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date: 18 August 2019

(p. 491) Index

(p. 491) Index

Abernathy, Ralph David, 69
academic black theology, characteristics of, 24n.2
accountability
in African American theology, 293–304
audience accountability, 297–300
components of, 300–304
embodied pathos and, 323–324
scholarship debate on, 295–297
Africa
black theology and, 434–435, 438–443
future of theology in, 446
genesis of theology in, 436–437
as historical/mythological symbol, 127–128
importance for African Americans of, 432–433
moral struggles of peoples of, 432
western views of, 468–471
womanist theology and women in, 443–445
African-American Female Intelligence Society of Boston, 129
African American Folk Healing (Mitchem), 194, 425
African American for Humanism, 289n.12
African American Religious Studies (Wilmore), 114
African American Religious Thought (West/Glaude), 114–115, 118
African American theology. See also black church; religious experience of African Americans
African influences in, 431–446
anthropology and, 177–179
black ontology and, 390–399
Black Power movement and, 71–75
Caribbean theologies and, 339–340
categories within, 7
Christian tradition in, 68–80
Christology in, 3, 7, 153–161
church and, 228–238
collaborative imperative in, 342–344
colonialism and, 415–427
Cone's influence in, 85–93
critique of ideology and, 117–120
cultural boundaries in, 480–487
cultural influences in, 85–93
doctrine of God in, 139–150
embodiment in, 308–316
epistemic terrain in, 106–107
eschatology in, 242–251
evil and sin in, 212–225
evolution of, 1–4, 6
future trends in, 9–10, 341–344
global economy and, 402–411
heaven and hell in, 253–262
hermeneutics approach to, 54–56
history and historicism in, 15–24, 112, 115–117, 363–373
Holy Spirit in, 164–172
humanism in, 104, 280–288
humanity in, 174–183
initiatives in Africa and, 437–438
liberation and, 200–209
methodologies in, 124–132
paradigms in, 131–132
pedagogical praxis in, 319–327
post-civil rights thinking in, 187–190, 383–385
postsegregation thinking in, 383–385
pre-civil rights era, 185–187
prosperity gospel and, 453–464
public imaginary and, 468–478
reason in, 96–107, 381–383
religious experience and, 113–115
religious pluralism in, 331–344
second generation black theology, 190–192
sex and sexuality in, 8, 102–103, 350–358
social theory and, 377–385
sources and resources for, 129–131
symbols and themes in, 126–129
theism in, 281–282
theoretical commitments of, 110–120
womanist approach to, 56–58, 267–277
African diaspora, future of African American theology and, 342–344
African Independent Churches/African Initiated Churches (AIC), 436
African indigenous religions
African American religious experience and, 48–50, 53–54, 104–105
African American theology and, 431–446
(p. 492) African theology and, 436–437
appearance of, 50
Caribbean theologies and, 339–340
Christology and, 154–161
colonialism and, 422–427, 433
cosmological/cosmogonic constructs in, 189
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 484–487
doctrine of God and, 146
embodiment in, 106–107
European Enlightenment and, 42–43
Gilmore's discussion of, 333–334
history of African American theology and, 367–372
influence in African American theology of, 115–117, 331–334
liberation theology and, 206
pan-African theology and, 335–337
religious pluralism and, 337–339, 346n.40
slave culture and, 41–42
stereotypes of, 59n.6
symbols in, 126–127
womanist theology and, 78–79
“Africanist Calvinism,” 380
African-Jamaican religious experience, 339–340
African Masonic Lodge, 32
African Methodist Church, 368
African Religions and Philosophy (Mbiti), 206, 437
African Union, 343–344, 347n.47, 439–440
“An African Views American Black Theology” (Mbiti), 440
African Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves (Hudson-Weems), 268
“An Afro-American Theological Dialogue” (Roberts), 333–334, 343
Afrocentric scholarship
historical agency and, 371
womanist theology and, 78–79
Age of Exploration, expansion of Christianity and, 366–367
Agyeman, Jaramogi Abebe. See Cleage, Albert B. Jr.
Akan culture, 46, 368
monotheism in, 49
Alexander, Michelle, 66n.112
Alexander, Torin, 185–196
All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC), 436, 438–440
Allen, Richard, 336, 380
Alves, Rubem, 256–257
American hegemony, black theology and, 418–419
American Humanist Association, 286
American Revolutionary War, African American theology an, 369–370, 372–373
amillenialism, eschatology in African American theology and, 244–245
Amma (Dogon culture), 49
Amos 'n Andy (radio program), 310
Anderson, Mother Leafy, 457–458
Anderson, Victor, 21–23, 44, 55–56
on blackness, 125–126
on black ontology and theology, 390–399
critique of ideology and, 118
doctrine of God and, 148–150
on embodiment, 315
on resources for black theology, 130
theological anthropology and, 182–183
Andrews, Dale, 302
anthropology
African American theology and, 174–183
African theology and, 436–437
embodiment and, 315
expansion of Christianity and, 366–367
humanism and, 284–288
womanist theology and, 274–275
antilynching activism, 311, 316n.5
African American theology and, 76
Antonio, Edward P., 110–120
Anyabwile, Thabiti, 230
apartheid, African theology and, 441–443
apocalypse
eschatology and, 249–250
heaven and hell in context of, 255–256
Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (Walker), 96–97, 99, 129, 185, 370
Aristotle, 390–391
Armstrong, Louis, 483
Asad, Talal, 46
Ashanti culture, 46
monotheism in, 49
atheism
African Americans and, 289n.12
religion and, 283–284
atonement theory
accountability and, 300
Christology and, 160–161
Augustine (Saint), 165
authenticity, embodiment and, 476–477
Axel, Brian, 427
Azusa Christian Community, 193
Azusa Street Revival, 459
Baartman, Sarah, 309, 311
back-to-Africa movements, 433
African symbolism and mythology and, 127–128
(p. 493) Bacon, Thomas, 50
Baer, Hans, 455–456
Bailey, Randall, 32, 36n.1
Baker, George, 459–462
Baker, Thomas Nelson, 382
Baker-Fletcher, Garth Kasimu, 112, 355–356
Baker-Fletcher, Karen, 195, 286–287, 354
Bakongo culture, 46, 49
Baldwin, James, 229, 415–417, 427, 486
Baldwin, Lewis, 487
“A Balm in Gilead” (spiritual), 155
Banks, William, 72
Banneker, Benjamin, 129
Baptists, black churches as, 234
Barret, Sweet Emma, 483
Barth, Karl, 88–89, 121n.8, 125, 165, 178
Bass, Charlotta A., 29–30
Battles, Michael, 5
Becker, William H., 72
Beckford, Robert, 423–424
“Before the Feast of Shushan” (Spencer), 35
“Behold the Rib” (Hurston), 192
Being and Time (Heidegger), 390
Being Human (Hopkins), 206
Beloved (Morrison), 183
Beloved Community
Anderson's hope for, 150
King's concept of, 7, 157
benevolent promise, in African American theology, 256–258
Bentham, Jeremy, 487n.1
Berger, Peter, 228
Berry, Jason, 457–458
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 76, 132
Beveridge, Albert, 214
Beyond Ontological Blackness (Anderson), 21, 125–126, 182–183
Biblical interpretation
in African American criticism, 33–35
African American theology and, 3, 28–36, 74
in black churches, 234–235
contemporary issues in, 30–31
contested theories of, 31–33
evil and sin and, 224
Holy Spirit and, 164–168
slavery and, 28–29, 52, 99
spirituals and, 51
womanist ethics and, 57–58, 103–104
Billingsley, Andrew, 237
Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, 230
“The Binding Unity” (Thurman), 187
Bini culture, 46
Birth of a Nation (film), 310
black and blackness
Cleage's discussion of, 213
collective identity of African Americans and, 344n.2
correlation in religious experience and, 125–126
definitions and terminology, 58n.1
emancipatory reason and, 97–107
of God, 213–215
God's blackness and, 143
history of black theology and role of, 370–372
Black Christ (Douglas), 77
black church. See also ecclesiology
African theology and, 441–443
audience accountability and, 297–300
Black Power movement and, 70–75
black spiritual movement and, 455–458
civil rights and, 69
definitions of, 304n.3
in Great Britain, 423–424
Holy Spirit theology and, 167–168
ontology of, 396–397
political theology and, 87
sex and sexuality in, 351–358, 359n.17
theology of black public and, 472–473
womanist theology and, 77–79, 235–236, 271, 274–277
The Black Church in African American Experience (Lincoln/Mamiya), 396
“Black Environmental Liberation Theology: The Theological and Historical Roots of Environmental Justice Activism by the African American Church” (Glave), 193
black experience, African American theology and, 43
Black Faith and Public Talk: Critical Essays on James H. Cones “Black Theology and Black Power” (Hopkins), 5
Black Hawk (Indian Chief), 457–458
black hermeneutical school (BHS), 131–132
black logic, Cannon's definition of, 106
“Black Manifesto,” 201–202, 447n.3
The Black Messiah (Cleage), 213, 371
Black Methodists for Church Renewal, 434
black philosophical school (BPS), 131–132
A Black Political Theology (Roberts), 258
Black Power movement
Africa and, 434, 441–443
African American theology and, 292–293, 480–487
black church and, 70–75
black theology project and, 177–179, 187–190, 417
Christology and, 157–161
Cone and, 87–90
embodiment and, 314
(p. 494) history of African American theology and, 15–24
liberation theology and, 78–79, 200–201, 203
opposition to global economy and, 403
postsegregation theology and, 384–385
public meaning of Christianity and, 69–70
religious pluralism and, 334
“Black Power Statement,” 352
black radicalism, Holy Spirit and, 169
“Black Religion, Environmental Justice, and the Search for a ‘Green’ Community” (Gray), 192
Black Religion and Black Radicalism (Wilmore), 166, 334
Black Religion and Black Theology: The Collected Essays of J. Deotis Roberts (Roberts), 5
Black Religion and the Imagination of Matter in the Atlantic World (Noel), 425–426
black resistance, history of African American theology and, 16–24
Black Skin, White Masks (Fanon), 180
black spiritual movement, 455–458
black studies programs
African theology and, 431, 441–443
colonialism and, 423
cultural production and, 86, 90
social theory and, 384
theological anthropology and, 177–178
“The Black Christ” (Cullen), 371
A Black Theology of Liberation (Cone)
black church in, 88, 397
blackness discussed in, 125
Christology in, 371
dialectical theology in, 178–179
evil, sin, and suffering in, 214–215
historical influence of, 15–16
liberation theology in, 202, 415–416
suffering discussed in, 352
black theology. See also African American theology
African theology and, 438–443
anthropology and, 177–179
opposition to global economy from, 403
post-civil rights positions in, 187–190
second generation black theology, 190–192
Black Theology: A Documentary History, 353–354, 358n.8
Black Theology and Black Power (Cone)
accountability in, 298–300
Africa and, 434
black cultural production in, 89
Black Power movement and, 71–75, 447n.3
Christology in, 371
dialectical theology in, 178–179
emancipatory reason in, 98
evil, sin, and suffering in, 213–215
liberation theology in, 202–205, 352, 415–416
political agency and, 102
postsegregation theology and, 384
“Black Theology and Marxist Thought” (West), 102, 206
“Black Theology and the Black Woman” (Grant), 206, 352
“Black Theology and Womanist Theology in Dialogue: Which Way Forward for the Church and Academy?" (conference), 358
Black Theology: An International Journal, 424
Black Theology USA and South Africa (Hopkins), 206
Black Womanist Ethics (Cannon), 56–58, 304, 353, 398
Blassingame, John, 41
Blount, Brian, 249
Blum, Edward, 155
Blumenberg, Hans, 364, 369
Blyden, Edward, 336, 370
body. See embodiment
Bolden, Buddy, 483
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 125, 256
Bonomi, Patricia, 379
Bontemps, Arna, 192
The Book of Negro Folklore (Hughes/Bontemps), 192
Boroughs, Nannie Helen, 382–383
Bowne, Borden Parker, 140–141
Braden, Charles, 459
Branham, William, 462
Brentano, Franz von, 391
Brooks, Joanna, 381
Brooks, Orbis, 356
Brother West: Living and Loving Out Loud (West), 302–303
Brown, Ethelred (Rev.), 283
brush arbors, 51–52
Bucher, Glen, 73
Buck-Morss, Susan, 43
Bultmann, Rudolf, 125, 178, 255
Bush, George H. W., 297
Butler, Jon, 379
Butler, Judith, 181
Butler, Octavia, 338
Callahan, Allen Dwight, 27–36, 52, 57
calling, black theology as, 303
Call to Rebellion (Garnet), 185
Campbell, Robert, 370
Camus, Albert, 89
(p. 495) candomblé, 64n.68, 487
Cannon, Katie G., 3, 6
on accountability, 304
on African women and womanist theology, 444–445
black hermeneutics and, 131
black “logic” of, 106
on cultural production, 487
cultural production and theology of, 103
on doctrine of God, 143
on evil and sin, 221
on globalization, 408–411
on liberation, 207–208
ontology in work of, 398
on pedagogical praxis, 319–327
on sex and sexuality, 353
womanist theology and, 18–19, 56–58, 77–79, 91, 267–270
world and creation in theology of, 193
capitalism
black theology and, 102
globalization and, 405–408
Capitein, Jacobus Elisa Johannes, 380
Caribbean, black theology in
black spiritual movement and, 457–458
Catholic theology and, 368
colonialism and, 421–427
global economy and, 405
historical influences, 370
liberation theology and, 206
religious experience and, 105
religious pluralism and, 339–340
Carter, J. Kameron, 112, 174–183
Cartesian philosophy
anthropology and, 180–183
black ontology and, 391, 394–395
Catholic theology
African American theology and, 5–6, 76
Christology and, 161
embodiment in, 183
history in America of, 368–372
womanist theology and, 221–223, 276–277
Center for the Church and the Black Experience, 79
Center Moment (Thurman), 187
ceremony
in African American religious experience, 46, 48–54
African American theology and role of, 114–115
in African religion, 48–50
Certeau, Michel de, 111
Chapman, Mark, 353
charismatic black churches, 234
Word of Faith movement and, 462–464
Chaves, Mark, 234
Chavis, Ben, 193
Cherry, Annie Bell, 30
Chireau, Yvonne, 43–44
“Christ Event,” African American theology and, 7
Christian Council of Nigeria, 436–437
christianisms, 54
in African American theology, 43
Christianity
accountability of black theology and, 299–300
in Africa, 433
African American tradition in, 43–44, 68–80, 128–129
African contact with, 40
anthropology and, 175–183
black experience correlated with, 125–126
Black Power movement and, 71–75
church life and, 229–230
civil rights, liberation and public meaning of, 68–70
colonization in context of, 175–177, 366–367, 415–427
creolization of, 368
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 484–487
doctrine of God and, 145–146
embodiment and, 316
heaven and hell in, 253–262
history of African American theology and, 116–117
Holy Spirit in, 164–165
humanism and, 280–288
liberation theology and, 200, 205
pre-civil rights black theology and, 186
privileging of, in black theology, 332, 334
racism and, 140–150
religious experience and dominance of, 46, 76
religious history and, 365–366
sex and sexuality issues in, 354–358
slavery and, 42, 50–51, 53–54
theology of black public and, 472–473
warrior/Lamb model in, 249–250
womanist theology and, 76–79
world and creation in, 185–187, 189–190
Christianity on Trial: African American Religious Thought before and after Black Power (Chapman), 353
Christian personalism, 150–151
Christian Responsibility in an Independent Nigeria, 436–437
Christian Science, 458
Christology, 11n.4
accountability in black theology and, 299–300
African American theology and, 3, 7, 153–161
(p. 496) blackness of Jesus and, 71–73, 143, 155–161, 370–372
doctrine of God and, 145–146
eschatology in black theology and, 242
heaven and hell and, 254–256
humanism and, 285–288
liberation theology and, 201
post-civil rights theology and, 187–190
redemptive suffering and, 370–372
religious pluralism as alternative to, 335–337
in slave narratives, 259–261
Unity School of Christianity and, 459–462
Williams's vision of Jesus and, 272
womanist theology and, 77, 103
Christ Universal Temple Church/Christ Unity Temple, 460–461
Chukwu (Igbo God), 49
Church Dogmatics (Barth), 178
church life
African American theology and, 228–238
Biblical grounding in, 234–235
Black Power movement and, 70–75
church as refuge, 230–232
church as social resource, 232–233
civil rights and, 69, 292–293
cultural inclusiveness in, 235–236
Holy Spirit theology and, 167–168
millenialism and eschatology and, 244–245
political theology and, 87
social productivity in, 236–237
typology of black churches, 234
womanist views on, 77–79, 270
Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians, 444–445
civil rights
in Africa, 432
African American theology and, 1–2, 76, 292–293, 480–487
Christology and, 157–161
churches as resource for, 232–233
historical legacy of, 416
history of African American theology and, 15–24
liberation theology and, 78–79, 201–202
political theology and, 87–93
postsegregation theology and, 383–385
public meaning of Christianity and, 68–70
white backlash against, 297–300
Civil Rights Act of 1875, 127
class oppression
black spiritual movement and, 456–458
Christology and, 161
liberation theology and, 207–209
pan-African theology and, 336–337
womanist theology and, 325–326
classical dispensationalism, 245–246
Cleage, Albert B. Jr.
accountability and theology of, 299–300
Afrocentric theology of, 352
black hermeneutics and, 131
black theology movement and, 93n.17
Christology of, 72–73, 157, 159, 371
on evil, sin, and suffering, 213, 216
liberation theology and, 201–202, 225n.2
religious pluralism and, 332
on theism, 283
Cleage, Albert Jr., 2, 19, 24n.2
Cliff, Michelle, 321–322
Cobb, John, 192
Coleman, Monica E., 145–146, 275–277, 299–300, 338, 487
religious pluralism and, 332, 342
Coleman, Will, 54–55
religious pluralism and, 332, 337–339, 342, 345n.24
Colemon, Johnnie (Rev.), 460–461
collaborative imperative, African American theology and, 342–344
colonialism
in Africa, 432–433
African American theology and, 415–427
African symbolism and mythology and, 127–128
anthropology and, 176–183
Christian framework for, 176–177
cultural nationalism and, 471
embodiment and, 309–313
expansion of Christianity and, 366–367
globalization and, 405–408, 411n.4
liberation theology and, 206
public black body and, 468–471
womanist theology and, 181–183
The Color Purple (Walker), 193–195
colorism, embodiment and, 312
Columbus, Christopher, 176–177
“Coming Apart” (Walker), 268
Commission for Racial Justice (United Church of Christ), 193
A Common Journey: Black Theology and Latin American Liberation Theology (Cummings), 206
communal logos, in womanist theology, 324–326
community
accountability and, 294–295, 301–304
church as, 7–8, 68, 79, 228–238
civil rights and empowerment of, 157
(p. 497) creation and, 191–192
doctrine of God and, 140–142, 149–150
Douglass on solidarity in, 129
Douglass's emphasis on, 129
in early black theology, 159–160
historicism and, 116
Holy Spirit in, 166–167, 169–171
liberation and, 201–204
ontological blackness and, 44
religious experience and, 57
slavery and, 28–29, 154
as theme in black theology, 128–129
in womanist theology, 18, 158, 207–209, 270–271
Cone, Cecil, 73, 89, 129–130
black hermeneutics and, 131
on liberation theology, 202–203
religious pluralism and, 332
Cone, James H., 2, 5–6, 11n.4
accountability and theology of, 294–295
Africa and theology of, 434, 438–443
atonement theory and, 300
black hermeneutics and, 131
Black Power movement and, 71–73
black theology and, 177–179, 187–190, 434–435, 448n.30
Christology of, 157–158, 371
on church life and spirituality, 232
on colonialism and theology, 415–417
on correlation, 124–126
criticism of, 215–217
critique of ideology and, 118
doctrine of God and, 142–146
emancipatory reason and work of, 98
on embodiment, 314
eschatology of, 248, 256–258, 260–261
on evil, sin, and suffering, 213–215
on global economy, 404–405
on heaven and hell, 253–256
history of African American theology and, 15–19, 21–24
Holy Spirit theology and, 169–170
on humanism, 285–286
influence on African American theology of, 85–93, 93n.17, 112
liberation theology of, 75, 202–205, 415–416, 448n.33
ontology in black theology and, 397–398
pan-African theology and, 335–337
postsegregation theology and, 384
on racism, 352, 447n.7
on reason and theology, 383
on religious experience, 43
religious pluralism and, 332, 335, 339–340
on sexuality and black theology, 352–353, 358n.8
on social justice, 281
Society for the Study of Black Religion and, 295–297
spirituals research by, 231
on theism, 283
womanist critique of, 352–353, 443–444
conjure practices
Bible and, 64n.76
black spiritual movement and, 457–458
Conjuring Culture: Biblical Formations of Black America (Smith), 191
connectional tradition, in black theology, 296
“Conquest and Cultural Contact in the New World” (Long), 188–189
“conquest narratives,” womanist theology and, 144–145
consciousness, religious experience and, 45–54
“Consider This” (Gray), 192
contact zones, for colonialism and black theology, 419–427
contextuality, accountability and, 300–304
Cook, Ann, 483
Cooper, Anna Julia, 98, 103, 129, 132, 370
Cooper, Valerie, 381
Cooper-Lewis, Nicholas, 189–190
Copeland, Gloria, 463
Copeland, Kenneth, 463
Copeland, M. Shawn, 40–58, 106, 112, 183
Christology and, 161
on embodiment, 315–316
on evil and sin, 222–223
postsegregation theology and, 384–385
womanist theology and, 268–269
world and creation in theology of, 193
corporate ideology, globalization and, 406–408
correlation, in black theology, 124–126
cosmology
black church and, 396–397
ecowomanism and, 194–195
Holy Spirit as creator of, 169
in indigenous African religion, 49–50, 189
Council of Chalcedon, 153
Council of Nicaea, 153
covenantal eschatology, 246
Crawford, A. Elaine Brown, 273
creation. See world and creation
“The Creation” (Johnson), 168, 191–192
Crenshaw Christian Center, 463–464
The Crisis, 317n.6
critique of ideology, African American theology and, 117–120
The Cross and the Lynching Tree (Cone), 254–255
(p. 498) Crummel, Alexander, 112, 334, 336, 370, 381–382
Cugoano, Quobna Ottobah, 369–372, 375n.16
Cullen, Countee, 156, 371
cultural studies, African American theology and, 117–120, 423–426
culture and cultural production
African American theology and, 76
as African American theology resource, 130–131
African influences in slave culture, 42
anthropology and politics of, 182–183
black theology and, 85–93
boundaries of black theology and, 480–487
colonialism and, 418–427
correlation in religious experience and, 125–126
creation myths and, 188–189
cultural nationalism and, 471
definitions of, 58n.1
evil and sin reflected in, 221
historical ethos and, 321–322
hope of heaven in, 259–261
human sciences school and, 131–132
humanism and, 282–284
language of religious experience and, 45–47, 63n.64
pan-African theology and, 336–337
in post-civil rights black theology, 188–190
reason and, 99
religious experience and, 40–42
sex and sexuality in black theology and, 354–358
slavery and diversity of, 41–42
theism and, 282
womanist theology and, 103
Cummings, George, 54–55, 206
“curse of Ham” theory, embodiment and, 313
Curtin, Philip, 41
Cut Loose Your Stammering Tongue: Black Theology in Slave Narrative (Hopkins and Cummings), 54–56, 395
Dahomean culture, 46
Danticat, Edwidge, 486
Dark Symbols, Obscure Signs (Earl), 395
Darkwater (Du Bois), 392
Darwin, Charles, 175
Davidic Covenant, 246
Davis, David Brion, 41
Day, Keri, 139–150, 408–411
De Trinitate (Augustine), 165
death
African American eschatology and, 248–250
heaven and hell in context of, 254–256
“Death of God” theology, 8, 283–284
The Death of White Sociology (Ladner), 383–384
Decolonizing Theology: A Caribbean Perspective (Erskine), 206, 422
Deeper Shades of Purple (Floyd-Thomas), 5
Delany, Martin, 370
Descartes, Rene, 391
Dewey, John, 113
dialectical theology, 178–179
social theory and, 377–385
diaspora theology
accountability and, 298
African influence in, 432, 446
colonialism and, 418, 420, 423, 427
eschatology and, 249–250
history and historicism and, 115–116, 372, 374n.12
liberation theology and, 78
pedagogical praxis and, 323
public imaginary and, 468–478
religious pluralism and, 333, 336–343, 344n.9, 346n.46, 347n.47
womanist theology and, 267, 271–272, 274–275, 277, 444–445
digital technology, African theology and, 446
discipleship
Christology and, 161
in womanist theology, 272
discipline, body in need of, 474–475
dispensationalism, eschatology and, 245–246
Divine, Major Father Jealous. See Baker, George
Doctrine of God, 139–150
“The Doctrine of Man in the Theology of Karl Barth” (Cone), 178
Dodson, Jualyne, 207
Dogon culture, 49
Douglas, Kelly Brown, 77–79, 112
accountability and theology of, 299, 301–303
on black churches, 236
black hermeneutics and, 131
on Christianity, 285
Christology and, 159–160
on liberation, 207–208
on sexuality and religious life, 315–316, 351–353, 356–358
womanist theology of, 272, 281
world and creation in theology of, 193
Douglass, Frederick
on African ancestors, 32
on Christianity for African Americans, 129
nontheistic theology and, 209
on political action and black theology, 371
social theory of, 112
Douglass, Sarah Mapps, 129
Down, Up, and Over (Hopkins), 55, 206
(p. 499) Dread and Pentecostal: A Political Theology for the Black Church in Britain (Beckford), 423–424
Du Bois, W. E. B., 41
on blackness, 125, 156
Christology in work of, 371
on churches as social resource, 233
double consciousness concept of, 98, 247–248
on education, 129
embodiment in analyses of, 311
existentialism in writing of, 392–393
pan-Africanism and, 433
problem of the color line and, 175, 177
on religious experience of African Americans, 166, 168
on slave spirituality, 229, 231
social theory of, 85, 112, 317n.6, 331
dub music, religious experience and, 423–424
Dutch Reformed Church, 441
“Duty to Dependent Races” (Harper), 129
Dyson, Michael Eric, 86, 236
Eagle Mountain International Church, 463
Earl, Riggins Jr., 216–217, 395
ecclesiology
African American theology and, 228–238
Biblical grounding in black churches and, 234–235
Black Power movement and, 70–75
church as refuge concept in, 230–232
church as social resource, 232–233
civil rights and, 69
cultural inclusiveness of black churches and, 235–236
Holy Spirit theology and, 167–168
millenialism and eschatology and, 244–245
political theology and, 87
social productivity in church life and, 236–237
theology of black public and, 472–473
typology of black churches, 234
womanist views on, 77–79, 270
Echoes from the Poisoned Well: Global Memories of Environmental Justice (Washington), 194
“Ecology Is a Sistah’s Issue Too: The Politics of Emergent Afrocentric EcoWomanism” (Riley), 194
economic justice
African American theology and, 9
churches as resource for, 233, 236–237
globalization and, 402–411
prosperity gospel and, 453–464
public black body imagery and, 468–471
ecowomanism, evolution of, 194–195
Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians (EATWOT), 403, 406, 411n.7, 440–441
education, pedagogical praxis and, 321–322, 328n.14
Egypt, African American historical links to, 30–36
Eliade, Mircea, 259
Ellett, Robert, 29
emancipatory reason
historical evolution of, 97–107
slave religious experience, 105
embodiment
in African American theology, 308–316
African American theology and, 8
authenticity and, 476–477
black anthropology and, 179–183
discipline and, 474–475
ethics and black theology and, 313–316
evil and sin in womanist theology and, 219
freedom and, 473–474
humanism and, 286–288
pathos and, 322–324
public black body, creation of, 468–471
recognition of, 475
symbolic identification and, 371
theology of black public and, 473
white supremacy and, 106–107
womanist theology and, 180, 275–277
Embodiment and the New Shape of Black Theological Thought (Pinn), 183
The End of God-Talk: An African American Humanist Theology (Pinn), 209, 287–288
“end times,” eschatology in African American theology and, 242–251
Enfleshing Freedom: Body, Race, and Being (Copeland), 183
environmental theology
environmental racism and, 193
evil and sin in womanist theology and, 219–220
humanism and, 286–288
second generation black theology and, 192
Walker on, 194
womanist theology and, 194
epistemology
African indigenous religions and, 104–105
black ontology and theology and, 390–391
in black theology, 106–107
Equiano, Olaudah, 33–34, 128
“erons,” 325, 329n.24
Erskine, Noel, 206, 422
eschatology. See also heaven; hell
African American experience and, 247–250
in African American theology, 242–251
(p. 500) apocalyptic notions and, 249–250
benevolent promise and, 256–258
covenantal perspective in, 246
cultural legacy of, 250–251
defined, 243
dispensationalism in, 245–246
Ethiopia model and, 250
Exodus narrative and, 250
heaven and hell in context of, 255–256
hope of heaven and, 259–261
millennialism in, 244–245
of place, 261
transitions in evangelicalism and, 246–247
Eternal Life Spiritualist Church Number 12, 457–458
ethics
embodiment and, 313–316
history of black theology and, 371
humanism and, 286–288
womanist theology and, 56–57
Ethics (Bonhoeffer), 256
Ethiopia
African American historical links to, 30–36, 432–433
eschatology and symbol of, 250
eudaimonia, prosperity gospel and, 455–458
Eugene, Toinette, 77–78
eugenics, embodiment and, 312
European Enlightenment
African American religious experience and, 42–43, 381–383
reason and, 100–101
evangelical theology
Biblical interpretation and, 235
black churches and, 234
church experience and, 230
civil rights and rejection of, 69
eschatology in black theology and, 244–246
prosperity gospel and, 453–464
slave culture and, 52–53
transitions in eschatology and, 246–247
Unity School of Christianity and, 458
Evans, James H. Jr., 31, 131, 164–172, 206, 281
Ever Increasing Faith Ministries, 463–464
evil, 212–225. See also redemption
in black theology, 20–21, 182–183, 209, 212–225
Catholic womanist perspectives on, 221–223
in early black theology, 213–215
in literary/cultural sources, 221
social productions of, 223–225
variations in definition of, 217–219
in womanist theology, 57–58, 219–221, 270–271
evolutionary accountability, 301
existentialism, black ontology and, 391–394
Exodus narrative
doctrine of God and, 143–144
eschatology and, 250
Glaude's discussion of, 380–381
slavery in context of, 29–30, 52, 105
theodicy and, 74
womanist theology and, 103–104
Exodus! Religion, Race, and Nation in Early Nineteenth-Century Black America (Glaude), 381
extra-church traditions, emergence of, 421–427
Eze, Emmanuel, 43
Ezekiel narrative, 323, 329n.20
Fairmount Avenue Ministry, 459
Faith Dome, 463–464
Faith, Health, and Healing in African American Life (Townes), 194
Faith Seminar of the Air radio show, 463
Fanon, Frantz, 177–178, 180, 391–392
Farajaje-Jones, Elias, 78, 358n.8
Father Divine. See Baker, George
Felder, Cain Hope, 32, 36n.1, 248–249
feminist theory
African American theology and, 102–103
anthropology and, 180
liberation theology and, 208–209
womanist theology and, 91, 132, 267
Ferguson, Catherine, 328n.14
Fillmore, Charles, 458–459
Fillmore, Myrtle, 458–459
“filoque” controversy, Holy Spirit theology and, 167
Finley, Stephen C., 15–24
The Fire Next Time (Baldwin), 415–416, 427
First Great Awakening
African American religion and, 28
slavery and Christianity and, 50–51
Floyd-Thomas, Juan M., 200–209, 283
Floyd-Thomas, Stacey, 5, 277
Flueckiger, Joyce, 344n.9
folk culture
African American religious experience and, 55
African symbolism and mythology in, 128
black spiritual movement and, 457–458
black theology and, 332–334
colonialism and, 423–426
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 482–487
Foote, Julia, 57
Forman, James, 201–202
Forte, Maximillian, 346n.46
Foucault, Michel, 174–175
African American theology and, 44
(p. 501) Frazier, E. Franklin, 42, 78, 230–232, 237
freedom
black body and need for, 473–474
Christology and, 155–161
as cultural norm in black theology, 131
heaven and hell and, 256
Holy Spirit theology and, 166–168
liberation and, 200–201
postsegregation theology and, 383–385, 384–385
pre-civil rights theology and, 186–187
symbols of, 128–129
theodicy and legitimacy of, 370–372
theology of, 205
Free Enterprise (Cliff), 321
Fund for Theological Education, 295
Furro, Broteer. See Smith, Venture
Gandhi, Mohandas K., 157
Garnet, Henry Highland, 33, 185
Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, 79, 178
Garvey, Marcus, 156, 334, 370–371
gay rights. See homosexuality
Geertz, Clifford, 46
gender issues
in African theology, 443–445
anthropology and, 179–183
black churches and, 235–236
black theology and, 102–103
globalization and, 408–411
pedagogical praxis in, 319–327
reason and, 100–101, 382–383
sexuality in black theology and, 353–358
theodicy and, 75
womanist theology and, 76–79, 132, 207–209
“A Genealogy of Modern Racism” (West), 21, 428n.11
genealogy of African American theology
colonial contact zones and, 420–426
religious experiences and practices and, 48–54
Genesis narrative
African American interpretations of, 30–31
African peoples in, 33–34
embodiment and, 313
Holy Spirit theology and, 164–165, 168
Johnson's retelling of, 191
pre-civil rights black theology and, 186–187, 189–190
womanist theology and, 144
Ghana, independence for, 432
Ghekye, Kwame, 368
Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend, 52
on accountability, 304
human sciences school and, 131–132
on liberation theology, 207
womanist theology and, 267–269, 274
Gilroy, Paul, 423
Glaude, Eddie S. Jr., 21–23, 26n.57
on Exodus narrative, 380–381
theory of black theology and, 112–113
Glave, Dianne D., 193, 194, 486
globalization
African American theology and, 402–411
black theologians' opposition to, 403
colonialism and, 418–419
Cone's discussion of, 404–405
future of African American theology and, 343, 346n.46
Hopkins's discussion of, 405–408
postsegregation theology and, 384–385
glossolalia, 459–462
Go Tell It on the Mountain (Baldwin), 229
God. See also theism
church life and sovereignty of, 230
doctrine of, 139–150
eschatology in black theology and, 242–251
humanism and doctrine of, 287–288
non-theistic views of, 146–149
racist constructions of, 140
as symbol, 126–127
“God Is Creation: Womanist Theology and the Earth” (Thomas), 194
God of the Oppressed (Cone)
Black Power movement and, 75
Christology in, 371
dialectical theology and, 179
embodiment in, 314
hermeneutics of suspicion in, 118
history of black theology and, 371
humanist theology and, 285
liberation theology and, 204
Protestant theology and, 90
God of the Rahtid: Redeeming Rage (Beckford), 423
God's Trombones (Johnson), 191
God Struck Me Dead (slave narrative collection), 52–54, 64n.82
Gogarten, Friedrich, 178
Golden Rule, African American interpretations of, 33–34
Goldschmidt, Henry, 415
Gomez, Michael, 40
Gone with the Wind (film), 310
Gonzales, Michelle, 343
Gordon, Jane Anna, 368
Gordon, Lewis, 391–392
gospel music, 484–487
Goss, Robert, 351
(p. 502) Grant, Jacquelyn, 3, 77, 103, 131
on accountability, 304
Christology and, 159
on doctrine of God, 143
on embodiment, 314–316
on evil and sin, 272
on liberation in womanist theology, 207–208, 352–353
on ontology, 397–398
on symbolic identification, 371
systematic theology of, 205
womanist theology and, 267–268
world and creation in theology of, 193
Gray, Tyson-Lord J., 192
Great Britain, black theology and religious experience in, 423–426
Great Migration
Christology and, 156–157
embodiment and racism during, 310–313
Greek mythology, Williams's discussion of, 225n.15
“Green Lap, Brown Embrace, Blue Body: The Ecospirituality of Alice Walker” (Smith), 194
Griffin, David Ray, 192
Griffin, Horace, 236, 351–358
Grimke, Francis, 129
grotesque
African American religious experience and, 55–56
doctrine of God and, 149–150
Gullah culture, 42, 52, 64n.74
Holy Spirit theology and, 168
Hagar
Christology and, 160–161
doctrine of God and, 144
ontology and narrative of, 398
Williams's commentary on, 30–31, 75
Hagin, Kenneth Sr., 462–463
Haitian Revolution, 372–373
Hall, Prince, 32
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 76, 87, 132
Hansberry, Lorraine, 282
Harding, Rachel E., 487
Hardy, Clarence E. III, 85–93, 384
Harlem Renaissance, 156
Harper, Frances E. W., 33, 35, 129
Harrison, Beverly (Dr.), 323–324
Harrison, Milmon, 463–464
Hartman, Saidiya, 41
Hartshorne, Charles, 192
Harvey, Paul, 155
Hayes, Diana L., 78, 153–161, 276
Haynes, Lemuel, 369, 371, 380
healing revivalism, 460–462
cultural roots of, 486–487
Word of Faith movement and, 462–464
Heart and Head: Black Theology—Past, Present, and Future (Hopkins), 206, 357
heaven
in African American theology, 253–262
as benevolent promise, 256–258
hope of, in black theology, 259–261
Hebrew Scriptures, African American theology and, 74
Hegel, G. F. W., 174–175
Heidegger, Martin, 255, 390–391
hell
in African American theology, 253–262
hope of heaven and, 259–261
in medieval theology, 364
white depravity and, 259–261
The Help (novel and film), 272
Henry, Paget, 368
Henry the Navigator (Prince), 176
hermeneutics
in African American theology, 54–56
doctrine of God and, 142–143
emancipatory reason and, 98–99
globalization and theology and, 405–408, 413n.28
of identification-ascertainment, 104
liberation theology and, 208–209
paradigms in black theology and, 131–132
of suspicion, 118
theism and, 281–282
theory and, 111–120
in womanist theology, 410–411
Herskovits, Melville, 42, 78
Herzog, Fredrick, 73
heteronormativity
accountability in black theology and, 299–300
sexism and sexuality in black theology and, 353–358
womanist theology and, 77–79
Heyward, Carter, 351
Hicks, Derek S., 242–251
Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, 232
Higher Life pedagogy, 462
Hill, Renée, 78, 300, 353–354, 357, 358n.8
historicist theory
African American theology and, 115–117, 121n.16
embodiment and, 311–312
eschatology, 257–258
heaven and, 254–256
history
(p. 503) African American theology and role of, 15–24, 112, 115–117, 363–373
of heaven and hell ideology, 254–256
in liberation theology, 202–205
pedagogical praxis and ethos of, 321–322
religious experience and role of, 41, 365–366
slavery and religious history, 366–367
Hodgson, Peter, 73
Holiness-Pentecostal churches, 230
Holmes, Barbara, 194, 276–277
Holy Ground: A Gathering of Voices on Caring for Creation (Gray), 192
Holy Spirit
in African American theology, 164–172
black theological models of, 168–171
as creator of cosmos, 169
liberation theology and, 201
as redeemer, 169–170
as sustainer, 170–171
homosexuality
accountability in theology and, 302
African American theology and, 353–358
black churches and, 236
liberation theology and, 79, 207–208
“hoodoo” doctors, 457–458
hooks, bell, 268–269
hope
black existential hope and ontology, 391–394
of heaven, 259–261
in womanist theology, 273
Hopkins, Dwight, 5, 54, 86, 101–102, 304
on black church life, 231
black hermeneutics and, 131
on cultural production, 487
on embodiment, 315
environmental theology and, 192
on globalization, 405–408
on humanism, 284
on liberation theology, 206
on sexuality in African American theology, 357–358
on slave religion, 395
theory of black theology and, 112
Hopkins, Emma Curtis, 458
Horne, Gerald, 372
Hottentot Venus, 309
“How I found Jesus” (Sojourner), 159
Hucks, Tracey, 43, 46, 54
Hudson-Weems, Clenora, 268
Hughes, Langston, 130, 192
human rights
civil rights and, 371
womanist theology and, 409–411
human sciences school (HSS), 131–132
humanism
in African American theology, 104, 280–288
Biblical interpretation and, 30
doctrine of God and, 146–149
evil and sin in, 218–219, 224–225
liberation theology and, 209
religious experience and, 44, 114–115
religious pluralism and, 332, 340–341
theism and, 281–284
humanity, African American theology and, 174–183, 186–187
humanocentric theism, Jones's concept o, 284–288
Hume, David, 369
Hurston, Zora Neale, 51
on black spiritual movement, 457–458
black theology and work of, 192
on evil and sin, 221
on God as symbol, 127
womanist theology and, 56–57, 270
hush arbors, 51–52
Ibn Said, Omar, 128
The Identity Crisis in Black Theology (Cone), 129–130
ideology, critique of, 117–120
idolatry
post-civil rights theology and, 188
slavery and, 369–372
Idowu, Bolaji, 436, 446n.1
If It Wasn't for the Women (Gilker), 304
Igbo culture, 49
“I Got Shoes” (spiritual), 485
Iliad (Homer), 225n.15
imago Dei
in African American theology, 2, 369–372
humanist theology and, 288
Jewish model of, 371
in liberation theology, 209
pan-African theology and, 336–337
in womanist theology, 272, 410–411
immigration, slavery and, 475–476
Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (Pratt), 419
In a Shade of Blue: Pragmatism and the Politics of Black America (Glaude), 21–22
In Search of our Mother's Gardens: Womanist Prose (Walker), 159–160, 193, 207, 267, 353
incarceration, as racialized social control, 66n.112
inculturation, African theology of, 440–443
Inferno (Dante), 364
institutional racism
Christianity and, 140–150
emancipatory reason and, 102
(p. 504) integration, in public imaginary, 475–476
Interdenominational Theological Center (ITC), 192, 352–353
Introducing Black Theology of Liberation (Hopkins), 357
Is God a White Racist? A Preamble to Black Theology (Jones)
historical agency in black theology and, 19
humanist theology and, 282–284
liberation theology and, 204–205
redemptive suffering in, 147–149, 371–372
Ishmael
doctrine of God and, 144
Williams's commentary on, 30–31
Islam
in Africa, 366–367
African contact with, 40
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 484–487
influence in African American theology of, 331–332
presence in American slavery, 40, 59n.3, 368–372
religious history and, 365–366
Jackson, Joseph H., 447n.3
Jackson, Joseph Jr., 69–70
Jackson, Mahalia, 484
Jackson, Sherman, 372
Jamaa (the family), 437
jazz, cultural boundaries of black theology and, 483–487
Jefferson, Thomas, 129, 379
Jennings, Willie James, 112, 468–478
Jesus. See Christology
Jesus and the Disinherited (Thurman), 383
Jesus Dub: Theology, Music and Social Change (Beckford), 423–424
Jesus is Dread: Black Theology and Black Culture in Great Britain (Beckford), 423–424
Johnson, James Weldon, 27, 36n.1, 191–192, 282
on biblical interpretations, 34
Holy Spirit theology and, 168
Johnson, Mordecai Wyatt, 304
Johnson, Sylvester, 68–80
Johnson, Terrence L., 96–107, 393
Jones, Howard O., 230, 235
Jones, Major, 2, 131
religious pluralism and, 332
on theism, 283
Jones, William R., 2, 19–24, 43–44
black philosophical school and, 131–132
black theology project and, 177
doctrine of God and, 146–149
on evil and sin, 218–219, 224
humanist theology and, 209, 281–288, 289n.11
on liberation theology, 74–75, 202, 204–205
maldistribution concept of, 222–223
on redemptive suffering, 371–372
theism challenged by, 282–284
Joy Unspeakable: Contemplative Practices of the Black Church (Holmes), 194–195
Joyful Gospel Singer, 484
Judaism
creolization of, 368
influence in African American theology of, 76, 331–332, 368–372
liberation in, 200
religious history and, 365–366
Julian, Hubert Fauntroy, 447n.4
Just a Sister Way (Weems), 304
Kant, Immanuel, 174
Kathy Ferguson's School for the Poor, 328n.14
Kee, Alistair, 412n.18
Kelly Miller Smith Institute on the Black Church, 443
Kelsey, George, 186
Kennedy, John F., 433, 446
Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 463
Kenyon, Essek William, 462
Keppard, Freedie, 483
Keswick holiness movement, 462
King, Martin Luther Jr.
on accountability, 303–304
assassination of, 292, 293, 297, 434
Beloved Community concept of, 7, 299
Biblical text in speeches of, 29–30, 36
Christology of, 157
on church life and spirituality, 232
cultural influences of, 487
eschatological statements by, 247
God as symbol for, 127
historical legacy of, 416
on political action and black theology, 371
political theology of, 69, 76, 87, 432, 443
on redemptive suffering, 74–75
religious pluralism and, 334
social gospel and, 3, 72
womanist theology and, 56–57
King, Rodney, 299, 306n.31
Kirk-Duggan, Cheryl, 29, 36, 267–277
Klailombe, Patrick, 206
Kong cosmogram, 335
Kuhlman, Kathryn, 462
Kumina tradition, 422
(p. 505) La Philosophie Bantoue (Tempels), 436–437
Lacan, Jacques, 178
Ladner, Joyce, 383
Lakewood Church, 463
language
black religious identity and, 22
of religious experience, 45–47, 63n.64
Latin American liberation theology, 206, 292–293
collaborative imperative, 343–344
global economy and, 404–405
religious pluralism and, 339–340
womanist theology and, 268
Lee, Jarena, 102, 132, 380–382
Lee, Shayne, 236
Lee, Spike, 92
Legerton, Wynn, 329n.24
legitimacy, cultural boundaries of black theology and, 482–487
“Letter from Birmingham Jail” (King), 87
Lewis, George, 483
liberalism, in African American Christianity, 234
Liberation and Reconciliation: A Black Theology (Roberts), 435
liberation theology, 7
academic establishment of, 73–74
in African American theology, 200–209
African influences in, 431, 440–443
black history and, 22–23
current perspectives in, 207–209
defined, 200
doctrine of God and, 142–144, 146–149
emancipatory reason and, 97–107
embodied pathos and, 322–324
globalization and, 404–405, 407–408
hermeneutics approach to, 54–56
historical perspectives on, 202–205
Holy Spirit and, 169–170
humanism and, 104–105
non-theistic scholarship and, 146–149
public meaning of Christianity and, 68–70
reason and, 101–107
religious experience and, 44
religious pluralism and, 332
second generation God-talk in, 205–206
sexism and sexuality and, 353–358
womanist theology and, 77–79
Liberia, symbolism of, 433
“Lift Every Voice and Sing” (Johnson), 27, 36n.1
Lincoln, C. Eric, 90, 94n.20, 131–132, 233, 237, 352, 395–397, 434
literary sources and resources
for African American theology, 129–130
evil and sin reflected in, 221
“Little David, Play on Your Harp” (spiritual), 34
lived experience, black ontology and, 391–394
Living by the Word: Selected Writings, 1973–1987 (Walker), 193
Living Stones in the Household of God: The Legacy and Future of Black Theology (Thomas), 353
Lloyd, Genevieve, 100
Long, Charles H.
accountability and theology of, 299
African American theology and, 28, 43, 48, 53, 93n.1
black theology critiqued by, 177, 435, 448n.16
on colonialism and Christianity, 420–426
Cone and, 85–86, 88, 90, 92
on conquest and pilgrimage, 377
on embodiment, 314, 316
hermeneutics of, 98–99
human sciences school and, 131–132
on “involuntary presence” of African Americans, 127
on liberation theology, 203–205
pan-African theology and, 335–337
postsegregation theology and, 383–385
on reason and theology, 381–383
religious pluralism and, 345n.22
on symbols in African American religion, 126–127
world and creation in theology of, 188–189
Loving the Body: Black Religious Studies and the Erotic (Pinn), 357–358
The Luminous Darkness: A Personal Interpretation of the Anatomy of Segregation and the Ground of Hope (Thurman), 186, 383
lynching
African American theology and, 76
heaven and hell in context of, 254–256
MacGaffey, Wyatt, 335
Magesa, Laurenti, 437
Making a Way out of No Way: A Womanist Theology (Coleman), 145–146, 338
Malcolm X, 92, 294, 371, 487n.4
African American theology and, 3
Mamiya, Lawrence, 90, 94n.20, 233, 237, 396
The Man of Reason: “Male” and “Female” in Western Philosophy (Lloyd), 100
Marable, Manning, 237
Marrant, John, 380
Martey, Emmanuel, 436, 439–440, 442
Martin, Clarice J., 33
Martin, John M., 272–273
Martin and Malcolm and America (Cone), 92
Marxism
Cone’s discussion of, 404–405
globalization and, 405–408, 412n.18, 412n.20
(p. 506) historical agency in theology and, 373
materiality, prosperity gospel and, 454–455
Mathews, Rosita deAnn, 271
Matory, J. Lorand, 107
Mays, Benjamin E., 69, 186, 231, 237, 283, 352
Mbiti, John S., 49–50, 171–172, 206, 436, 438–441, 448n.30
McGee, Lewis (Rev.), 283
media stereotypes, embodiment and racism and, 310–313
medieval theology, 363–364
megachurches, evolution of, 236
“messianic humanism,” 256–257
metaphysical epistemologies, black ontology and theology and, 390–391
“Metaphysical Library,” 459
Methodists
black churches as, 234
Black Methodists for Church Renewal, 434
Methodologies of Black Theology (Ware), 131
Mighty Chariots of Fire, 484
Mignolo, Walter, 43
Miles, Lizzie, 483
millenialism, eschatology in African American theology and, 244–245
Miller, Lloyd James, 302
Mills, Charles, 43
mind/body dualism, black ontology and, 391, 394–395
Mintz, Sidney, 42
miscegenation laws, embodiment and, 309–313
The Mis-Education of the Negro (Woodson), 294
Miss Emma, 484
Mitchell, Henry, 131–132, 189–190
Mitchem, Stephanie Y., 18, 194, 272, 308–316, 397–398, 425
Mohanty, Satya, 111
Moltmann, Jürgen, 255
monotheism. See theism
Monroe, Irene, 300
Montgomery Bus Boycott, 432
Morris, Aldon, 232–233
Morrison, Roy D. II, 377
Morrison, Toni, 35–36, 128, 183, 321–322, 486
Morrison-Reed, Mark, 283
Morton, Jelly Roll, 483
Moses, African American interpretations of, 29–30
Moses Hogan Sisters, 484
Moss, Thomas, 316n.5
Mothership Connections: A Black Atlantic Synthesis of Neoclassical Metaphysics and Black Theology (Walker), 192
Moyd, Olin, 131, 215–217
Mules and Men (Hurston), 192
Murphy, Larry G., 212–225
music
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 483–487
religious experience and, 423–424
“Must I Be Womanist” (Coleman), 299
Mveng, Englebert, 206
My Soul Looks Back: Journeys in Faith (Cone), 89, 204, 447n.7
Myal tradition, 422
mystical traditions, colonialism and, 424–426
“Mysticism and the Experience of Love” (Thurman), 187
myth, Long on creation myths, 188–189
Myth of the Eternal Return (Eliade), 259
narrative, as resource for black theology, 130
Narrative (Douglass), 129
Nash, Peter, 32
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 69, 237, 317n.6
National Association of Colored Women (NACW), 75
National Association of Unity Churches, 461
National Baptist Convention, USA (NBC USA), 69, 447n.3
National Black Church Environmental and Economic Justice Summit, 193
National Committee of Black Churchmen (NCBC), 88, 434
National Committee of Negro Churchmen (NCBC), 88, 201, 352, 434, 438, 447n.2
Theological Commission of, 441
National Conference of Social Work, 382
National Urban League, 237
nationalist visioning, 471
Native American religions, African American theology and, 76
The Negro Spiritual Speaks of Life and Death (Thurman), 259
The Negro's God (Mays), 283
“Nehemiah Homes” housing project, 30
Nelson, James, 351
Nelson, William Stuart, 383
neoconservative ideology, globalization and, 406–408, 411n.6
“The New Cultural Politics of Difference” (West), 182–183
New Day magazine, 460
New Testament scholarship
Black Power movement and, 72–73
(p. 507) contested African American interpretations in, 31–33
doctrine of God and, 144–145
eschatology and apocalypse in, 249–250
evil, sin and suffering and, 214–215
Holy Spirit theology and, 170–171
New Thought movement, 454–455, 458–462
Word of Faith movement and, 462–464
New York Times, black theology coverage in, 1
Nicholson, Joseph W., 231, 237
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 3, 157
Nigeria
African theology in, 446n.1
theology in, 436–437
Nimrod, African American humanism and figure of, 30
Nixon, Richard Milhous, 297
Nkrumah, Kwame, 432
Noel, James, 43, 46, 425–426
in African-American theology, 332–344
African American theology and, 5–6
of Africans, 366–367
Caribbean theology and, 339–340
colonialism and, 421–422
doctrine of God and, 146
Holy Spirit theology and, 166
liberation theology and, 205
religious pluralism and, 342–344, 346n.39
nondenominational churches, 234
nontheistic theology, 44, 112, 209
doctrine of God and, 146–149
humanism and, 281–288
religious pluralism and, 340–341
Noone, Jimmie, 483
normativity, in black theology, secular society and, 378–381
The North Star, 129
Nzambi Mpungu (Bakongo God), 49
Obeah tradition, 422, 457–458
Oduyoye, Mercy, 206, 444–445
“Of Our Spiritual Strivings” (Du Bois), 247
Okonjo Ogunyemi, Chikwenye, 268
Olódùmarè (Yoruban God), 49
Oludumare : God in Yoruba Belief (Idowu), 436
Omi, Michael, 44
one-drop rule, embodiment and, 309–313
“The Only Reason You Want to Go to Heaven” (Walker), 194
Ontological Blackness (Anderson), 21–22
“Ontological Blackness in Theology” (Anderson), 118
ontology
in black church, 396–397
black existential hope and, 391–394
black religious experience and, 394–395
black theology and, 390–399
womanist theology and, 397–398
Onyame (Akan-Ashanti God), 49
Open Your Mind and Be Healed (Colemon), 461
Operation Crossroads Africa Program, 446
oppression
African American sexuality and issues of, 356–358
African theology and, 432, 439–443
Christology and, 154
critique of ideology and, 119–120
emancipatory reason and, 97–107
eschatology and, 248–250
evil and sin in womanist theology and, 220–221
heaven and hell in context of, 254–256
internalization of, 299–301
oppugnancy, Long's concept of, 205
oral text
Biblical interpretation and, 28
spirituals and, 52–54
Organization for African Unity (OAU), 439–440
Orisha traditions, 338–339
Osteen, Joel, 463
Osteen, John, 463
Others, African American theology and role of, 174–183
Outlaw, Lucius, 378, 382–383
Oyo-Yoruba Empire, 107
Page, Hugh R., 35
Paine, Thomas, 379
A Pan-African Theology (Young), 78, 104–105, 206
pan-African theology
black theology and, 78, 104–105, 206, 335–337, 371
colonialism in Africa and, 433
Parable of the Sower (Butler), 338
paradigms in African American theology, 131–132
Paris, Peter J., 2, 112, 189, 240n.53, 356, 395–397, 431–446
passing, embodiment and, 309–313
patriarchal sexism, womanist theology and, 208–209
Pauline theology
African American interpretations of, 33–34
Holy Spirit in, 165
Payne, Daniel Alexander, 336
Peace Mission movement, 460
pedagogical praxis, in African American theology, 319–327
Pennington, James W. C., 33
(p. 508) Pentecostal black churches, 234, 459–462
Word of Faith movement and, 462–464
Perkins, John, 30
“Perspectives for the Study of Afro-American Religion in the United States” (Long), 421
Petrella, Ivan, 408
Phelps, Jamie (Sister), 221–222
The Philadelphia Negro (Du Bois), 317n.6
Philips, Layli, 268
Phillips, Layli, 5
Pinn, Anthony, 20–21, 280–288
on accountability, 304
accountability and, 299
Biblical interpretation and, 30
on black churches, 236
on black ontology, 394
black philosophical school and, 131–132
on Christianity, 46
on colonialism and black religious experience, 421–422
on cultural production, 487
on doctrine of God, 146–149
on embodiment, 316
environmental theology and, 192
on evil and sin, 219
on hermeneutics approach to liberation, 55–56
on historical agency, 372
humanist theology and, 25n.35, 44, 112
on nontheistic theology, 44, 112, 209
postsegregation theology and, 384
on religious experience, 114–115
religious pluralism and, 332, 340–342
on sexuality and black theology, 357–358
theological anthropology and, 182–183
place, eschatology of, 261
Rastafari and, 373
pneumatology
African American theology and, 165–168
defined, 164
Pocock, J. G. A., 379–380
political agency
accountability and, 293–295, 298–300
African American theology and, 76, 86–93, 102, 112
Christology and, 157–161
churches as resource for, 233–234, 236–237
history of black theology and, 371
in spirituals, 231–232
theological normativity and, 379–381
Political-Theological Dissertation Examining the Question: IS Slavery Compatible with Christian Freedom or Not? (Capitein), 380–381
postmillenialism, eschatology in African American theology and, 244–245
postmodernism
African American theology and, 4
doctrine of God and, 146
globalization and, 406–408
religious pluralism and, 338–339
poverty
African American religious experience and, 58
African theology and, 442–443
death and, 248
doctrine of God and, 143
evil and sin and, 217
global economy and, 403
prosperity gospel and, 465n.4
racism and, 313–314, 352, 404–405
womanist theology and, 57, 270, 408–411
Powell, Adam Clayton Jr., 70–71
power confession, 454–455
Practical Theology for Black Churches, 302
practice
in African American theology, 110–120
in liberation theology, 201
Pratt, Mary-Louise, 419, 427
praxis
in black religious experience, 46, 53, 58
in Christianity, 50
Christology and, 161
cognitive praxis in black theology, 106
historical ethos and, 321–322
humanist theology and, 282
liberation theology and, 202, 205–206, 292–293
opposition to globalization and, 408
pedagogical praxis, 319–327
political agency and, 102
religious pluralism, 340–341
social praxis, 55
theory vs., 110–111
womanist theology and, 75, 146, 269–270, 276
premillenialism, eschatology in African American theology and, 244–245
Price, Frederick K., 463–464
Price, Richard, 42
Proctor, Samuel DeWitt, 443, 449n.39
progressive dispensationalism, 245–246
Progressive National Baptist Convention (PBNC), 69, 71
Prophesy Deliverance! (West), 21, 91–92
prosperity gospel
African American theology and, 453–464
black spiritual movement and, 455–458
defined, 454–455
globalization and, 407–408
liberation theology vs., 201
(p. 509) traditions of, 455–464
Unity School of Christianity and, 458–462
Word of Faith movement and, 462–464, 465n.4
Prosser, Gabriel, 102
Protestant theology
African American theology and, 5–6
black oppression and, 101
colonialism and, 417–427
Cone and, 90–93
history in America of, 368–372
prosperity gospel and, 454–455
slavery and, 51
Word of Faith movement and, 463
public black body, commodification of, 468–471
public imaginary
African American theology and, 468–478
authenticity and, 476–477
of black bodies, 468–471
cultural nationalism and, 471
discipline of body and, 474–475
freedom in, 473–474
integration in, 475–476
recognition of body and, 475
theology of black public and, 472–473
transformation of body in, 477–478
quality of life, religious experience and, 57–58
queer sexuality
accountability of black theology and, 299–300
Christology and, 161
womanist theology and, 78–79
The Quest for Liberation and Reconciliation: Essays in Honor of J. Deotis Roberts (Battles), 5
Quimby, Phineas Parker, 458
Raboteau, Albert, 42, 53–54, 60n.10, 229–230
race and racism
African American theology and, 3–4
African theology and, 438, 440–443
anthropology and, 174–183
benevolent promise in face of, 256–258
black bodies and, 309–313
black spiritual movement and, 456–458
Christology and, 156–161
church as refuge from, 231–232
civil rights and, 297–300
colonialism and, 416–427
contested Biblical interpretations and, 32–36
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 481–487
discursive resistance to, 186–187
doctrine of God and, 140–150
environmental racism and, 193
eschatology and, 247–250
globalization and, 404–405
historical concepts of blackness and, 21
interhistorical solidarity in face of, 117
liberation theology and, 205
reason used as justification for, 381–383
religious experience and, 44
suffering in context of, 352
symbols of, 127–129
theodicy and, 75
theology of black public and, 472–473
womanist theology and, 77–78, 207–209, 270
Race and the Cosmos: An Invitation to View the World Differently (Holmes), 194–195
race riots, 310–311
Racism and the Christian Understanding of Man (Kelsey), 186
Radin, Paul, 54
Ransom, Reverdy C., 382
Rastafari
historical agency and, 373
pan-African theology and, 372
Ray, Stephen, 212–213, 217–218
Reagan, Ronald, 297
reason
in African American theology, 96–107, 381–383
European Enlightenment and, 100–101
history of theology and, 363–364
reciprocity, in womanist theology, 325–326
redaction criticism, African American Biblical interpretation and, 34–35
Reddie, Anthony G., 402–411, 423–427
redemption. See also evil; sin
in African American theology, 74–75, 370–372
doctrine of God and, 147–149
historical agency and, 370–373
Holy Spirit and, 169–170
Redemption in Black Theology (Moyd), 215–217
Rediker, Marcus, 41
Reed, Adolph Jr., 237
Reed, Jai, 484
Reid, Steven Breck, 191
relevance, in African American theology, 296–297
religious broadcasting, 463
religious experience of African Americans, 40–58
African American theology and, 113–115
church life and, 228–238
colonialism and, 418–427
contemporary analysis of, 54–58
correlation in, 125–126
creation myths and, 188–190
genealogy and formation of, 48–54
(p. 510) heaven and hell in, 253–262
hermeneutical approach to, 54–56
history and, 365–366
Holy Spirit in, 165–168
ontology of, 394–395
sexuality and, 315–316
terminology of, 45–47
theology of black public and, 472–473
womanist theology and, 275–277
religious pluralism. See nontheistic theology
in African American theology, 331–344
audiences for, 342
Caribbean theologies and, 339–340
collaborative imperative and, 342–344
contemporary theology and, 337–339
future of black theology and, 341–344
humanist religion and, 340–341
pan-African religious cultures and, 335–337
theological scholarship on, 344n.3
religious practices, genealogy and formation of, 48–54
“Restore our Alienated Rights” movement, 311
revised dispensationalism, 245–246
Rhema television ministry, 463
Ricoeur, Paul, 482
“Ride on, King Jesus!” (spiritual), 155
Riggs, Marcia, 271
Riley, Shantu, 194
ring shouts, 51–52, 64n.70
Holy Spirit theology and, 168
pan-African theology and, 335
Risks of Faith: The Emergence of a Black Theology of Liberation (1968–1998) (Cone), 5
rituals
in African American religious experience, 46, 48–54, 105
African American theology and role of, 114–115
in African religion, 48–50
colonialism and, 421–426
as resource for black theology, 130
Rivers, Eugene F. III (Rev.), 193
Roberts, J. Deotis, 2, 5–6
on accountability, 304
black hermeneutics and, 131
on blackness, 98–99
Black Power movement and, 73
on black theology, 177, 188–190, 435
Christology of, 157
civil rights and theology of, 70
collaborative imperative and, 343
eschatology of, 260–261
on evil and sin, 223
on heaven and suffering, 256–258
on history in black theology, 19
Holy Spirit theology and, 167–168, 170
on indigenous African religions, 332–333
on liberation theology, 202–203
on politics and theology, 86–87
on racism, 352
on religious pluralism, 335, 337, 344n.9, 345n.22, 345n.24
on theism, 283
Roberts, Oral, 462, 464
Robinson, James, 446
Robinson, John, 447n.4
Rollins, Metz, 438
Roman law, religious history and, 365–366
Rooks, Charles Shelby, 131–132, 295–297, 305n.16
Ruether, Rosemary, 73
Russell, Letty, 445
Saillant, John, 381
salvation
African American theology and, 7
Biblical grounding in black churches and, 235
globalization and, 407–408
theology of black public and, 472–473
womanist theology and, 272
Samuel DeWitt Proctor Conference, 443, 449n.39
Sanchez, Sonia, 486
Sanders, Cheryl J., 78, 230, 268–269, 353–355
Santeria, 146
colonialism and, 421–422
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 180
scientific discourse
African American theology and, 174–183
embodiment and, 312
humanist theology and, 288
second creation concept, 188–189
second generation black theology, 190–192
Second Great Awakening, 52
Second Wave feminism, womanist theology and, 91
secular humanism. See humanism
secular society, black theological normativity and, 378–381
seed-faith concept, 464
segregation
black theology and, 185–186, 352
embodiment and, 309–313
Moses narrative and, 29–30
white Christian theology and, 140
womanist theology and, 56–57
Selassie, Haile, 433, 447n.5
self-transformation
(p. 511) African American religious experience and, 52–53, 59n.4
African American theology and, 112
body in need of, 477–478
Holy Spirit theology and, 170–171
prosperity gospel and, 454–455
semiotics, theory and, 111–120
September 11, 2001 attacks, black theology and, 298–299
sex and sexuality
in African American theology, 8, 102–103, 350–358
anthropology and, 180–183
Christology and, 161
embodiment in slavery and, 309–313
liberation theology and, 207–208
religious experience and, 315–316
womanist theology and, 77–79, 271–277
sexual violence
African American sexuality and issues of, 356–358
doctrine of God and, 144–145
evil and sin in womanist theology and, 219
womanist Biblical interpretation and, 35
womanist liberation and, 207–209
Sexuality and the Black Church: A Womanist Perspective (Douglas), 302, 351, 353, 356
Shoes That Fit Our Feet (Hopkins), 55, 206, 304
Shrine of the Black Madonna, 72, 159, 201–202, 225n.2
Shuck, Glenn, 246
Significations: Signs, Symbols, and Images in the Interpretation of Religion (Long), 381–383
sin, 212–225. See also redemption
in African American theology, 189–190, 212–225
Catholic womanist perspectives on, 221–223
in early black theology, 213–215
in literary/cultural sources, 221
slavery as, 369–372
social constructions of, 212–213
variations in definition of, 217–219
in womanist theology, 194, 219–221, 272
“Sin, Nature, and Black Women's Bodies” (Williams), 194
Sisters in the Wilderness: The Challenges of Womanist God-Talk (Williams), 75, 170–171, 180, 353
Sisters of Dust, Sisters of Spirit: Womanist Wordings on God and Creation (Baker-Fletcher), 195
Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South (Raboteau), 42, 60n.10
slavery
Africa as historical/mythological symbol and, 127–128, 432–433
African American theology and, 140–150, 369–372
African cultural and religion and, 42
African Muslims in, 40, 59n.3
biblical interpretation and, 28–36
Christianity and, 50–51
Christology and, 154–161, 259–261
colonialism and, 418–419
contested Biblical interpretations concerning, 31–32
Cugoanao's discussion of, 369–372
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 483–487
discipline of body in, 474–475
emancipatory reason and, 102, 104–105
embodiment in theology and, 309–313
existential hope n, 392–395
heaven and hell in context of, 254–256, 259–261
history of African American theology and, 16–24, 115–117, 366–367, 372–373
language and culture and, 45–47, 63n.64
liberation theology and, 200–201
narratives of, black theology and, 54–56, 369–372, 411n.4
pan-African theology and, 335–337
pragmatic rise of spirituals and, 51–54
public black body, creation of, 468–471
redemptive suffering theology and, 74–75
religious experience and role of, 41, 53–54, 104–105, 115–117, 229–230
spirituals as reflection of, 231–232
theological normativity concerning, 380–381
three-fifths compromise concerning, 62n.34
Smith, Abraham, 33
on Morrison, 35–36
Smith, Amanda Berry, 132
Smith, Jonathan Z., 114
Smith, Pamela, 194
Smith, R. Drew, 228–238
Smith, Theodore, Jr., environmental theology and, 192
Smith, Theophus, 64n.76, 131–132, 191–192, 249–250
Smith, Venture, 128
Sneed, Roger, 315
Sobel, Mechal, 42, 52–53, 63n.64
social-functionalism, black churches and, 240n.53
social gospel
African American theology and, 2
Black Power and, 72
civil rights and, 69
(p. 512) social justice
African American theology and, 76
Catholic womanist perspectives on, 222
Christology and, 157–161
church as refuge and, 230–232
church as source for, 232–233, 236–237
eschatology and, 247–250
evil and sin and, 223–225
public Christianity and, 69
womanist theology and, 57–58, 271, 409–411
social resource, black church as, 232–233
social theory
African American theology and, 9, 377–385
globalization and, 405–408
postsegregation theology and, 383–385
reason and, 381–383
theological normativity and, 378–381
Society for the Study of Black Religion (SSBR), 73–74, 295–297, 305n.16, 435, 438, 447n.11
Sojourner Truth, 76, 112, 132, 159
“Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child” (spiritual), 155
Song of Solomon (Morrison), 36, 128
Sorett, Josef, 415–427
The Souls of Black Folk (Du Bois), 175, 231
South African Council of Churches, 441–442
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 69
Spencer, Anne, 35
spirit possession, 107, 146
The Spiritual and the Blues (Cone), 89, 179
Spiritualism
black spiritual movement and, 456–458
Unity School of Christianity and, 461–462
spirituality
black theology and, 332–334
church life and, 229–230, 240n.53
prosperity gospel and, 453–464
Spirituality of African Peoples (Paris), 189
spirituals
African roots of, 28
Biblical selectivity in, 34–35
biblical text and, 28–29
Christology and, 155
church life reflected in, 231
Cone's study of, 89–90
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 485–487, 488n.8
freedom symbols in, 128–129
heaven and hell in, 256, 259–261
pragmatic rise of, 51–54
state sovereignty, theological normativity and, 379–381
“Steal Away, Steal Away to Jesus” (spiritual), 155, 485
stereotypes and caricatures
of African vodun, 59n.6
cultural boundaries of black theology and, 481–487
embodiment and, 310–313, 315–316
Stewart, Dianne, 105
Stewart, Maria W., 34, 76, 127, 129, 132, 380
Stewart Diakité, Dianne, 43, 46, 54
on Caribbean theology, 339–340
on colonialism and religion, 422–423, 429n.22
on religious pluralism and, 331–344
Stokes, Mason, 92
Stoll, Mark, environmental theology and, 192
Stony the Road We Trod (Felder), 36n.1, 487
Stout, Harry, 379
“strong humanism,” Pinn’s concept of, 148–149
Stuckey, Sterling, 335–336
Student Christian Movement (SCM), 446n.1, 448n.18
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 69–71
suffering
African American theology and, 74, 352
benevolent promise and, 256–258
black ontology and, 391–394
doctrine of God and, 143, 147–149
in early black theology, 213–215, 370–372
integration of body and, 475–476
in literary/cultural sources, 221
public black body imagery and, 468–471
in womanist theology, 220–221
Summers, Larry, 302–303
Sung, Jung Mo, 408
Supreme Court (U.S.), 127
survival
Holy Spirit theology and, 170–171
religious experience and, 57–58
in womanist theology, 270–271
“Swing Low Sweet Chariot” (spiritual), 155, 485, 488n.9
symbolic identification
in African American theology, 126–129, 370–372
doctrine of God and, 148–150
systematic theology
Cone and, 294–295
of Evans, 281
liberation theology and, 205–206
talking book, slave culture and, 52
Taylor, Gardner C., 69, 71
Teach For America, 487n.2
Tempels, Placide (Father), 436–437
terra incognita, 180–181
Terrell, JoAnne, 75, 161, 299
Terrell, Mary Church, 129, 132
Terror and Triumph: The Nature of Black Religion (Pinn), 209, 394
theism. See also God; nontheistic theology
in African American theology, 281–282
in African indigenous religion, 49–50, 368
challenges to, 282–284
globalization and, 406–408
in medieval theology, 364
symbols of, 126–127
themes, in African American theology, 126–129
theodicy
African American theology and, 74–75
doctrine of God and, 147–149
history of black theology and, 364, 369–372
TheoEcology Project, 192
A Theology of Hope (Alves), 256
Theology of Hope (Moltmann), 255–256
theonaturalism, 364, 369–372
Theorizing Scriptures, 487
theory
African American theology and suspicion of, 110–120
in liberation theology, 201
Third World theology, 403, 406–408
colonialism and, 422–426
womanist theology and, 410–411
Thomas, Linda E., 112, 194, 274–277, 284, 353, 358, 359n.17
Three Eyes for the Journey: African Dimensions of the Jamaican Religious Experience (Stewart), 105, 339–340, 422–423
three-fifths compromise, slavery and, 62n.34
Thurman, Howard, 46, 56–57
on accountability, 299, 304
African American theology and legacy of, 352
Christology of, 156–157
doctrine of God and, 140–142
Holy Spirit theology and, 166
King and, 371
on reason and theology, 383
sprituals research by, 231
on world and creation, 186–187
Tillich, Paul, 3, 88–89, 125, 178, 377
time
African cultural conceptions of, 367–368
in indigenous African religion, 49–50
Townes, Emilie M., 18
on accountability, 304
African American theology and, 56–58, 86
on cultural boundaries in theology, 480–487
on embodiment, 315
environmental theology and, 194
on evil and sin, 220–221
on globalization, 408–411
on liberation, 207–208
on sex and sexuality, 354, 359n.17
on theodicy, 75
womanist theology and, 267–269, 271
world and creation in theology of, 193
Tragic Soul-Life (Johnson), 393–394
transcendence, hope of heaven and, 261
Tribal Talk: Black Theology, Hermeneutics, and African/American Ways of “Telling the Story” (Coleman), 55, 337–338
Trinitarian theology, Holy Spirit in, 165
A Troubling in My Soul: Womanist Perspectives on Evil and Suffering (Townes), 359n.17
Tubman, Harriet
African American theology and, 29, 112
Christology and work of, 159
cultural influence of, 132
nontheistic theology and, 209
Turman, E. Marshall, 253–262
Turner, Henry McNeal, 74–75, 127
radicalized Christology of, 156
Turner, Nat, 334
Turner, Richard Brent, 40
Tutu, Desmond (Bishop), 206, 441–442
Union Theological Seminary, 3, 302
African theology and, 438–439
Cone on faculty of, 90
systematic theology at, 294–295
womanist pedagogy at, 323–324, 353–354
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), 283
United Negro Improvement Association, 334
Unity School of Christianity, 458–462
Universal Foundation for Better Living (UFBL), 461
Universal Negro Improvement Association, 156
University of Chicago Divinity School, 86
U.S. Peace Corps, 446
Varick, James, 336
Varieties of African American Religious Experience (Pinn), 209, 421–422
Vashti story, women's interpretations of, 34–35
Vassa, Gustavus. See Equiano, Olaudah
Vodun (Divine Community). See “hoodoo” doctors
colonialism and, 421–422
religious pluralism and, 337–339
stereotypes about, 59n.6
A Voice from the South (Cooper), 98
(p. 514) Walker, Alice, 3–4
black philosophical school and, 131–132
Christology and, 159–160
cultural influence of, 486
definition of womanism by, 210n.15, 267–269, 286, 354
God as symbol for, 127
liberation theology and, 207
nontheistic theology and, 209
sexuality in work of, 353
womanist theology and, 56, 78, 267–268, 444
world and creation in theology of, 193–194
Walker, Corey D. B., 377–385
Walker, David
Christian egalitarianism of, 380
on community, 129
dialectical theology and, 178
emancipatory reason in work of, 96–97, 99, 102
embodiment in work of, 311
history of black theology and, 370
redemptive suffering theology and, 74
religious pluralism and work of, 334
world and creation in work of, 185–187
Walker, Theodore Jr., 192
Walton, Jonathan, 236, 453–464
Ware, Frederick L., 124–132, 131, 411n.9, 413n.28
Washington, Joseph, 70, 283
on racism, 352
Washington, Margaret, 42, 52, 64n.74
Washington, Sylvia Hood, 194
Watson, Andrew Polk, 64n.82
Watts, Jill, 459
We Have Been Believers (Evans), 206
Weems, Renita, 31, 52
on accountability, 304
on Biblical interpretation, 35–36, 235
womanist theology and, 77
Weimar Republic, 178
Wells, Ida B., 76, 112, 132, 311, 316n.5
West, Cornel
accountability in theology and, 302–303
African American theology and, 44, 86, 101
anthropology and, 182–183
on black churches, 236
on black culture, 482–483
black philosophical school and, 131–132
on culture and religion, 91–92
on European Enlightenment and African religious experience, 43
on history of African American theology, 17–18, 21, 420, 428n.11
on liberation theology, 206
on Marxism and theology, 102, 412n.20
on racism, 201
theory of black theology and, 112113
Western philosophy
anthropology and, 175–183
reason and, 100–101
social theory and, 378
Westfield, Nancy Lynne, 275
“‘We’ve Come This Far by Faith’: Memories of Race, Religion, and Environmental Disparity” (Washington), 194
Wheatley, Phillis, 128
white Christian theology
apartheid in South Africa and, 441–442
black theology movement and, 178–179
engagement with black theology by, 73
history of black theology and, 368–372
slavery and, 154–155
Whitehead, Alfred North, 145–146, 192
whiteness
black theology critique of, 2, 73
as imago Dei, 214
womanist theology and, 269–270
white supremacy
black embodiment and, 106–107
colonialism and facilitation of, 422
emancipatory reason and, 98–99
global economy and, 404–405
history of African American theology and, 21
liberation theology and, 201
womanist theology and, 208–209
White Women's Christ and Black Women's Jesus: Feminist Theology and Womanist Response (Grant), 103, 304, 352–353
symbolic identification in, 371
Whitten, Norman, 456–457
“Who Are We for Each Other? Sexism, Sexuality and Womanist Theology” (Hill), 353–354
Why Lord? Suffering and Evil in Black Theology (Pinn), 20–21, 182–183, 209, 304, 340–341, 357–358
Wilde, Wilf, 408
Wiley, Dennis W., 292–304
The Will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa, 445
Williams, Delores S., 3, 6
accountability and theology of, 299–300
on Biblical interpretation, 30–31, 103–104
black hermeneutics and, 131
on black liberation theology, 75
Christology and, 159–161
cultural production and theology of, 103
on doctrine of God, 143–146
environmental theology and, 194
on evil and sin, 219–220, 225n.15, 272
feminist theory and, 180
(p. 515) history of African American theology and, 18, 20, 24
on liberation, 207
ontology in work of, 398
on pedagogical praxis, 320
religious pluralism and, 339–340
on sex and sexuality, 353
on slavery and oral texts, 28, 52
on social justice and theology, 281
theory of black theology and, 112
womanist theology and, 56–58, 267–268
on women in black churches, 235–236
world and creation in theology of, 193
Williams, Eric, 405
Williams, Preston, 2
Williams, Robert F., 30, 310–311
Wilmore, Gayraud, 2, 41
accountability and theology of, 298–300
African theology and, 438
on black church tradition, 280–281
black theology and, 93n.17, 177, 435
Christology of, 157–158
Cone and, 86, 88, 90, 92
eschatology of, 259–260
hermeneutics and, 131
Holy Spirit theology and, 166
on liberation theology, 202–204
pan-African theology and, 335–337
on religious experience, 114–115
on religious pluralism, 333–334
religious pluralism and, 332
Society for the Study of Black Religion and, 295–297
Wimbush, Vincent, 28, 30, 35
on Biblical grounding in black churches, 235
Winant, Howard, 44
“Womanism: The Dynamics of the Contemporary Black Female Novel in English” (Okonjo Ogunyemi), 268
Womanist Ethics and the Cultural Production of Evil (Townes), 57–58
Womanist Justice, Womanist Hope (Towns), 304
Womanist Prose (Walker), 193
Womanist Reader (Phillips), 5
womanist theology
African American theology and, 3–5, 7
African women and, 443–445
anthropology and, 179–183
apocalyptic vision in, 249–250
audience accountability and, 298–300
Catholic perspectives on evil and sin in, 221–223
challenges to African American theology from, 8
Christianity and, 76–79
Christology and, 103, 159–161
communal logos in, 324–326
as corrective to African American theology, 267–277
criticism of church life in, 235–236, 270
critique of ideology and, 119–120
cultural influences in, 86, 91, 487
doctrine of God and, 143–146
embodied pathos and, 322–324
embodiment in, 314–316
evil and sin in, 219–225
globalization and, 403, 408–411
historical evolution of, 97–98
history and, 18–21
Holy Spirit theology and, 170–171
humanism and, 285–288
liberation and, 207–209
non-theistic critiques of, 146–149
ontology and, 397–398
paradigms in, 132
pedagogical praxis in, 319–327
reason and, 103
religious experience and, 56–58
religious pluralism and, 338–339
second generation black theology and, 190
sex and sexuality and, 352–358, 359n.17
theism and, 281–282
Walker's definition of womanism and, 210n.15
world and creation in, 193–195
“Womanist Theology: Black Women's Voices” (Williams), 268
women
African American theology and, 3–4, 76
Biblical interpretations by, 34–36
black anthropology and, 179–183
black churches and role of, 235–236
in black church life, 232
Christology and absence of, 159–161
liberation theology and, 206
Woodson, Carter G., 294–295
Word of Faith movement, 462–464, 465n.4
world and creation
in African American theology, 185–196
environmental racism and, 193
millenialism and eschatology and, 244–245
post-civil rights theology and, 187–190
second generation black theology and, 190–192
womanist theology and, 193–195
World Council of Churches, 406, 444
World's Student Christian Federation, 446n.1
World Student Christian Federation, 444
Wright, Richard R. Jr., 282, 382, 486
(p. 516) Xodus : An African American Male Journey (Baker-Fletcher), 355–356
Yet with a Steady Beat (Bailey), 36n.1
Yoruba culture, 46, 49, 346n.40, 436
Young, Henry, black philosophical school and, 131–132
Young, Josiah Ulysses III, 78, 206
pan-African theology of, 335–337
religious pluralism and, 332, 339–340, 342
Youngblood, Johnny Ray, 30
Zion Harmonizers, 484
Zwischen den Zeit (Between the Times), 178–719