions in, effect of, 197–198;
personhood and, 467, 473;
RAS for, 211;
safety and, 208;
social interaction and, 209–212;
ToP model for, 194–195
Dementia care, 535n 1;
early, 205–206;
music therapy in, 206–208, 215–216;
research of, 194
Dementia caregivers:
interactions and, 196;
music therapy for, 214–215;
study on, 210
Dementia, music therapy for, 201–216;
family involvement in, 213;
future of, 215–216;
research implications for, 197–198
Depression Adjective Check List (DACL), 429
Depression, religion and, 50, 53. see also Beck Depression Inventory
Dervishes, vibrations and, 367–368
Desencanto, 334–336
Development:
ASD and challenges in, 462;
cultural diversity and, 534–535;
ethics and, 86;
of human race, 76–77;
individual, 76–77
Dhira Shankarabharanam:
effects of, 398;
homeopathic remedy corresponding to, 399;
universal effect of, 398
Dialogic interaction, personhood and, 471–473
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 111;
Badakhshan healing and difference in, 112–113, 113f;
Badakhshan healing and difference in, ANOVA and, 114t
Diawaratuma, 353
DiClemente, Ralph, 81
Disease/illness:
chronic, treatment strategies for, 309;
coping with, ToP and, 196;
cultural understanding of, 14;
etiology, 103–104;
hebu -caused, 334;
higher education and promoting, 502–503;
Lakota view of, 484;
as manifestation of deeper imbalance, 500;
meditation and, 311;
pediatric rates of, 78;
rhythm and, 325;
sacred, 325;
shamanic, 325;
spiritually caused, 357;
traditional culture views on, 331. See also specific diseases and illnesses
Dispositions, balance/imbalance of, 372
Distraction therapy, 456–457
DNR directive. see Do not resuscitate directive
Doctor-patient relationship:
physicianʼs faith and, 67;
prayer and, 66;
praying with patients and, 68;
religion and, 66–69;
spiritual history and, 66–67
Doire, 102
Donepezil (Aricept), 187
Do not resuscitate (DNR) directive, 212
Dotâr, 363–364
Duʼâ khândan, 98
Dualism:
animal symbolism and balancing, 356;
Curandero, 348–349, 356;
musical, 349
Eastern culture:
meditative/vibrational healing in, 321;
music, 6;
tradition of learning in, 73
Education:
CAM, 310;
cultural diversity and, 534–535;
cultural healing and, 510, 518, 519f;
dynamics, 508;
expectations, 511;
interconnectedness and, 512;
“learning gap,” 509;
sacred space in, 513–514;
testing in, 510
Education, higher, 502;
creating balance and, 502–503;
promoting disease and, 502–503
Education, models of, 501, 534;
business, 510;
holistic, 536n 16
EEG. see Encephalogram
“Eightfold path,” 84–85
Elderly:
music therapy and, 223–224;
religion/spirituality and, 49
Electrocardiogram (ECG), 109
Embeingment, 96, 105, 149
Emotion:
body and, 373–374;
changing, 160n 3;
expression of, music and, 422;
meaning and, 399;
music and, 30, 383–384, 407;
music effects on body and, 373–374;
music response and, 422–423;
regulation, 159n 2;
release, 378;
states, raga music and, 396;
Temiar music and, 30. see also Singerʼs Emotional Experiences Scale
Emotional Intelligence, 511;
cultural diversity and, 530;
Golemanʼs five requirements for, 518, 520;
music appreciation and, 527–530
Emotion meta-awareness, 159n 2
Empathy, 525;
group, 295–297;
music appreciation and, 527–530
Encanto, 334–336;
concept of, 335–336
Encephalogram (EEG):
meditative states and, 317–319;
monitoring challenges with, 319;
study, 327
Enguayanchero, 332
(p. 545) Entitlement, 506–507
Entrainment, 32, 33, 96, 106, 107, 118, 315;
AD and, 208–209;
cognitive flexibility and spiritual, 107;
“iso” principle v., 423–424;
law of, 208–209;
process and, 423;
spiritual, 106–109
Environment enhancement, pain and, 457. see also Virtual-reality technology
Era III medicine, 313–314
Ethics, personhood and, 468
Ethnography, 24;
method, 26, 26f;
Pamiri healing practices, 109;
research design, 26, 26f
Ethnomusicology. see Medical ethnomusicology
European music, 515–516
Exorcism songs, 370
Exploratory World Music Playground (E-WoMP), 465;
cognitive flexibility and, 469–470;
discoveries, 469;
instruments, 465–466, 469;
music sessions, 470;
rules, 470–472;
sacred space and, 469–471
Expression:
colotomy, 281;
culture-specific, 496;
dancing, 488;
emotional, music and, 422;
idiomatic, 288;
melodic, 283–284;
verbal, flexibility in, 139–141. see also Musical expression; Self-expression
Faith, 55
Females:
caregivers, 214–215;
gamelan beleganjur, 263n 9;
gender-based violence, 80;
HIV/AIDS infection rates in, 82, 168;
pornographic ideology in music videos and, 81–84;
rap music and violence against, 79–80
“Fight-or-flight” response, 430
Five factors of health and healing, 96
Flatischler, Reinhard, 324–325;
TaKeTiNa studies by, 325
Flexibility:
anxiety and, 142–143;
clothing, 141–142;
culture and, 131–132, 147;
dance and, 144–145;
defined, 122;
domestic interiors, 146;
as emotional state, 158;
increasing, 143–144;
interpersonal adaptive, 131–132;
Isan healing multimodal representation of, 157, 157f;
medications, 147–158;
multishift sets, 134–135;
musical, 138–139;
nature and, 153–154;
networks, 158;
pathologies/disorders and, 142–143;
physical exemplars, 160n 10;
proverbs, 139–140;
religious practice, 145–146;
urban landscape, 146–147, 160n 10;
Flexibility patterns, 132, 141–142, 154–156;
alternating, 134;
interlocking, 133;
juxtaposed, 133;
layered, 133;
morphing, 133–134;
morphing alternating, 134;
sequential, 133–134;
simultaneous, 132–133
Flexibility primers, 136–137, 136f;
body habitus, 138–139;
culture and, 135–146;
environmental exemplars, 137;
healing through, 121–161;
music as, 522;
United States, 148f
Form:
defined, 306n 33;
meaning and, 279–280;
musical, 33;
music therapy, 279;
types, 279
Fourfold framework, 27–32, 29f;
axes, 27–32;
biomedical axis in, 29, 30f, 31f;
performative axis in, 28–29;
sociocultural axis in, 28–29
Frank, Jerome, 32–33
Frequencies, music, 369
Fromm, Erich, 89–90
F-tags, 222
Gamelan beleganjur, 248;
Balinese, 250;
Balinese ritual and, 251;
cremation ceremony music and, 255;
disabled children and, 266–267;
ensemble, 252–253;
female, groups, 263n 9;
functionality, 258–259;
instruments, 251–252, 252f;
Javanese, 266;
in ngaben processions, 253–254;
in ngaben rituals, 260–261;
rhythm, 258–259;
sound and symbol, 250–253;
tuning system, 263n 10
Gamelan gong kebyar, 250, 251f
Gangsta rap, 79, 81
Gatewood, Esther, 423–424
Geertz, Clifford, 34
Gender distribution:
HeArts & Hope demographic and descriptive data, 453, 453t;
violence and, 80
Ghizhak, 102
Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), 186
Global village, 78
Glucocorticoids, 431–432
Gnawa, 371
Golemanʼs five requirements for Emotional Intelligence, 518, 520
Gong ageng, 251–252
Good Shepherd Support Action Centre (GOSSACE), 167–168
Graphic Rating Scale, 427
Greed, 504
Group empathy, 295–297;
behaviors associated with, 295
Guâti, 361, 381;
fake, 388
Guâti-damâli, 376;
melodies, 385
Gurdjieff, Georges I.:
Meetings with Remarkable Men, 367;
myth/power of sound and, 366–368;
objective music and, 367
Hahnemann, Samuel, 395, 396
Halaaʼ, 20;
song, 23
Hallucinogens, shamanic:
color and, 345;
perception affected by, 346;
in Peru, 335
Happiness, autism and, 474
Harmony, 505
Hatcher, William S., 83–84
(p. 546) Healers:
Badakhshan, Tajikistan, 103;
Healing done by, 18;
Pamiri, 103–104;
Temiar music, 20, 21f;
Tibetan, 35;
in Uganda, 173. see also New England Sound Healers; Shamans
Healing, 3;
beliefs about, 103–104;
biomedical model, 309;
community and, 326;
cultural effects on, 4;
cultural understanding of, 14;
dualism and, 348–349;
five factors of, 96;
through flexibility primers, 121–161;
HCP and, 95–96;
healers and, 18;
holistic, 487;
homeopathic, 393–409, 408;
imbalances, 500;
Isan, flexibility represented in, 157, 157f;
through maddâh, 104–105;
magical, 357;
modalities, 4;
musical ethnography, 21–22;
music and, 12;
music and, research in, 13;
music interventions in, 4–5;
musicotextual triggers, 32–33;
music-prayer-meditation dynamics in, 93–118;
naming and, 347;
opposites balanced in, 358;
perspectives, 98;
psychological, 148–149;
religion/spirituality and, 46–70;
rhythm and, 325–326;
sacredness of, 513;
shamanistic power
for, 347–349;
spiritual/mystical dimensions and, 96;
Temiar people, 20–26;
theories on, 10;
Healing ceremonies:
Baluchi, 361;
medical and musical realms in, 22, 22f;
musical, 22, 22f, 100;
musical, psychological flexibility and, 147–158;
Temiar, 27–28
Healing field theory, music and, 323–326
Healing process, 99;
AD and music/culture in, 185–198;
ritual, 377, 377f;
subject/spirit relationship and, 375
Healing, shamanism, 331–359;
music and, in South America, 331–359;
singing in, 343–346;
successful, 357
Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest (Roseman), 9, 20
Health:
behavior, religion and, 63–64;
care, in Badakhashan, 102–103;
five factors of, 96;
Lakota beliefs on, 483, 485;
physical, religion and, 61–64, 63f;
progression/regression, 99;
religion/spirituality and roles in, 46;
spiritual, 65
Health, music and:
complexities of, 412;
effects of, 410–440
Health, religion and, 47, 63f;
attention paid to, 62, 62f;
relationship between, 51;
relevance of, 64
Heart rate (HR), 111;
Badakhshan healing and difference in, 113, 114f, 114t
HeArts & Hope, 445;
community involvement, 451–452;
demographic and descriptive data in, 453, 453t;
description, 446–449;
goals and specific aims of, 446;
Lifescapes, 448;
Lifescapes, on-line gallery/bedside art, 454, 454t;
national/regional community partnerships, 452;
P-2-P Mentorship videos, 449, 449f;
patient room integration of, 450, 450f;
program components, 446–449;
symptom-reporting system, 454;
technology plan, 449–451;
V-AIM, 448–449;
Hebu-mataro rattle:
construction of, 339–340;
importance of, 337–339;
materials, 337;
potency of, 339;
power of, 339;
sound, 337;
Warao healing ritual and, 352;
wisiratu, 337–340
Hebu spirits:
identifying, 347;
illness caused by, 334;
naming, 347, 353;
wisiratu and, 333–334
Heisenberg uncertainty principle (HUP), 94–95
Hemispheric neurological coherence:
Meditative states and, 319–320;
music and, 319–320, 411
Hill, Augustus, 526–527, 526f
HIV/AIDS:
in Africa, 174;
children and musical communication about, 168;
children orphaned due to, 83, 168–170;
cultural memory regarding, 181;
female infection rates, 82, 168;
linguistic shift and, 164;
living positively and, 178, 180–181;
lyrics related to, 177–178;
memory, 169–170;
memory books and, 177–180;
negativity associated with, 164–165;
parents living with, 178–179;
sexual attitudes/practices and, 83, 168;
TB distinguished from, 175;
traditional doctors and, 176;
traumatic recall and, 167;
Hoarotu, 332
Hoge Intrinsic Religiosity Scale, 60–61
Holistic care, 456;
healing and, 487
Holistic state, 96
Holistic views:
autism, 467;
education and, 536n 16;
teaching/learning, 512
Homeopathic medicine, 310;
history, 395;
law of similars in, 372, 393;
music and, 393–409;
music as, 408–409;
principles, 394, 395;
principles, applying, 408–409;
remedies in, 396;
spirituality and, 409;
vital force and, 395–396
Homeopathic remedies:
dilution, 400;
feeling related to, 403;
potency and, 400–401;
ragas and related, 399–401;
ragas and related,
systematic approach to, 401–404;
rubrics, 402. See also specific remedies
Homeopsychotherapy, music and, 394
Homeostasis, 396
Hood, Ki Mantle, 266
Hoodʼs Nine Levels:
applications, 306n 15;
balungan and, 282–287;
colotomy, 276–282;
group empathy, 295–297;
improvisation and, 267–268;
music therapy and, 265–307;
music therapy and, method of, 271;
personal style and, 297–298;
stratification, 279
Hoop Dance. see Lakota Hoop Dance
Horden, Peregrine, 7–8
Hospital settings, 444;
children in, 445;
pediatric psychological health and, 455;
symptom control in, 455;
virtual-reality technology in, 457
Howard, Keith, 7–8
HR. see Heart rate
HR variability (HRV), 320;
meditation and, 320–321;
stress/relaxation assessment with, 430;
study, 327
Hughes, Langston, 87–88
Human certainty principle (HCP), 95, 96;
healing and, 95–96;
maddâh and, 95
Humanism, definitions, 54–55
Humanity:
community and, 501;
interconnected/interdependence of, 487, 498;
sociological expression of, 521
Human spirit, 72–73;
capacities of, 88–89;
culture and, 73;
protection and development of, 74;
reality of, 76
Humors, balance/imbalance of, 372;
music and, 373
Huygens, Christian, 208–209
Hypnotic effect, Baluchi healing ritual, 379–381
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system:
glucocorticoids in, 431–432;
regulation, 432;
relaxation and, 419;
SNS and, 432;
stress-response and, 429–435
Ida, 321
and AIDS Concern
Idioms:
behavior, 289–290;
defined, 287;
expression, 288;
instrumental, 287–291;
music
therapy, 287–291;
vocal, 287–291
IgA, 436
Illness. see Disease/illness
Immersive Media Environments (IME), 446–447, 447f
Immune system:
challenges in, music research and, 425–426;
function, 435–436;
IgA and, 436;
music research and, 435–436;
positive emotional states and, 319–320
Immunomodulation, 432
Imperialism, 503–505;
capitalism/materialism and, 505–506;
cultural, 505;
history of, 503;
impact of, 503;
music appreciation and, 515
Improvisation:
child-directed, 474–476;
modes, 273;
Music-Play Project, 466–467;
music therapy, 267–269, 272;
music therapy, factors influencing, 299, 299f;
styles, 273;
vocal, 269, 275
India, raga system of music in, 395
Individual, 11
Individualism, 505
Ineffability, 312
Inner life:
civilizing process and, 84–86;
inner models and, 89
Institutionalization:
community identity and, 240;
transcending limitations of, 239–240. see also Hospital settings; Nursing homes
Instruments:
Baluchi healing, case study, 379–384;
E-WoMP, 465–466, 469;
gamelan beleganjur, 251–252, 252f;
idioms, 287–291;
Islamic culture, 363–364;
music therapy, 288, 289f, 294–295;
Warao, 343
Integrated Development Activities and AIDS Concern (IDAAC), 176–177
Integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine (ICAM), 3
Interconnectedness, 413;
education and, 512;
Lakota and, 487, 498
Interdisciplinary musical approaches, 5–6
Intersense modalities, 345
Ironson, Gail, 36
Ironson-Wood Spirituality/Religiousness (SR) index, 438
Isan:
dance patterns of, 154–156;
flexibility represented in healing of, 150, 157, 157f;
musical healing in, 150–158
Isimoi, 343
Islamic culture:
Arabo-Andalusian nuba, 365–366;
instruments, 363–364;
interpersonal/objective approaches to music therapy in, 365–366;
medical ethnomusicologyʼs contribution to, 370–371;
music evoking specific states and, 364–365;
music therapy, 362–366;
therapeutic dimensions of music in, 361–392
Ismaʼili, 118n 8
“Iso” principle, entrainment v., 423–424
Java:
gamelan, 266;
music of, 270;
music therapy, 270
Jazz music:
creolization and, 530;
flexibility, 138–139;
flexibility, shifts and, 134–135;
reactive dance and, 145
Jewish Home:
activities, 222;
“Chanukah Tonight,” 235–236;
community music in, 234–237;
dance at, 221;
dedicating the synagogue, 240–242;
music and arts activities scheduled at, 220;
religious identity and, 236;
songwriting at, 218–244;
songwriting at, case studies, 226–234;
“You Take Me as I Am,” 236–237
Juegos, 348, 354
Kaen, 150–151, 151f, 152f155f;
ââ rods in, 156–157;
patterns, 152–153, 154;
playing, 156–157
Kanobo, 351–352
Kanobo arima, 349
Kanobotuma, 351–352
Kanobowitu, 351–352
Kaufman-Shelemay, Kay, 16n 2
Kemler, Deanna, 39n 11
Khalifa, 108
Khalife, 386
Kinetic effect, Baluchi healing ritual, 379–381
King, Rachel, 173–174
(p. 548) Kitwood, Tom, 194–196;
personhood model, 467
Knowledge, 75
Koen, Benjamin, 48;
Beyond the Roof of the World: Music, Prayer, and Healing in the Pamir Mountains, 9–10;
“spiritual aesthetic,” 312
Korean shamanic ceremonies, 324–325
Kreasi beleganjur, 263n 7
Laderman, Carol, 8–9
Lai, 154
Lai nooy, 154
Lai yai, 154
Lakota:
children, 497–498;
dancing, 488;
disease/illness viewed by, 484;
health/healing beliefs in, 483, 485;
mitakuye oyasin, 484, 495;
Taku škanš kan, 483–484, 487–488;
unity and, 484;
wakanheja, 497–498;
world of circle and, 531–532;
worldview, 495
Lakota Elk Dreamer Society, 485;
Hoop Dance and, 486
Lakota Hoop Dance:
childrenʼs response to, 497;
cycles, 489–490;
earth model in, 497, 498f;
flowers and trees in, 492–494, 492f;
hoop archetype in, 486–487;
hoops in, 489–490;
more hoops in, 492–494, 492f;
one hoop in, 490;
oneness and, 485–486;
performance, 491;
prayer and, 486–487;
seamless movement in, 499n 4;
social healing with, 482–499;
star and eagle in, 494, 494f;
sun and moon in, 491;
symbols in, 489–490;
traditional arts and
cultural transcendence in, 495–496;
two hoops in, 491;
unity and, 484–485;
walking portion of, 491
Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF), 449, 452
Lancingan, 259
Langer, Suzanne, 29
Languages:
ASDs, 463;
Austroasiatic, 39n 2;
autism, 463–465, 467;
dementia and deterioration of, 208;
HIV/AIDS and shift in, 164;
Malaysian, 39n 2;
musical healing, 35–36;
music as universal, 13;
Temiar, 39n 2
Law of similars:
applying, 408;
homeopathic
medicine, 372, 393;
music and, 393
Learning:
in academy, 508–513;
holistic methods of, 512. see also Teaching-learning dynamic
Levels:
applying the concept of, 407;
musical, 406–407
Lévi-Strauss, Claude:
magical healing and, 357;
power of opposites and, 358;
sound symbolism defined by, 348–349
Lifescapes, 448;
on-line gallery/bedside art, 454, 454t
Life transition, music therapy, 213
Lithe rod, 137, 138;
dance flexibility and, 145
Local styles:
diversity of, 292;
music therapy, 291–295
Lock, Margaret, 40n 27
Love, 77
Lyrâ, 371
Lyrics, 32–33;
HIV/AIDS-related, 177–178;
impact of, 80;
shamanic, 351
Maddâh, 93–94;
attention focused in, 105–106;
baraka and, 104–105;
cultural associations, 116;
ECG studies, 109;
experiment, 111–112;
Godʼs will expressed through, 107;
HCP underlying, 95;
healing through, 104–105;
meaning of, 105;
music, prayer, healing in, 97;
poetry and, 98, 101;
prayer forms in, 101, 108;
quantum level, 107–108;
rhythmic structure of, 108
Maddâhkhâns, 103
Majapahit, 249
Malarkey, William, 103
Malaysia:
languages of, 39n 2;
musical ethnography, 20;
music in, 9
“Malignant social psychology,” 196, 468, 501
Malpal, 258–259
Materialism, 505–506;
imperialism and, 503
Mazo, Margarita, 16n 2, 117n 6
Meaning, 398–399;
emotion and, 399
Medical anthropology, 4, 24
Medical ethnomusicology, 3–4, 24, 304–305;
cultural rememory and, 172–177;
dementia, research implications for, 197–198;
discourse in, 173;
fieldwork difficulties in, 37, 38f;
future of, 37–38;
HIV/AIDS in Uganda and, 164–183;
intersense modalities, 345;
music therapy and, 302–305;
nursing home, 223–225;
performance arts and, 40n 28;
questions in, 37–38;
relationships and, 4;
research, 5;
roots, 265
Medical humanities, 3
Medications:
dementia, 188;
flexibility, 147;
pediatric, 444;
side effects, 188, 445
Medicine:
in healing ceremonies, 22, 22f;
medical (term) and, 13;
music, culture and, 3–16;
sectors in realms of, 25f. see also Music, medicine and healing
Meditation:
“compassion,” 318;
disease states benefiting from, 311;
Eastern culture and, 321;
flexibility shifts and, 134–135;
HRV and, 320–321;
music and, 6;
music as form of, 97;
music-prayer dynamics model and, 100, 102f;
Meditative attention, 105–106
Meditative mind, 312;
music and, 308–327;
mystical states and, 318–319
Meditative states:
benefits of, 311;
brain-wave patterns, 317–318;
EEG, 317–319;
hemispheric neurological coherence, 319–320;
music and, 312–313, 316, 319;
neurological correlates of, 317–321
Meetings with Remarkable Men (Gurdjieff), 367
Melisma, 23
(p. 549) Melodic expression:
cognitive function and, 283–284;
music therapy and guiding, 283
Melody:
Baluchi, 384–385;
fixed, balungan and, 282–287;
guâti-damâli, 385;
music therapy, 275;
nature, classification of, 372
Memory:
HIV/AIDS, 169–170;
music used to trigger, 182;
narrative, 167;
performance of, 166, 175–176;
as social process, 166;
Memory books, 177–180;
musicʼs role in, 179–180;
for orphaned children, 177–180;
sections, 179
Memory Project, 177, 183n 4;
NACWOLA and, 178–179
Memukur, 260, 263n 8
Mental health, religion and, 47–48, 61–64;
Mentally ill, samâʿ and, 375
Mental retardation:
balungan and, 283;
music therapy, 271, 277
Merriam, Alan:
Anthropology of Music, The, 224;
music model of, 219, 224
Mesa, 334–336;
Curanderoʼs, 348;
zones, 336
Metacognition, 159n 2
Meter, 27;
flexibility patterns and, 134
Metzger, Deena, 326
Middle Eastern cultures, 519–520
Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), 186–187
Mirs, 103
Misogynous music, aggressive behavior and exposure to, 79
Mitakuye oyasin, 484, 495
Moksa, 262n 3
Monâjât, 98
Moral authenticity, 83–84
Morphic resonance, 315
Morphogenic fields, 314–315;
electrical evidence of, 315–316
Motivation, music appreciation and, 527–530
MTV, 81–82. see also Music videos
Muhusemoi, 343
Munâjât, 108
Musa, Mutebi, 174–176
Muscular tension, 142–143
Music:
affective power of, 29;
African American slave, 87;
aggression and, AD patient, 189;
ANS and, 414;
premature infant studies in, 416;
applications, 276;
ASDs and, 262;
Balinese, 248–250, 262;
behavioral factors, 426–427;
body and effects of, 371–374, 376;
body system response to, 424–429;
chakra energy flow and, 322;
children and effect of, 86–87;
clinical relevance of, 419–420;
comfort associated with, 204;
composition, 225;
conception of, 225;
consciousness states induced by, 423;
cremation
ritual, 248, 259–260;
cultural components in, 13;
cultural context, 6, 13;
cultural memory and, 165–168;
cultures and use of, 309;
dementia, effect
of interventions in, 197–198;
dualism of, 349;
Eastern, 6;
electrodermal responses to, 414;
emotion and, 30, 373–374, 383–384, 407, 422–423;
energy of, 405;
“ethnic,” 515;
European, 515–516;
as flexibility primer, 522;
as food for the soul, 371;
form, 33;
frequencies, 364, 369;
generalizability, 419–420;
health and, 410–440;
health and, complexities of, 412;
hemispheric neurological coherence, 319–320, 411;
HIV/AIDS communication through, 168;
as homeopathic medicine, 408–409;
homeopathy and, 393–409;
homeopsychotherapy and, 394;
humors, balance/imbalance and, 373;
individual and effect of, 373;
individual responses to, 421;
inspiration through, 87;
in Islamic culture, therapeutic dimensions of, 361–392;
Javanese, 270;
Jewish Home community, 234–237;
law of similars and, 393;
levels, 406–407;
live, 421;
magical effect of, 382;
meaning and emotion conveyed through, 29;
medical setting, 415;
medicine, culture and, 3–16;
as meditation, 97;
meditation combined with, 6;
meditative mind and, 308–327;
meditative state and, 312–313, 316, 319;
memory books and role of, 179–180;
memory triggered with, 182;
Merriamʼs model of, 219, 224;
mistakes in, 472;
mood/emotion and
response to, 422–423;
musicotextual triggers, 32–33;
music therapy, 273;
mysteries of, 437–439;
mystical states induced by, 319;
naming, 407;
neurohormones and effects of, 415;
objective, 367;
pain and, 428;
patterns, 405;
pediatric mental/behavioral health and impact of, 79;
performance of, 224;
personal association with, 363;
physical and spiritual connected by, 172;
physiologic changes and, 430;
pilot studies, 419;
PLST application of, 193–194;
power of, 361, 378;
prayer combined with, 6, 9–10, 99–102;
psychological effects of, 414–424;
psychological factors, 426–427;
pulse, 279;
pulselike behaviors and, 278;
racism and, 525;
raga, 395;
“relaxing,” 419;
religious, 63;
rememory and, 182;
research and axis of, 27–28;
sectors in realms of, 25f;
sense of community and, 219;
shamanism, healing and, in South America, 331–359;
SNS and, 416, 430;
specific states evoked by, 364–365;
spiritual forces evoked by, 376;
spirituality and, 220–221;
stereotypes, 85–86;
stimulating effects of, 370;
stress and interventions with, 116–117;
Temiar ceremonial, 27, 28;
as term, 36;
therapeutic nature of, 7;
therapeutic power of, 372–374;
trances, 371;
transcendence through, 241;
transformational power of, 12, 28;
traumatic-memory work and, 167–172;
as “universal language,” 13;
vibrations, 405;
vital force and, 394, 405;
western, 6;
worship and, 99;
young people and role of, 79–84. see also Interdisciplinary musical approaches; Songwriting; specific types
(p. 550) Music, AD and:
healing process, 185–198;
research on, problems with, 190–191;
SNS effects and, 430
Musical axis, 27–28
Musical behavior, 278
Musical ethnography, 24;
healing and, 21–22;
Temiar people, 20
Musical expression, 276, 278, 301;
factors influencing, 285;
Music-Play Project and, 472–473;
music therapy and, 280;
personal style and, 301–302
Musical modulation, 35–37
Music analgesia, 428
Music appreciation, 515–516, 534;
curriculum, 517;
disproportionate weight given in, 515;
equality, 515, 516f, 517f;
“ethnic”music and, 515;
European music and, 515–516;
imperialism and, 515;
racism and, 525;
“windows” for, selecting, 523–527
Music as Medicine (Horden), 7–8
“Music Child,” 271
Music, effects of, 405;
aesthetic, 383–384;
factors influencing, 382;
ritualizing, 374–376;
spiritual, 383–384
Music healing, 12, 18–19;
dynamics of, 20;
in everyday life, 32–34;
field theory and, 323–326;
fourfold framework and, 29;
indigenous systems of, 35, 308, 467;
in Isan, 150–158;
language, 35–36;
questions in, 37–38;
research in, 13;
rituals, 19;
scientific basis for, 409;
testing, 37–38;
traditional/traditions, 149;
Tumbuka, 149–150;
universal recognition of, 394. see also Sociomusical healing
Music healing ceremonies, 22, 22f, 100;
psychological flexibility and, 147–158
Musician, musicʼs effect and, 382
Musician-patient relationship, 365, 374
Music interventions, 4–5;
for cognitive performance, 190;
in dementia, 192;
noninstitutional settings of, 190
“Music, Medicine, and Culture:
Medical Ethnomusicology and Global Perspectives on Health and Healing,” 38, 46
Music, medicine and healing:
scholarship on, 7–10;
theoretical models for, 10–12
Music-mind-body connections, 437–439
Music-Play Project, 462, 465–467;
childrenʼs musical expression in, 472–473;
E-WoMP, 465–466;
form, 472;
improvisation, 466–467;
musical mistakes and, 472;
parent participation in, 466, 472;
sense of levity in, 473
Music-prayer dynamics model, 100, 101f;
meditation in, 100, 102f
Music, prayer, healing, 97
Music-prayer-meditation dynamics:
experimentations in, 109–117;
in healing, 93–118;
Pamiri, 96–97
Music research, 5–6, 13;
behavioral factors, 426–427;
collaboration in, 416;
constructs for, defining, 420;
culture and, 419, 421;
defining terms in, 421;
designs for, 418–419;
factors explored in, 421;
flaws in, 415;
fourfold framework for cross-cultural, 18–41;
immune system function and, 435–436;
modern, 411;
music used in, 420–421;
predictability in, 411–412;
psychological effects and, 414–424;
psychological factors, 426–427;
psychological measures, 425–426;
pure v. applied, 417–418;
technology and, 416–417;
worldview and, 421
Music therapy, 7, 312;
AD, 189;
AD, case study, 203–204;
applications, 272;
behaviors occurring during, 277, 280;
caregiver, dementia, 214–215;
challenges, 412;
colotomy, 276–282;
consciousness and, 374;
cortisol levels and, 432;
efficient, 374;
form, 279;
geriatric population, 223–224;
Hoodʼs Nine Levels applied to, 265–307;
Hoodʼs Nine Levels applied to, method of, 271;
improvisation, 267–269, 272;
improvisation, factors influencing, 299, 299f;
individual and influence of, 363, 373;
individualized assessment and, 412;
instruments used in, 288, 289f, 294–295;
Islamic culture, 362–366;
Javanese, 270;
life transition, 213;
local style, 291–295;
medical ethnomusicology and, 302–303, 304–305;
melodic expression guided in, 283;
melody, 275;
mental retardation, 271, 277;
mode, 272–276;
music, 273;
musical expression, 280;
nonambulatory patient, 213;
personal style, 297–298;
pitch, 272, 274;
popularity of, 412;
practice, 19;
premature
infant, 415–416;
process, 276–277, 373;
question-answer structure, 270;
residents' experience in, 300;
responding, 288–289;
roots, 265;
scholarship on, 7;
scientific approach to, 368–369;
self-expression and, 277–278;
services, variables associated with, 266;
social interactions restored with, 209–212;
staffing, 295;
stratification, 279;
studies, 271;
success in, 286;
therapeutic value, 284;
tonality, 273–274;
treatments, design of, 412;
tuning, 272–276;
Music therapy, dementia, 206–208;
caregivers and, 214–215;
family involvement in, 213;
future of, 215–216;
research implications for, 197–198
Music therapy, idioms, 290;
instrumental, 287–291;
vocal, 287–291
Music therapy research, 303, 437–438;
collaboration and, 439;
outcomes, 439
Music therapy sessions, 268–269;
behavior during, 297;
considerations for, 294;
Creative Music Therapy and, 291;
group, 269, 280, 296–297
(p. 551) Music videos:
industry, 78;
influence of, 81;
pornographic ideology in, 81–84
Musiqiye darmâni, 98
Musiqiye dini, 98
Musiqiye rohâni, 98
Musiqiye shafâi, 98
Musiqiye tasavofi, 98
Muteeba, Jackson, 176
Mystical states:
meditative mind and, 318–319;
musically induced, 319;
neurological correlates of, 317–321;
therapeutic benefits of, 313
Mystics, 309
Nadis, 321
Nafs, 105
Nahanamu, 343
Naming:
Curandero and, 347;
healing and, 347;
music and, 407
Narrative memory, 167
National Association for Music Therapy, 266
National Community of Women Living with AIDS (NACWOLA), 177–179
Natrum carbonicum:
feeling related to, 403;
rubrics, 402
Natural killer (NK) cells:
cytotoxicity, 435;
as psychological measures, 425;
stress and, 435
Nature:
flexibility and, 153–154;
Temiar music and, 29–30, 31f;
unity within, 495
Naturum muriaticum, Bhairavi linked to, 401
Nervous system:
positive emotional states and, 319–320. see also Autonomic nervous system; Sympathetic nervous system
Neurocardiology, 320
Neurohormones, music effects on, 415
Neurologic music therapy (NMT), 415
neuroplasticity, 96
New England Sound Healers, 35
Ngaben, 247, 253–254;
beleganjur music in processions of, 253–254;
gamelan beleganjur in, 260–261;
procession, 256–257;
rituals of, commencement of, 255
Nganga, 326
Ngoma, 9
NK cells. see Natural killer cells
Nocebo effect, 464
Nodding, Nel, 474
“No More Drama” (Blige), 32–34;
form/structure, 33;
referential/nonreferential features, 32
Nong, 25
Nuba, 365–366
Nursing homes:
AD patients in, 188–189;
community in, 221–223;
cultural space in, 221–223;
ethnomusicology of, 223–225;
F-tags, 222;
homelike model of care in, 222;
legislation, 222;
model, 222;
residents of, 243n 5. see also Jewish Home
Nursing homes, songwriting in, 218–244;
functional limitations and, 226;
medical treatments done during, 230
Oneness, 483;
Hoop Dance and, 485–486
Opposites, power of, 358
Ownership, 506–507
P-2-P Mentorship videos. see Patient-to-Patient Mentorship videos
Pain:
assessments, 455;
environment enhancement and, 457;
music and, 428;
reports, 458
Palliative care, 445
Pamiri people:
experiment, 111–112;
healers, 103–104;
healing practices of, ethnography and, 109;
maddâh, 93–94;
music/prayer and, 9–10;
music-prayer-healing matrix, 96–97;
religious music, 93–94
Pathologies:
ASDs, 461–462;
flexibility and, 142–143;
psychological flexibility and, 125
Patient-to-Patient (P-2-P) Mentorship videos, 449, 449f
Patterns:
brain-wave, meditative state, 317–318;
clothing, 156;
dance, in Isan, 154–156;
kaen, 152–153;
musical, 405
Patterns, flexibility, 132, 141–142, 154–156;
alternating, 134;
interlocking, 133;
juxtaposed, 133;
layered, 133;
morphing, 133–134;
sequential, 133–134;
simultaneous, 132–133
Pediatric mental/behavioral health:
art, culture
and, 72–92;
contemporary culture and, 77–78;
hospitalization and, 455;
musicʼs impact on, 79;
rate of illness in, 78;
sexual socialization and, 82
Pediatric palliative care for children and adolescents, 455
People with AIDS Development Association (PADA), 180
Performance:
arts, medical ethnomusicology and, 40n 28;
Lakota Hoop Dance, 491;
music, 224
Performance of Healing, The (Laderman, Roseman), 8–9
Performative axis, 28–29
Periodicity, 279
Personal style, 297–298, 301;
musical expression
and, 301–302;
music therapy, 297–298
Personhood, 467–469;
autism and, 467;
consciousness, 461–479;
dementia and, 467, 473;
dialogic interaction and, 471–473;
ethics and, 468;
model, 467;
social psychology and, 468;
theory of, 462;
transcendence and, 468;
undermined, 468
Persuasion and Healing (Frank), 32–33
(p. 552) Peru:
Curanderos of, 334–336;
Curanderismo, 334–335;
curing ritual of Northern Coastal, 354–356;
desencanto, 334–336;
encanto, 334–336;
hallucinogens used by, 335, 345;
mesa, 334–336;
Northern desert people of, 331–332;
shamans, 309, 332;
tarjos, 344–346
Physical flexibility:
psychological flexibility and, 123–124, 123f;
religious practices and, 145;
yoga and, 144
Physical release, 378
Physics, laws of, 314
Physiological coherence, 320
Physiological mechanisms, sound interaction with, 35
Physiology, 94;
music and changes in, 430
PIERS model, 103, 117n 3;
maddâh healing and, 104
Pilot studies, 419
Pingala, 321
Pirs, 103
Pitch, 27;
music therapy, 272, 274;
precision, 366;
vocalizations and, 306n 29;
Warao music and, 343–344
Placebo effect, 11;
ASD, 464
Poetry:
maddâh and, 98, 101;
prayer and, 98;
songwriting structure and, 233–234
Pokok, 252
Ponggang, 252
Positive affective states, 323
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), 427
Positive person work (PPW), 196
Possession, 374–376;
individual sensitivity to, 380;
paganism and, 375–376;
trances and, 387–388
Prayer, 68–69;
categories, 98;
doctor-patient relationship and, 66, 68;
health and influence of, 68–69;
Lakota Hoop Dance and, 482, 486–487;
maddâh forms of, 108;
music and, 6, 9–10;
music and, dynamics of, 99–102;
poetry and, 98, 101;
practice, 98;
Premature infants, music therapy for, 415–416. see also Children
Presence, 374–376;
religion and, 375
Preventive medicine:
atma care and, 257–259;
principles of, 247
Profile of Mood States (POMS), 427
Progressively lowered stress threshold theory (PLST):
AD, 193;
limitations, 194;
music application in, 193–194;
stressors, 193
Psychological disorders. See specific disorders
Psychological effects:
Baluchi healing ritual, 385;
music, 414–424
Psychological factors, music influence on, 426–427
Psychological flexibility, 122, 149;
ANS correlates of, 130;
anxiety and, 131;
attention-set, 128–129, 160n 6;
autism, 471;
brain state and, 130–131;
cognitive, 125–127;
cultural, 136f, 137;
culturepromoted, 136, 158–159;
emotional, 127;
emotional-switch, 127–128;
metaphors/proverbs, 139;
music-based healing ritual, 147–158;
pathology and, 125;
physical flexibility and, 123–124, 123f;
promoting, 131–134, 136, 158–159;
set shifting in, 124–125;
somatic flexibility subtypes and, 131;
subskills, 139–140;
triphasic structure of, 124–125;
types of, 124, 125–129, 126f
Psychological healing, 148–149
Psychological measures:
body fluid, 426;
choosing, 426;
enumerative, 425;
functional, 425;
music research, 425–426;
NK cell, 425
Psychology:
malignant, 468, 501;
social, personhood and, 468
Psychoneuroendocrinimmunology, 413
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), 424
Psychophysiology of stillness, 311–313
Psychosocial maturation, 83
Pulsatilla, 399
Pulse:
identifying/establishing, 281–282;
musical, 279
Pulselike behaviors, 278
Pythagoras, myth/power of sound and, 366–368
Pythagorean theories, 373
Qodrat, 117
Questions:
cultural diversity, 521;
open-end, 418;
research, 418
Racism, 525–527;
imperialism and, 503;
music and, 525;
rap culture and, 85
Ragas, 395;
Bhairavi, 400, 401;
culture and efficacy of, 397–398;
Darbari, 397, 399–400, 401;
Dhira Shankarabharanam, 398–399;
emotional states and, 396;
homeopathic remedies related to, 399–400;
homeopathic remedies related to, systematic approach and, 401–404;
individual response to, 398;
intellectual knowledge of, 398;
meaning and, 398–399;
performance intensity and, 400–401;
provers, 403;
proving, 397;
proving, culture and, 398–399;
as remedies, 396–397;
rubrics and, 402;
specificity of, comparing/testing, 397;
Yaman, 402
Rain songs, 370
Rap music:
aggression and, 79;
effects of, 72;
lyrics in, 79;
nonviolent, 80;
psychosocial maturation and, 83;
racism and impact of, 85;
sexually violent, 79;
substance use and, 79. see also Gangsta rap
Rebab, 268
(p. 553) Referent, 276
Referential/nonfererential features:
meaning, 39n 15;
“No More Drama,” 32
Reggae music, 79
Relaxation:
assessing, 430;
body systems involved in, 419;
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system and, 419;
music and, 419;
physical, 215;
SNS and, 419
Religion:
age and, 56, 56f;
“Attendance,” 56;
“Belief in God,” 56;
catastrophic events and, 58–59;
coping and, 49, 50, 57–61, 57f;
decision making and, 61;
definitions, 54–55;
depression and, 50, 53;
doctor-patient relationship and, 66–69;
European music origins and, 516;
flexibility and, 145–146;
guidance and, 61;
healing and, 46–70;
“Importance,” 56;
medical care and incorporating, 49;
“Membership,” 56;
mental health and, 47–48, 61–64, 61f;
music in, 63;
physical health and, 61–64;
presence and, 375;
sacredness and, 513;
sense of “control” and, 59–60;
songwriting and, 240;
spirituality distinction from, 54;
stress caused by, 69–70;
survival and, 47, 57–61, 64;
tolerance, 69;
trust in God and, 60;
value, 69;
Religion, health and, 47, 63f, 64;
attention paid to, 62, 62f;
behaviors of, 63–64;
relationship between, 51;
research agenda for, 48–50
Religion research, 47–48, 61f;
collaboration and, 53;
obstacles, 51–52;
program development for, 51–53;
publishing and interrelated, 53;
resistance to, 48, 52
Religious identity, Jewish Home, 236
Religious practices, flexibility and, 145–146
Rememory:
concept of, 183n 1;
cultural memory and, 168, 171–172;
globalized cultural context, 173;
medical ethnomusicology and, 172–177;
music and, 182
Research:
AD and music, problems with, 190–191;
agenda, developing, 48–49;
applied, 417–418;
ASD, 462, 464;
boundaries, 26;
ethnography design of, 26, 26f;
ethnomusicology, 5;
fieldwork difficulties, 37, 38f;
funding and, 51–53;
healing modalities, 4;
pilot studies, 419;
predicting outcomes in, 411–412;
program, developing, 51–53;
pure, 417–418;
questions, 418;
spiritual and religious terminology in, 54–55;
theory, 24
Research, collaboration, 416;
music therapy, 439;
religion and, 51–53
Research, dementia, 194;
ethnomusicology, 197–198;
music therapy, 197–198
Research, fourfold framework, 27–32, 29f;
axes, 27–32;
biomedical axis in, 29, 30f, 31f;
sociocultural axis in, 28–29
Research, music, 5–6, 13;
behavioral factors, 426–427;
collaboration in, 416;
constructs for, defining, 420;
culture and, 419, 421;
defining terms in, 421;
designs for, 418–419;
factors explored in, 421;
flaws in, 415;
fourfold framework for cross-cultural, 18–41;
immune system function and, 435–436;
modern, 411;
music used in, 420–421;
predictability in, 411–412;
psychological effects of, 414–424;
psychological factors, 426–427;
psychological measures, 425–426;
technology and, 416–417;
worldview and, 421
Research, music therapy, 271, 303, 437–438;
collaboration and, 439;
outcomes, 439
Research, religion, 47–48;
collaboration and, 51–53;
obstacles, 51–52;
publishing and interrelated, 53;
resistance to, 48, 52
“Response-ability,” 474–476
Reyong, 252
Rhythm, 28;
chaos, 325;
configuration, 33;
disease and, 325;
healing through, 325–326;
movements synchronized with, 208–209;
nature, classification of, 372;
neurobiological aspects of, 304;
shamanic rituals and, 316–317;
TaKeTiNa, 325;
Tumbuka musical healing, 150
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), 415;
dementia and effects of, 211
Rituals:
Balinese, 247, 249, 251;
healing process, 377, 377f;
musical healing, 19;
musicʼs effect and, 374–376;
Temiar performance and, 31. see also Cremation rituals; Shamanic rituals
Robertson, Carolina, 24–25
Roseman, Marina:
Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest, 9, 20;
Performance of Healing, The, 8–9
Rubâb, 102
Ruh/jân, 105
Rurub kajeng, 259
“Sacred clinical reality,” 15, 94, 172
Sacred illness, 325
Sacredness, 513–514
Sacred space:
classroom as, 513–514;
E-WoMP, 469–471;
world music classroom, 500–537
Saih selisir, 263n 10
Samâʿ 105–106;
mentally ill and, 375
Santur, 362, 368
Savassana, 311
Save the Children, 179–180
Sekehe gong, 249
Self-expression, 277–278
Self-images, cognitive flexibility and ideal, 141
Sensate culture, 85
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, cultural healing and, 518–520
Setâyesh, 108
Sexual attitudes/practices, HIV/AIDS and, 83;
in Uganda, 168
(p. 554) Sexual socialization, pediatric mental/behavioral health and, 82
Shamanic illness, 325, 357
Shamanic rituals, 8;
African, 326;
animal symbolism and, 354–356;
consciousness and, 316–317;
cultural context, 349;
Korean, 324–325;
rhythm and, 316–317
Shamanic rituals, curing in:
anatomy of two contrasting, 349–356;
Peruvian, Northern Coastal, 354–356;
Warao, 349–353
Shamanic states, 316–317
Shamanism:
anthropology, 316;
contextualized, 332;
defined, 332;
music, healing and, in South America, 331–359
Shamanism, healing and, 331–359;
singing in, 343–346;
successful, 357
Shamans:
healing power, 347–349;
lyrics, 351;
musical instruments, 337;
nonspeech forms of communication, 336;
Peruvian, 309;
Peruvian, types of, 332;
singing, 392n 36;
supernatural communication and, 357–358;
trance induction by, 336;
Warao, types of, 332;
Yakut, 316–317
Shands Childrenʼs Hospital (SCH), 451
Shands Hospital Bone Marrow Transplant Unit (BMTU), 452
Sickness, cultural effects on, 4
Singerʼs Emotional Experiences Scale (SEES), 428–429
Singing:
collective, 389;
Peruvian tarjos and, 346;
psychological disorders and, 389n 1;
shamanic, 392n 36;
shamanistic healing and role of, 343–346
Social interaction:
AD and, 209–212;
autism and, 474;
dementia and, 209–212;
music therapy and restoring, 209–212;
sociomusical, 476;
ToP model and, 196
Society:
arts and future of, 86–90;
human orders, 74
Sociocultural axis, 28–29
Sociocultural process, spiritually informed, 76
Sociology:
Humanityʼs expression in, 521;
religion research and, 53
Sociomusical healing:
ASDs and, 461–479;
interaction in, 476
Somatic flexibility, 129–131;
anxiety and, 131, 160n 12;
joint, 129–130;
psychological flexibility subtypes and, 131
Songs:
exorcism, 370;
halaaʼ, 23;
rain, 370
Songs, spirit:
guâti-damâli, 376;
Temiar people, 23
Songwriting:
behavioral features, 229–230;
case studies, 226–234;
cognitive function and, 226;
at the Jewish Home, 218–244;
poetic structure and, 233–234;
process, 225–226, 228;
religion and, 240;
secular, 226;
transcending boundaries of an institution and, 227–239
Songwriting in nursing homes, 218–244;
functional limitations and, 226;
medical treatments done during, 230
Songwriting, sacred, 226, 240–242;
case study of, 231–234
Sootsanaen, 154
Sound:
cinceem, 23;
effect produced by, 365–366;
gamelan beleganjur, 250–253;
hebu-mataro rattle, 337;
myth/power of, 366–368;
physiological mechanism interaction with, 35;
scientific effects of, 368–369;
symbolism, 348–349
South America:
Peruvian desert people, 331–332;
shamanism, music and healing in, 331–359;
Warao Amerindians of Venezuela, 331–332
Spirit songs:
guâti-damâli, 376;
Temiar people, 23
Spiritual health, 65
Spiritual history, 65–66;
doctor-patient relationship and, 66–67;
taking, 65
Spirituality, 94;
arts and concept of, 74–77;
dance and, 488;
definitions, 54–55;
expressing own, 67;
healing and, 46–70;
homeopathy and, 409;
of life, 483;
manifestations of, 75;
music and, 220–221, 383–384;
music connecting physicality and, 172;
religion distinction from, 54;
sacredness and, 513;
sociocultural process informed by, 76. see also Ironson-Wood Spirituality/Religiousness index
Square, world of, 530–532;
thinking within, 532–533
SR index. see Ironson-Wood
Spirituality/Religiousness index
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 427
Stereotypes:
cultural, 519;
musical, 85–86
Sternheimer, Joel, 369
Strata, 279
Stratification, 279, 306n 32
Stress:
assessing, 430;
Badakhshan healing and, 111–117;
brain damage degree and, 194;
cortisol and, 434;
glucocorticoids and, 432;
HPA axis and response to, 429–435;
musical intervention, 116–117;
NK cells and, 435;
PLST and managing, 193;
reduction, 116;
religion as, 69–70;
Stress, AD:
caregivers and, 188;
family members and, 202–204;
patient threshold for dealing with, 193
Stress, caregiver, 214–215;
AD, 188
Substance use, music and, 79
Subtle energetic body, 321–322
Sufism, 374–375
Suling, 268
Survival, religion and, 57–61, 64
Sushumna, 321
Symbolism, 524;
chungana rattle design, 342;
circle, 531–532;
gamelan beleganjur, 250–253;
Hoop Dance, 489–490;
seasonal change and, 489;
sound, 348–349
Symbolism, animal:
Curanderos, 354–356;
dualism balanced by, 356
(p. 555) Symbolism, hoop, 489–490;
flowers and trees, 492–494, 492f;
star and eagle, 494, 494f;
sun and moon, 491
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS):
AD patients and, 430;
“fight-or-flight” response in, 430;
HPA and, 432;
music and, 416;
products of, 430;
relaxation and, 419;
stress-response, 429–435
Symptom-reporting system, 454;
online, 458
Synchronization, 106
Synesthesia, 311, 346
Systolic blood pressure (SBP), 111;
ANOVA and, 114t;
Badakhshan healing and difference in, 112, 113f;
comparison tests for, 115t, 116t
Tabuh, 251
Tabuh gilak, 251
Tai chi, 311
Tajikistan, Pamir Mountain region of, 93
TaKeTiNa, 325
Taku škanškan, 483–484, 487–488;
dynamic animating force of, 488
Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center (TBPAC), 452
Tanbur, 363–364
Tardive dyskinesia, 188
Tarjos:
Curandero, 344–346;
singing and, 346;
whistling and, 346
Tayil, 24–25
TB. see Tuberculosis
Teaching:
in academy, 508–513;
culture and, 511;
holistic methods of, 512;
improving, 511
Teaching-learning dynamic, 509;
outcomes and, 509–510
Technology:
arts and, 444–459;
HeArts & Hope plan for, 449–451;
virtual-reality, 457
Techno music, 79
Temiar people:
healing, 20–26;
language of, 39n 2;
life and music in, 25–26;
meter in ceremonies of, 27;
mourning ceremony, 22–23;
musical ethnography and, 20;
music healers, 20, 21f;
musicomedical ceremonies, 24;
political struggles, 34;
ritual performance, 31;
spirit songs, 23;
treatment protocol, 23–24
Temiar people, ceremonies, 22–23;
healing, 27–28;
meter in, 27;
musicomedical, 24
Temiar people, music of, 9;
emotion in, 30;
natural environment and, 29–30, 31f;
performative manipulations of, 28
Tempo, 27–28
Testing, 510
Thailand, Isan musical healing in, 150–158
Thanatomania, 357
Theology, religion research and, 53
Theories:
healing field, 323–326;
humanities, 11;
music, medicine and healing, 10–12;
physical science, 11;
research, 24
Theory of personhood (ToP) model, 194–195;
social interaction and, 196
Theory of “the hundredth monkey,” 314
Tibet:
healers, 35;
“singing bowls,” 309
Tokamalirawo AIDS Support Group Awareness (TASGA), 174–176
Tonality, 293;
behaviors, 275;
music therapy, 273–274, 275
Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together against AIDS and Other Diseases (THETA), 173–174
Traditional arts, 495–496
Trances:
curative music and, 371;
cure and, 376;
possession and, 387–388;
shamanic, 336;
spirits and, 377;
trembling and, 365;
Western culture and, 381
Transcendence:
cultural, Hoop Dance and, 495–496;
musical, 241;
personhood and, 468
Transcendental meditation (TM):
benefits, 311;
flexibility and, 143–144
Traumatic-memory, 167–172
“Traumatic recall,” 167
Triloka, 254
Truth, 75
Tuberculosis (TB), 175
Tumbuka musical healing, 149–150
Tumbuka people, 9
Uganda:
healers in, 173;
HIV/AIDS in, 9, 164–183
Uganda Network of AIDS Service Organisations (UNASO), 168;
Best Practices, 183n 3
Unity, 484;
in diversity, 12, 529f, 530;
Hoop Dance and, 484–485;
nature, 495
Urban landscape, flexibility and, 146–147, 160n 10
Values, 535n 4;
children and, 74, 78;
indulgence-based societies and, 85;
system of, 78
Verbal expression, flexibility, 139–141
Vibrations:
dervishes and, 367–368;
healing, Eastern culture and, 321;
musical, 405
Vibrato, 23
Video-on-demand (VOD), 448
Vimbuza, 150
Vipassana, 311
Virtual Arts in Medicine (V-AIM), 448–449
Virtual-reality technology, 457
(p. 556) Virtues, universally honored, 74–75
Visual analogue scales (VAS), 447, 447f;
assessment system, 456;
Pearson correlation values, 455t;
standard of care and, 456;
validation/reliability of online, 454–455
Vital force:
balance in, 396;
homeopathic medicine and, 395–396;
music and, 394, 405
Vocalizations, nonpitched, 306n 29
Wadah cremation tower, 257f
Wakanheja, 497–498
Wara, 343–344
Warakitane, 343–344
Warao Amerindians of Venezuela, 331–332;
curing ritual, 349–353;
curing ritual, tools for, 350;
hebu-mataro rattle of, 337–340;
hebu spirits and, 333–334;
instruments, 343;
musical characteristics of, 343–344;
music theory, 343;
naming and healing among, 347;
shamans, types of, 332;
wara and, 343–344;
warakitane performance and, 343–344;
wisiratu, 332–334
Watney, Simon, 181–182
Waveforms, 27
Western culture, 535n 4;
academy of, 501, 504;
imperialism in, 503;
music, 6;
music therapy in, 7;
myth/power of sound and, 368;
tradition of learning in, 73;
trance ability and, 381;
western defined in, 16n 1
Western medicine, 327
Whistling, Peruvian tarjos and, 346
Wingood, Gina, 81
Wisconsin Card Sorting, 130
Wisimo, 333–334
Wisiratu, 332;
hebu-mataro rattle of, 337–340;
hebu spirits and, 333–334;
roles of, 333;
wisimo and, 333–334
Wisiratu, curing sessions, 350;
sections of, 350;
song text in, 352–353
World music classroom, 534;
music appreciation and, 515;
sacred space of, 500–537
World of square/circle, 530–532;
thinking within, 532–533
Worldview, 89–90, 314;
Lakota, 495;
music research and, 421;
ownership/entitlement and, 507;
religion and, 58
Worship, music and, 99
Wrightwood Labs, Inc., 452
Yaman, 402;
feelings related to, 403–404;
provers, 403
Yoga, 149;
flexibility and, 143
Zazen, 311
Zikr, 370
Zyprexa, 188