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date: 03 April 2020

(p. 533) Index

(p. 533) Index

Note: Page numbers in italics indicate tables and charts.

A
absenteeism, 216, 219, 227, 227–29, 241–42, 245, 247
academic achievement, 351
accepting job offers
and job choice research, 62–66
job offer acceptance/rejection, 48
Job Offer Acceptance stage, 68
and person-job (P-J) fit, 354
and person-organization (P-O) fit, 354
and realistic job previews, 428
accessibility-diagnosticity model, 254, 257
accounting systems, 211
achievement, need for, 271
active candidacy, 48
advertising, 269–80
aesthetics of, 277
and audience characteristics, 278–79
and brand building, 347
and communication medium, 277–78
content and design of, 270
and corporate brand visibility, 291
and elaboration likelihood model, 272
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 193, 195, 197, 198
future research in, 279–80
and history of recruitment research, 347
importance of, 270
and influencing the route of persuasion, 289–90
and international recruitment, 407
and message content, 273–74, 276–77
and message source, 272, 275–76
and minority recruitment, 498–504
and organizational attitudes, 269
and person-organization (PO) fit, 270–71
and reconceptualizations of recruitment, 528
and recruitment image, 342
and recruitment outcomes, 272–79
and recruitment research design, 467, 479, 481
and recruitment sources, 216–19, 218, 220, 222, 224, 227–31, 233–34, 236–37, 240–42, 245, 247, 247–48
and recruitment strategy development, 368
and research design for recruitment studies, 196
and signaling theory, 271–72
and social identity theory, 270
and symbolic attributes, 328
and targeted recruitment, 115
theoretical models of job advertisement effects, 270–72
and walk-in applicants, 219
affect in job searching, 126–27, 128–30, 130–32, 135–36
affirmative action, 341, 345, 350–51
affirmative action statements, 276
age
ageism, 98–99, 416
age-related stereotypes, 95
aging workforce, 88
of job seekers, 279
and recruitment sources, 143, 234
and targeted recruitment, 110
and volunteer recruitment research, 81
See also older workers
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), 99
“Agepositive” campaign, 98
agreeableness, 317
alignment of research designs, 189
alternative process theory, 50
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 97–98, 103
America’s Most Admired Companies, 301
analytic models, 4
antecedent-focused approaches, 130
anticipatory emotions, 129
anxiety, 132. See also emotions in job search
apologies, 322, 323, 326
Apple, 300
applicants for jobs
applicant attribution-reaction theory (AART), 36
Applicant Expectation Survey, 42
and application blanks, 200, 204
attraction strategies for, 22
behaviors of, 38
characteristics of, 237–40, 238
decision to apply, 48, 51–60, 237–40, 238, 441–42
and job choice, 7
perceptions of, 36
reactions of, 35–43, 37–38
and the “what” of recruitment, 2
apprenticeships, 149
archetypes, 403
Armed Forces, 529
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), 494
arousal, 127
attitudes of workers
attentional pull, 130
attitudinal variables, 189
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 191
and older workers, 91–92
and social-identity of job seekers, 456
attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model, 165, 178, 271, 439, 443–44, 450
attribution theory framework, 194, 205, 262, 324
audience characteristics, 274–75, 278–79
Australia, 377, 409
B
Baby Boomers, 88–89, 89–90, 284
behavior assessments, 189, 191, 207
Belgian Defense, 352, 371
Belgium, 409
benefits, 96, 309
bias of recruiters, 29
Big-Five personality traits, 345
biodata, 351
boundary theory, 351
BP, 300
brain drain, 96, 102
brands and branding
brand association, 285
brand awareness, 286
brand equity theory, 14
brand image, 279
complex associations about, 286–87
and constructive choice processes, 292–96
consumer brand equity, 285–87
corporate brand visibility, 291–92
and cross-cultural recruitment, 402, 410–11, 412, 418
and employer brand equity, 284–96
future research in, 292–96
and history of recruitment research, 347
and international recruitment research, 410, 411
(p. 534) and negative/positive associations, 293–94, 295–96
and perceptions of job seekers, 289–92
product brand equity, 285
and strategic recruitment, 14, 15, 16
surface associations about, 286–87
and the “what” of recruitment, 3
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 265
Brazil, 412
bridge employment, 91, 94, 101, 102–3
Britain, 98, 408, 409, 412, 415
Buddhism, 415
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 95–96
business strategy, 367
C
Cabela’s, 374
campus recruitment, 205, 247, 372–73, 402, 404, 406–8, 407, 476
Caribou Coffee, 166, 177
Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility, 96–97, 99, 101
Center on Work & Aging, 97
central processing, 23–24, 30, 272, 290–91, 292
channel expansion theory (CET), 387, 389–90
characteristics of applicants, 237–40, 238
China, 404, 406, 408, 409, 410, 412, 415
choice process, 292–94
Christianity, 415
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 382, 392
Cisco, 394
civil service job, 61
climate of organizations, 116, 118
CNA Financial Corporation, 377
Coca Cola Enterprises, 416
coding issues, 188–89
cognitive resources theory, 391
cognitive testing, 200, 351
collectivist cultures, 403, 404, 406, 408–13, 415, 418
college recruitment, 193, 195, 205, 372–73, 472–73, 479. See also campus recruitment
commitment, 146, 147, 149
communication, 28, 277–78, 388, 389
community involvement of organizations, 303
company independent sources, 275
compensation
and corporate social performance, 309
and current state of recruitment research, 530
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 205
and job choice research, 49, 50, 63, 65
and older worker research, 101
and reputation of organization, 300
and research design for recruitment studies, 199
variable pay, 351
competition, hiring from, 346, 369
competitive advantage
and fit research, 449
and reconceptualizations of recruitment, 529
and research on recruitment, 7–10, 8–9
and strategic recruitment, 5, 6–7, 16, 18, 161, 164–65, 169, 170, 178
competitive intelligence, 385
complementary fit concept, 438
confirmation process, 51
conflict resolution, 40
Confucian society, 415
conscientiousness, 354
conservation/deficit psychology, 104
conservation model, 94, 104
constructive choice processes, 292–96
consumer brand equity, 285–87
contagion, emotional, 128, 128, 132, 135–36
contribution measurement, 211–12
convergence, 403–6
coping, 146
core competence, 164–65, 168, 170–71, 177–78
corporate advertising, 196
corporate downsizing, 91
corporate image, 193, 457
corporate social performance (CSP), 298–311
attraction of favorable image, 306–8
effects of, 302–3
and employer brand equity, 301–10
and endorsements, 310
and fit research, 441, 449
future research in, 308–10
generalizabiltiy of, 305–6
impact of, 306
and job advertisements, 272
and later stages of recruitment, 305–6
perception development of, 303–5
and strategic recruitment, 14
third-party ratings of, 303–4
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 3, 82–83, 411
corporate volunteer programs, 82–83
Costco, 165
cost-effectiveness, 154
cost-minimization efforts, 102
cost reduction strategies, 367–68
costs of recruitment, 16
Could Reducing explanations, 326
Cox regression models, 151–52
credibility
and corporate social performance (CSP), 304–5
of organizational information, 270, 374, 387, 394, 395
of recruiters, 24–25
and word-of-mouth recruiting, 253, 253, 254, 255–56, 257, 261–62, 264–65
credit checks, 40
critical contact theory, 23, 25, 30, 49, 59, 61–65
criticisms of recruitment research, 466, 466–67
cronyism, 410
cross-cultural recruitment, 402–18. See also diversity
cross-level fallacies, 10
cross-sectional research, 30, 140, 318–19, 336, 337, 338, 341–42, 448–49, 469, 472, 477, 480, 487, 488
cross-stage research, 469, 469, 470, 473–75, 478
cultural context of recruitment, 402–18
and applicant reactions, 39–40
cross-cultural recruitment, 402–18
cultural distance, 406
cultural stereotypes, 119
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 194
homophily in the workplace, 143
impression management, 329–30
and recruiter effects, 31
(p. 535) and recruitment sources, 142
and strategic recruitment, 175
and the “what” of recruitment, 3
Current Population Survey, 98
customer intimacy strategy, 166
CVS, 94
Cyprus, 222
D
deception in impression management, 329
decision-making
avoidance of, 130
and constructive choice process model, 292–94
effort-accuracy choice goals, 292–95
and emotions in job search, 126–36
and employer brand equity, 287–89
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 190–91, 192–207, 211
and fit research, 446
future research in, 294–96
goals related to, 292
impact of consumer brand equity on, 286–87
justification of, 294
and the Staffing Cycles Framework, 185–86, 187
decision making process, 387, 390
deficit model of aging, 91–92, 93, 95, 104
definitions of recruitment, 529
Dell, 165, 391
demand for qualified applicants, 21, 49
demographics
and the aging workforce, 88–91
characteristics of recruiters, 25–26
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 189
and job choice research, 60
and recruiter effects, 21
and recruitment sources, 143–44, 234–36, 235, 242
and retirement age research, 91
and strategic recruitment, 172
and targeted recruitment, 110–11
and the “who” of recruitment, 3
Denmark, 413
depreciation model, 95
diagnostic decision model, 293
diagnosticity, 254, 257
differential/innovation strategy, 165–66
direct applications, 141, 145, 218, 245, 247, 407
direct estimation, 65
disability, 119
discrimination, 98–99, 116
dissonance theory, 147
distributive justice, 199
divergence, 403–6
diversity
diversity statements, 113, 272, 276, 279
and history of recruitment research, 344, 345
and minority recruitment, 493, 515–18
and objectives in recruitment, 364, 366
and recruitment message, 371
and recruitment research design, 467
and strategic recruitment, 164
and targeted recruitment, 110–11, 113, 116–17, 118, 119
and volunteer recruitment research, 81–82
and web-based recruitment, 386, 397
downsizing, 91, 95, 98, 99, 102
drug testing policies, 193, 204
Dual-Stage Model of the Recruitment Process, 468
Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs, 80–81
E
early retirement, 95, 97, 102
econometrics, 150
economic conditions, 119, 173–74, 174
economic markets, 171
education, 120, 234, 364, 365
effectiveness of recruitment. See evaluating recruitment effectiveness
Eharmony.com, 391
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), 23–24, 30, 66–67, 196, 272, 289, 290, 390, 391, 393
eldercare, 97
emergence, 10
emotions in job search and recruitment, 2, 126–36, 128
anticipatory emotions, 129
emotional contagion, 128, 128, 132, 135–36
emotional intelligence, 135
emotional regulation, 128, 128
employee benefits, 530
Employee Benefits Research Institute (EBRI), 90
Employee Benefits Supplement, 98
employee contribution, estimating, 211–12
employee endorsements, 260, 261
employee satisfaction, 260–61
employee testimonials, 116
employer brand equity, 285, 287–89
employer knowledge, 59
employer needs, 94–95
employment agencies, 407
employment attributes, 14–15, 16
employment costs, 97
employment equity, 200
Employment Opportunity Index, 243
employment selection devices, 199
entitlement, 317
entry process, 148
environmental awareness, 194. See also corporate social responsibility (CSR)
environmentally responsible organizations, 301, 303, 304, 306, 308–9
equal employment opportunity (EEO)
and cross-cultural recruitment, 410, 414–17, 418
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 209, 212
and job advertisements, 276
and older workers, 101, 103
and targeted recruitment, 113–14
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 99, 438, 443
Estonia, 412
ethical issues, 416
ethnocentrism, 416
Europe, 405
European Union, 126
evaluating job opportunities, 134
evaluating potential employers, 269
evaluating recruitment effectiveness, 3, 184–212, 190–91, 372
event history methodology, 4, 140, 150–52
excuses, 322, 323, 326
executive recruitment, 176
exemplification, 317
Existence, Relatedness and Growth Needs theory, 93
exit events, 140. See also turnover
exogenous recruiting influences, 12–15, 15–16
expectancy information, 60
expectancy theory, 50, 66, 202, 206, 301
expectations of applicants, 368–69, 429–30. See also realistic job previews (RJPs)
experience of job seekers, 279, 364
explicit recruitment signals, 113–16
external recruitment, 22
extroversion, 317
F
Facebook, 280, 382, 383, 392
face-to-face (FTF) interactions, 201, 205, 245
fairness and fairness theory, 2, 194, 200, 205, 326, 341, 351
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 96
Federal Reserve Board, 103
feedback of recruiters, 133–34
financial standing of organizations, 299, 299
fit research, 229, 437–50
and application decisions, 441–42
assessing fit, 445–46, 446–48
and job choice, 441–42
and organizational attraction, 439–41
and pursuit of “just right,” 443–44
and recruitment sources, 229–31
theoretical background, 438–39
fixed effects (FE) methods, 4, 144, 150–52
flexibility in their work arrangements, 351
follow-up contact, importance of, 336
Forbes, 309
formal recruitment sources, 141, 217–18, 218, 231
Fortune, 301
Fortune 100 companies, 113
4-group model of minority recruitment, 493, 515–20, 516, 517
France, 406, 409
G
gatekeeping role of recruiters, 29
gender issues
and applicant reactions, 41
and EEO considerations, 209
gender of recruiters, 25–26
and international recruitment research, 413–14, 415, 416–17
and recruitment sources, 234
stereotyping, 26, 29
and targeted recruitment, 110
and volunteer recruitment research, 82
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 410
General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), 494
Generalizable Decision Processing Model, 50–51, 66
General Minority Recruiting, 495–97, 496, 512, 515–17, 518
General Social Survey, 449
generic human capital, 12, 18
Germany, 404, 405, 406, 412
global environment for recruiting, 31, 120, 171–72, 174
globalization, 405
Global Novations Pulse survey, 21
goal-directed behavior, 130, 136n1
goals and values of organizations, 146
goals of recruitment, 22
grade point average in college, 317
Graduate Record Exam (GRE), 494
graphology, 351
gravitation hypothesis, 450
Great Britain, 98, 408, 409, 412, 415
growth
growing industries, 90
of organizations, 362
prospects for, 299, 299
strategies for, 166–67
guanxi, 408–9, 410
H
Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Dunnette), 161, 335
Health and Retirement Study, 93
healthcare needs and costs, 89, 90, 97, 98, 103
high-information recruitment practices, 290–91, 292, 473
high-involvement recruiting practices, 13, 14
high-performance work systems (HPWS), 164, 176
high-quality applicants, 192
Hispanic job seekers, 278
history of recruitment research, 335–55
prior to 1980, 336–38, 337
1980s, 337, 338–40
1990s, 337, 340–45
2000 to present, 337, 345–55
affirmative action, 341, 350–51
applicant self-selection, 343, 351–52
historical account of recruitment field, 3
historical differences in the workplace, 112
individual differences, 344–45, 354–55
information processes, 344, 353
interactive processes, 344, 353–54
and methodological and theoretical limitations, 336, 337, 338
organizational image, 347–48
organization-level research, 342–43, 345–46
person-organization fit, 344–45, 354–55
realistic job previews (RJPs), 339–40, 341, 350
recruiters, 338, 340–41, 348
recruiting practices and organizational performance, 346
recruitment sources, 338–39, 341, 342, 348–50
relationships between organizational characteristics and recruiting practices, 346
selection procedures, 341, 351
social processes, 352–53
social recruitment processes, 343–44
time-related processes, 343, 352
vacancy characteristics, 341, 351
homophily, 143, 145, 154
honesty tests, 351
Hong Kong, 409
horizontal alignment, 163, 163, 167, 170, 178
“how” of recruitment, 4
HR metrics, 210–11
human-capital mobility, 346
human capital resources
investment in, 328
and recruitment practices, 13–14
and strategic recruitment, 5, 6–7, 10–18, 11
human resource information systems (HRIS), 185, 204, 210
human resource management (HRM)
and core competencies, 164–65
and international recruitment, 402–3, 403–6, 412, 413, 414, 418
and older workers, 94, 96, 98, 101
and recruitment objectives and strategies, 362
and strategic recruitment, 161, 176–77
I
ideological accounts, 326
image of recruiting organization
defined, 300
and employer brand equity, 299, 299–300
and history of recruitment research, 347–48
and job advertising, 270, 279
and reputation of organization, 300
and web-based recruitment, 393
image theory, 391, 398
immigrant status, 120
implicit signals, 116–17
implicit theories of position selection, 49
impression management, 314–31
conscious/unconscious IM, 328
deceptive, 329
definition and classification, 314, 315–16
empirical research on, 329–30
and employer brand equity, 284
future research in, 328–31
importance of, 316
organizational IM and recruitment outcomes, 327–28
and reconceptualizations of recruitment, 530
in résumés and personality tests, 327
Applicant Assertive IM-Interviewer Evaluation, 317–19, 323
Applicant Defensive IM-Interviewer Evaluation, 322–25
Interviewer Assertive IM-Applicant Attraction, 319–22, 331
Interviewer Defensive IM-Applicant Attraction, 325–27, 331
and the “what” of recruitment, 3
incentive structures, 98–99
incomplete information, 140, 142, 144–45, 152–53
India, 412
individual difference hypotheses
and history of recruitment research, 339, 351
and recruitment sources, 141, 141, 142–44, 216, 240, 241–42
and social identity research, 458
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 258–59
individualistic cultures, 403–4, 406, 408–15
individual-level outcomes, 6
individual level recruitment, 2, 17
Industrial Labour Organization (ILO), 416
Inferna, 373
influence tactics, 331n1
informal recruitment sources
and fit research, 445
and recruitment sources, 217–18, 218, 231, 235, 237, 241
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 252
informational social influences, 252
information processing theory, 64–65, 66–67
information-related recruitment processes, 344, 353
ING Direct, 165
innovation strategies, 367–68
inside recruitment sources, 218, 218–19. See also promotion
institutionalized tactics, 150
institutional theory, 403, 404
instrumental attributes, 287–88, 289, 295, 321, 328, 476
intangible resources, 12
integrative approach to recruitment, 3, 262, 265
interactive recruitment processes, 344, 353–54
internal recruitment, 18, 22, 366, 374, 377, 407
international competition, 171–72
international joint ventures (IJVs), 404
international recruitment, 402–18
Internet and Web-based recruitment, 382–99
and changing paradigms, 387–96
and communication richness and reach, 388–89, 390, 397
and customization, 390–92, 398
and decentralization of recruitment function, 394–96, 398
definition of, 383–84
and ease of use, 389
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 197, 210, 212
and fit research, 447
future research in, 396–99
generating viable candidates, 384–85
and history of recruitment research, 349–50
and international recruitment, 407, 417
and job advertisements, 278
later stages and key processes in, 385
and minority recruitment, 505–7
(p. 537) paradigm shifts brought about by, 384
previous research on, 385
and push/pull strategies, 392–94
and realistic job previews, 426
and recruiter effects, 30
and recruitment objectives and strategies, 373, 378
and recruitment research design, 467–68, 475, 481–82, 484
and recruitment sources, 145, 153, 233, 247
and strategic recruitment, 16, 164, 175
and targeted recruitment, 112, 115–16, 118
and technological sophistication of job seekers, 389
and the “where of recruitment,” 3
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 253, 265
internship programs, 354, 373
interpersonal emotions, 132
interviews
anxiety in, 324–25
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 198, 204
favorability of, 351
and impression management, 318
medium of, 201
mimicry of interviewers, 330
process, 61, 136, 198, 199
and rapport building behaviors, 321
and recruitment sources, 247
structured and unstructured interviews, 325
style of, 27
investigative journalism, 2
Ireland, 404
Islamic law, 415
isomorphism, 403
Israel, 408, 409, 412
Italy, 415
J
Japan, 405, 406, 408, 411, 415–17
JetBlue, 165
job acceptance. See accepting job offers
job applications, 51–60
job boards, 373–74, 383
job choice theory, 47–69
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 188
and fit research, 442
goals, reactions and decisions, 67, 67–68
and process-orientation, 65–69
review of literature, 51–65
theoretical perspectives, 48–51
job fairs, 304
job information sources, 240
job offers, 376
job performance, 91–92, 431
job previews, 205. See also realistic job previews (RJPs)
job rotation/transfer, 407
job satisfaction, 145–46
job search, 126–36, 139–40
job survival, 219–23, 220
justice, 36, 40–41, 341
justifications, 322, 323, 326
K
Kinder, Lyndenburg, Domini, and Company (KLD), 302, 304, 309
KLM, 528
knowledge, job-related, 364, 365
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristic (KSAOs), 5, 10–15, 17, 365, 438, 443, 446–47, 450
L
laboratory studies, 263
labor markets
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 198
and organizational tenure, 146
and strategic recruitment, 171, 173–74, 174
labor shortage, 95–96
layoffs, 91, 304
learning goal orientation, 136n1
legal issues, 118, 209, 449. See also equal employment opportunity (EEO)
levels of analysis, 162, 479–80, 487, 489, 489
Levis, 391
liberal market economies (LMEs), 404
life expectancy, 98
LinkedIn, 30, 280, 382, 383, 390, 392
Lithuania, 412
locus of control, 317
longitudinal research design, 65–68, 280
long-term orientation (LTO), 414
loss of employees, 346. See also turnover
low-information recruitment, 290, 291–92, 473
low-involvement recruitment, 14
M
machismo, 415
Maintaining Applicant Status stage, 60–61, 61–62, 68–69
management recruitment, 177
managerial attitudes, 104
managerial nominations for promotions, 374
mandatory retirement ages, 96
Manpower, Inc., 21, 94
Manpower Group, 96
manual labor, 97
marital status, 234, 279
marketing
and brand awareness, 289
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 198, 201, 204
literature, 279, 290
marketing-based paradigms, 4
and research design for recruitment studies, 196
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 252, 257, 260, 263
MasterCard, 364
match.com, 391
materialism, 271
media richness theory (MRT), 262, 277–78, 388, 447
mediating processes and variables, 10, 145–46, 148–49, 198, 203, 204, 265
Medicare, 89, 90, 98
medium of communication, 274
mergers and acquisitions, 166
message, recruitment, 370–71
message content, 273–74, 276–77
message source, 273
met expectations, 145–46, 147, 149
methodological challenges. See research design
Metropolitan Employer-Worker Survey (MEWS), 192
Mexico, 222, 408, 415
military recruitment, 57, 58, 59–62, 365, 494, 529
millennial generation, 305
mimicry in interviews, 330
minority recruiting, 492–520
and 2-group models, 493–95, 495, 496, 519
and 4-group model, 493, 512, 515–20, 516, 517, 520
and company attitudes toward diversity, 344
importance of, 493–95
and job choice research, 62
recommendations for, 520
and recruitment message, 371
and recruitment sources, 234
and R x R x Q Recruiting Model, 495–515
and site visits, 376
and targeted recruitment, 110–11, 111–12, 113–16, 119–20
three basic conditions of, 512
traditional modes of, 494–95
and web-based recruitment, 386
mismatched workers, 449
modeling recruitment strategies, 3
MODE model, 191
moderators, 198, 203, 264, 432–33
Montana State University, 369
mood, 129. See also emotions in job search
motivation-control strategies, 135–36
motivations of employees, 92–94
multilevel aspects of recruitment, 2
multilevel modeling, 18
multinational corporations (MNCs), 3, 171, 222, 402–6, 408–18
multiple-stage research designs, 469, 469–70, 470, 475–76, 478–79
(p. 538) N
narrowcasting, 392–93
national business systems, 403, 405
needs-satisfaction models, 289
negative affect, 131
negative emotions, 129
negative information, 194, 323
negative psychological effects (NPEs), 42
Netherlands, 81, 405, 409, 415
new hire performance, 515–18
New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services department, 371
New Zealand, 377, 409
nonprofit organizations, 80
O
objective factors theory, 49–50, 63
objective job performance, 224
objectives in recruitment, 361–79
and advertising, 269
defining employee recruitment, 361–63
establishment of, 363–68
factors that influence, 367–68
and personal attributes of applicants, 364–66, 367
post-hire objectives, 364
pre-hire objectives, 363–64
and recruitment strategy development, 367–76
U.S. Army case study, 377–78
Office of Management and Budget, 96
Office of Personnel Management, 96
older workers, 88–104
attracting older workers, 99–103
desirable characteristics of older workers, 95
and employer motivations, 94–95
and employer priorities, 95–99
future research ideas, 103–4
and negative attributes of older workers, 97
old-age dependency ratio, 89
and recruitment sources, 234
relevance of older workers, 88–91
and targeted recruitment, 112, 120
traits of older workers, 91–94
and the “who of recruitment,” 2
online gaming, 383
online recruiting. See Internet and Web-based recruitment
operational excellence, 165
operational performance, 6–7, 8–9
opinion conformity, 317
opportunity to perform (OTP), 41
organizational attitudes, 269
organizational attraction
and fit research, 439–41
and fit with job/organization, 355
and minority recruitment, 498–511
and person-job (P-J) fit, 354
and social-identity of job seekers, 456
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 252, 254, 255–56, 257, 261–62, 263
Organizational Behavior field, 145
organizational benefits of recruiting, 10
organizational characteristics, 24, 25, 177, 195, 197, 507–9
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), 77
organizational commitment, 429
organizational contexts, 209
organizational culture, 100–101, 194
Organizational Culture Profile, 442
organizational familiarity, 14
organizational identity-intentions model of withdrawal, 62
organizational image, 3, 14, 113
organizational impression management (OIM), 327–28
organizational inducements, 14–15, 16
organizational justice, 194, 205
organizational knowledge, 96
organizational-level research, 478–79
organizational life cycle, 170–72
organizational morality, 83
organizational outcomes, 215–16, 216
organizational recruitment, 177
organizational status, 42
organizational tenure, 139–54
other-enhancement, 317, 318
outcomes of recruitment efforts, 41, 215–48, 427–28, 466, 485–86, 488
outside recruitment sources, 218, 218–19
outsourcing, 377, 529
P
panel data, 151–52
participants in recruitment research, 77–79, 482–83, 483, 487, 488
passive job seekers, 102
pay. See compensation
penitential accounts, 326
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, 103
pension plans, 90, 97, 103
perceived ease of movement hypothesis, 243
perceived organizational support (POS), 149
perceptions of applicants, 276–77
performance ratings, 224–34
peripheral processing, 24, 272, 290, 292
personal characteristics of applicants, 41, 133
personal characteristics of recruiters. See recruiters and recruiter effects
personality of applicants, 133. See also emotions in job search
personality of organizations, 202
personality profiles, 29
personality tests, 325–26, 327, 351
personal recruitment sources, 141
person-environment (PE) fit, 165, 386, 387, 393, 437–38
person-job (PJ) fit
and cross-cultural recruitment, 412
described, 437–38
and history of recruitment research, 346, 350, 351
and impression management, 315, 319
individual differences in, 351
and international recruitment, 412
and job-acceptance intentions, 354
and organizational attraction, 355
and organizational “fit,” 440, 443–46, 446–48, 448–49
and realistic job previews, 429
recruiters’ search for perfect fit, 438
and recruitment research design, 471–72, 474
and recruitment sources, 141, 229, 229–31, 242–43
person-organization (PO) fit
and employer brand equity, 288–89
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 200, 204
and history of recruitment research, 344–45, 350, 354–55
and impression management, 319
individual differences in, 351
and international recruitment, 412
and job-acceptance intentions, 354
and job advertisements, 270–71
and job choice research, 63
and organizational attraction, 355
and organizational “fit,” 443–46, 446–48, 448–49
and realistic job previews, 429
recruiters’ search for perfect fit, 437–40
and recruitment research design, 471–72, 473, 474
and recruitment sources, 141, 145, 149, 151, 217, 229–31, 242–43
and shifting recruitment paradigms, 386
and strategic recruitment, 175
persuasion, recruitment as process of, 270, 272
phased retirement, 102
phases of recruitment, 288
policies, organizational, 272, 276
policy capturing, 65
political skills, 322
Portugal, 409
positive affect, 131
positive distinctiveness, 455
post-hire outcomes, 474
post-retirement work, 91, 101
power distance, 414–15
pre-employment screening, 205
pre-hire outcomes, 339, 340, 348
pre-interview job beliefs, 205
prejudice, 25, 278
prestige, organizational, 307
PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 372
pride, 78–85, 307
private sector, 62
procedural justice, 36, 199, 200
(p. 539) processes of recruitment, 343–45
process orientation, 1, 65–68
process research, 140
process theories of job choice, 50–51
product awareness, 59
product brand equity, 285
product marketing, 528
product quality, 528
profitability of organizations, 299, 299
promotion, 43, 65, 364, 374, 379n3
pro-social behavior, 308, 437. See also corporate social responsibility (CSR)
psychology, 2, 17
public relations, 528
public sector, 62
Q
Qualification-Based Minority Recruiting, 495–96, 497, 512, 515–17, 518, 520
qualitative methods, 480–82
quality enhancement strategies, 367–68
quality of applicants, 119, 192, 207–8, 279, 493
quantity of applicants, 192, 207. See also labor markets
R
race
and applicant reactions, 41
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 195
and international recruitment research, 416
and job advertisements, 278
racial stereotypes, 29
of recruiters, 25–26
and recruitment sources, 226
and social-identity of job seekers, 460
and targeted recruitment, 110–11
and web-based recruitment, 397
rapport building behaviors, 321
rational choice, 50
realism hypothesis, 216, 241, 242, 244
realistic information hypothesis, 141–42, 148, 258, 262, 275, 339
realistic-information hypothesis, 258
realistic job previews (RJPs), 423–34
described, 424
and employer brand equity, 296
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 193, 203, 204
history of, 424–27
and history of recruitment research, 339–40, 341, 350
and impression management, 321
and individualized feedback, 350
and job choice research, 63–64
model of, 427
and objectives in recruitment, 366
and organizational tenure, 146–48
and potential moderators, 432–33
and realistic job previews, 433–34
and recruitment outcomes, 427–32
and recruitment research design, 473–75, 478, 482–83, 485
and recruitment sources, 141, 142, 146, 153, 237, 241
and recruitment strategy development, 368–69
and strategic recruitment, 164
and web-based recruitment, 396
reasoned action approach, 191
recipient-source framework, 252, 253, 254, 256–59, 265
recognition of volunteerism, 76, 83–85
reconceptualizing recruitment, 528–30
reconsideration of applicants, 42
recruiters and recruiter effects, 18–32
behaviors of recruiters, 272
characteristics of recruiters, 23–26, 336, 338, 348
definition of recruitment, 22–23
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 195, 198, 203
and fit research, 444
future directions of, 29–31
and history of recruitment research, 336, 338, 340–41, 348
impact of, 344
and job choice research, 61, 66
and minority recruitment, 510–11
recruiter evaluations, 128, 135–36
recruiter training, 27–29, 31
recruiting interventions, 518
recruiting parameters, 514–15
recruiting staff, 22
recruitment image, 193
recruitment orientation, 26–27
and recruitment outcomes, 173–74, 485–86
and strategic recruitment, 164
types of, 375
recruitment sources
and history of recruitment research, 338–39, 341, 342, 348–50
and organizational tenure, 140
and realistic information hypothesis, 275
and recruitment sources, 240–45
recruitment strategy development
and best timing for recruitment activities, 370
development process, 368–76
factors effecting, 367–68
future research in, 377–78
and job applicant variables, 367–69
and job offers, 376
and reaching targeted individuals, 372–74
and recruitment message, 370–71
and research design, 467
and site visits, 375–76
and strategic human resources management, 12–14
and targeting individuals, 369–70
and type of recruiters, 375
referential accounts, 326
referral hiring
and current state of recruitment research, 529
employee referrals, 253–54, 257–62, 265, 275, 339, 348, 364, 372
and international recruitment, 407
regression modeling, 150–51
regulation, emotional, 128
rejecting of job offers, 48
rejection of job applicants, 326
relationship management, 31
reputation of organizations, 298–311
and applicant pool quality and quantity, 396
and employer brand equity, 299–301
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 195, 196, 200, 205
and fit research, 445
and history of recruitment research, 342–43, 347–48
moderating effects of, 397
and strategic recruitment, 14, 15, 16
and targeted recruitment, 117
research design, 184–212, 463–89
defining recruitment research, 464–65
guidelines and decision points, 488
and the “how of recruitment,” 4
in recruiting research, 187–207
and recruitment models, 467–68
Recruitment Research Design Model (RRDM), 464, 468–79, 480, 486–89, 488
recruitment research practices, 465, 487
research design guidelines, 486–89
research methodology, 4, 465–67, 479–86, 487, 488
and staffing cycles, 185–87
and strategic approach to recruitment, 17
resource-based theory (RBT), 11, 17
resource-based view (RBV), 164–65, 178
resources term, 11
respect, 78–80, 80–82, 85
respectability of companies, 457–58
results of recruitment, 269
resumes, 327, 351
retention of employees, 354, 364
retesting applicants, 42
retirees, 89, 90–91, 95, 120
richness hypothesis, 216, 222, 241, 244–45, 246, 247, 248, 262
RightNow Technologies, 369
role clarity, 429
Rolex, 285
(p. 540) S
salary. See compensation
Scandinavian companies, 411, 415
scarcity information, 195, 277
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 494
screening, 27, 28, 200, 205
selection parameters and processes, 2, 35–36, 37–38, 39–42, 62, 199, 515
self-enhancement, 455
self-esteem of job seekers, 143, 194, 271, 301, 317, 325, 355
self-handicapping, 324–25, 326
self-presentational behaviors, 331n1
self-promotion, 317
self-regulation, 130–32, 134–35
self-selection of applicants, 336, 339–40, 343, 351–52, 365
selling orientation of recruitment, 27
separation risk, 140
sequential-stage research designs, 470, 470–72, 476–78, 478–79
sexual orientation, 110, 416
Should Reducing explanations, 326
signaling theory
and employer brand equity, 307
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 202, 206
and Internet recruitment, 389, 391, 395
and job advertising, 271–72
and realistic job previews, 433
and recruiter effects, 23, 25, 30
signals and inferences, 456–57
Singapore, 406, 408, 409, 412, 415, 416
single-stage research designs, 469, 469, 470, 471, 472–73
site visits, 64, 352, 375–76
situational judgment tests, 40
size of organizations, 170–72
skilled labor, 90
skills, job-related, 364
social adjustment, 458
social bandwidth, 40
social capital, 148, 154
social fairness, 40–41
social identity
concerns of job seekers, 454–60
and history of recruitment research, 355
and international recruitment research, 410
and job advertising, 270, 271
and job choice research, 62
and reputation of organization, 301
social identity function, 454
and volunteer recruitment research, 78–80, 82, 84
and the “why” of recruitment, 4
social integration, 148
socialization
and organizational tenure, 139–40, 141, 141–42, 148–49, 149–50, 152–54
and recruitment sources, 152, 153–54, 243–44
social networking and media
and current state of recruitment research, 527
and history of recruitment research, 355
and international recruitment, 408, 410, 416
and international recruitment research, 408
and job advertisements, 280
network-based recruiting, 13, 410
network ties, 346
and recruitment processes, 343–44, 351, 352–53
and recruitment sources, 143, 153
and shifting recruitment paradigms, 382, 383
social network theory, 393–95
and strategic recruitment, 16, 175–76
and volunteer recruitment, 77–80
and word-of-mouth recruitment, 253, 253, 254, 257–59, 260, 262, 264–65
social responsibility, 177, 301. See also corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Social Security, 89, 90, 98
social supports, 149
societal norms, 98–99
Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM), 89–90
sources of recruitment, 3, 215–48, 349–50, 510
South Korea, 406
Spain, 405, 406, 409, 415
specialization, 166
specific human capital, 12, 18
sponsorship activities, 59, 290
Staffing Cycles Framework, 23, 185–88, 186, 187, 192, 207–9, 208, 211
stages of recruitment, 464–78, 469
stakeholders, 2
stereotypes, 25, 29, 99, 119
stock prices, 112
strategic human resources management (SHRM), 10, 94–97, 100–101, 162, 167–70
strategic impact of recruitment, 527
strategic recruitment, 5–18, 161–79
background, 161–64
core competence and the resource-based view of, 164–65
external environment and organizational life cycle, 172
as focus of recruitment research, 7
and human capital management, 2
model for, 11, 11–15, 163
and recruitment plans, 2
research opportunities, 172–78
and strategic human resource management, 167–70
and strategic typologies, 165–67
strategy development, 269
and the “when” of recruitment, 3
stress reactions, 236–37
structured interviews, 40, 325
studying recruitment. See research design
subjective factors theory, 49, 63
successful aging model, 91–92, 94
supervisory levels, 278
supplementary fit, 439
supply chains, 178
surveillance, 40
Survey of Consumer Finances, 91, 103
surveys, 480–82
survival analysis, 150
sustained competitive advantage, 161, 164–65, 169, 170, 178
Sweden, 405, 406, 413
symbolic attraction theory, 458–59, 459
symbolic attributes, 289, 328, 456, 475
T
Taiwan, 404, 406, 408
tangible resources, 12
targeted recruitment, 110–20
existing research on, 111–12
explicit recruitment signals, 113–16
implicit signals, 116–17
importance of recruitment, 110–11
and older workers, 101–2
signals communicated during, 112–17
suggestions for practice, 117–20, 118
targeting job seekers, 369–70
taxes, 90
technology
and older workers, 97, 99
and strategic recruitment, 175
technological changes and progress, 280
technological sophistication of job seekers, 389
technology-mediated interviews, 201, 205
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), 389, 393, 397
temporal factors in recruitment, 3
testimonials, 116
test scores, 239
test-taking anxiety, 62
Thailand, 415
365Black campaign, 460
time-related recruitment processes, 343, 351, 352
timing of recruitment activities, 64, 65, 164, 185, 370
top management, 15, 346
training
and evaluation of recruitment effectiveness, 200
and older workers, 97, 103
of recruiters, 27–29, 31
trainee programs, 149
training modules, 135
(p. 541) transparency, 40
trustworthiness of recruiters, 24–25
truth in advertising, 118
Turkey, 406, 408, 409, 412
turnover
and corporate social performance, 305
and employer brand equity, 284, 288
and event history modeling, 151
and history of recruitment research, 339, 340, 341, 352
and impression management, 321
and job advertisements, 275, 280
and job survival, 220
and objectives in recruitment, 364, 365
and older workers, 103
and realistic job previews, 423–24, 425, 431–32, 434
and recruitment message, 371
and recruitment sources, 139, 146, 149, 151, 154, 215–16, 217, 219–23, 224, 230, 233, 236–37, 241–42, 243, 245
and reputation of organization, 299
voluntary, 140, 141, 145, 147, 151, 153, 431–32, 434
Twinings Tea, 528
Twitter, 382, 383, 390, 395
2-group model of minority recruitment, 493–95, 495, 496, 519
U
unemployment, 126, 174. See also labor markets
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978), 379n3, 443
United Kingdom, 404, 405, 406, 409, 410, 416
United States, 405, 409, 411–12, 415–16
university faculty, 102
university recruiting. See also campus recruitment
upper-level positions, 15
UPS, 382
U.S. Army, 112, 378–79
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 97
U.S. Department of Defense, 365
U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 370
utility analysis, 10
V
vacancy characteristics, 341, 351
validity of hiring decisions, 211, 325–26, 329
values of job seekers, 271, 307–8, 344–45
verbal protocol analysis technique, 193
vertical alignment, 162–63, 163, 168, 170, 175–76, 178
virtual networks, 153
visibility of organizations, 372
Volunteer Process Model, 75
volunteer recruitment, 73–85
and client organizations, 74, 76–77, 84
contextual setting, 73–75
efforts aimed at nonvolunteers, 80–82
functional approach to, 75–76
motivating volunteerism in employees, 74, 82–83, 84, 85
organizational perspective on, 74, 75, 76, 83–84
and social networking, 77–80, 85
and the “who” of recruitment, 2
W
walk-in applications, 145, 233, 238, 239–40, 245, 247, 248
Wal-Mart, 112, 165
“war for talent,” 21
Web of Science, 35
well-being of candidates, 42–43
“what” of recruitment, 2–3
“when” of recruitment, 3
“where” of recruitment, 3
white job seekers, 278
“who” of recruitment, 2
“why” of recruitment, 3–4
Wilkes College, 391
withdrawal behaviors, 43, 61, 62, 69
Wonderlic Personnel Test, 494
word-of-mouth (WOM) recruitment, 251–66
and cross-cultural recruitment, 410
and current state of recruitment research, 529
described, 252–54
determinants of, 258–60
and employee referrals, 257–58
and endorsements, 347, 352–53
integrative model of, 253, 260–62
and international recruitment, 402, 407, 408, 409–10
and marketing, 252
measuring, 262–64
practical implications of, 264–65
and recruiter effects, 22
and recruitment sources, 149
research on outcomes of, 254–65
and the “what” of recruitment, 3
work attitudes, 216, 228, 230–34, 237, 241–42, 247
workers compensation, 97–98
work experience, 279
workforce analytics, 210–11
workplace injuries, 97–98
work-related attitudes, 92
work samples, 351
Would Reducing explanations, 326
Y
Yale Persuasive Communication model (YPC), 270
Y/millennial workers, 21