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date: 04 August 2020

(p. 449) Index

(p. 449) Index

Adeno-associated virus (AAV), 347t, 351, 429–31, 433
Adult Health and Behavior Project, 225
Advani, T., 218
African cichlid fish (A. burtoni)
aggression, 55–56, 72
body patterns, 54, 55f
candidate genes mRNA levels, 58–59t
communication, 55–56
female gene expression, 71–72
as model, 54–60, 55f, 57f, 58–59t
natural history, 54–55, 55f
reproductive physiology, 56–59, 57f, 58–59t
social behavior, 54–55, 55f
social regulation in (see social environment regulation)
spawning behaviors, 54–55, 55f, 57f, 72
testes, 57f, 59t, 64, 67
Aggression
African cichlid fish (A. burtoni), 55–56, 72
alcoholism, 134–35
amygdala, 131–33, 135
antisocial personality disorder, 122, 124
biomarkers, 124
bipolar disorder, 122
borderline personality disorder, 122, 129
brain connectivity, 132–33
brain function, 131–32
brain structure, 131
cingulate, 131, 132, 135
conduct disorders, 124, 125
corticolimbic system, 131–34
CpG methylation, 134
depression, 122–24, 128
developmental windows, 133
dopamine, 135
early life maltreatment, 127–28, 134
endophenotypes, 125–26
experience-dependent modulation, 32–36
face emotion processing, 131–32, 147–48
fenfluramine, 124, 125
fight or flee response, 36, 37f
flight effect, 33
gene methylation studies, 8
glucocorticoid response element (GREs), 134
GxE interactions, 109, 110, 111–13, 113f, 134–35
heritability, 121–22, 125–26
hippocampus, 131
5-HT1b, 129–32, 134
5-HTTLPR, 128–29, 131, 132, 135
human models, 123–24
imaging genetics, 130–31
neuromodulation, 31–36
neuropeptides, 135
oxytocin, 135, 150t, 154t, 159–60
pathological, 122–25
prefrontal cortex, 131–33
primate models, 125
proactive-instrumental, 122, 125
reactive-impulsive, 122–25, 127–33
residency effect, 34
risk allele imaging, 130–31
rodent models, 122–23
serotonin, 122–26, 130
SERT, 128–29, 131, 132
social defeat, 35–36
societal costs, 121
suicide, 123, 128–30
terminology, 122
tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), 129, 131, 132
urban living, 135
variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), 127–28, 132, 134
vasopressin, 135, 147–49
whole-blood serotonin levels, 124
winner effect, 33–34
Akil, O., 429
Alabama, Miller v., 421
Alberini, C. M., 345
Alekseyenko, O. V., 36
Alexander, N., 7
Alia-Klein, N., 131
Altruism. see prosocial behaviors
Alzheimer disease, 436
Amygdala
aggression, 131–33, 135
fear memory, 339–43, 340f, 345
gene-environment interactions, 7
major depressive disorder, 261–63, 299–300
optogenetics studies, 10–11
oxytocin (OXTR), 151t, 160, 161, 172, 192–93
reactivity in mood disorders, 224–25, 227–29, 229f, 232, 235
social cognition, 186, 187f, 188
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 148, 172, 192–93
Andreoni, J., 198
Angelman syndrome, 249
Anney, R., 156
Antidepressants, 261–66, 268, 272, 274, 275, 293–97, 397
Antisocial personality disorder, 5
Anxiety
attachment, 150–51t, 156–57
early life experiences, 313–14
GABA, 269
G×E interactions, 210–11, 214–16, 218–19, 235
GxE interactions, 106–7, 110, 112
oxytocin (OXTR), 151–52t, 158–59
polymorphisms, 273
separation, 152t, 159
social, 219
therapygenetics, 437
Appelbaum, P. S., 431
Argyelán, M., 264
Arizona, Ring v., 423
Arling, T. A., 298
Asberg, M., 123
Astatotilapia burtoni. see African cichlid fish (A. burtoni)
Atkins v. Virginia, 422
Attachment, attachment anxiety, 150–51t, 156–57
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
22q11.2 deletion, 248
copy number variation, 251
DRD4, 171, 428
oxytocin (OXTR), 153t, 155
social cognition, 191
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
15q11–13 duplications, 249, 250
16p11.2 duplication, 246–47, 249
22q11.2 deletion, 248, 250, 254
Avpr1a, 82, 90, 94–95
brain connectivity, 436
clinical presentation, 248–49
CNTNAP family genes, 250
copy number variation, 246–51
DOCK4 genes, 250–51
heritability, 248, 254
IMMP2L genes, 250–51
NRXN1 (neurexin 1), 247–50
oxytocin, 95–96
oxytocin (OXTR), 149–56, 150–52t, 154t, 157
(p. 450) prevalence, 249
SHANK family genes, 250
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 146, 149, 190
Autonomic nervous system
AKAP10 variants, 375–79
baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), 360t, 364–65, 370, 371–72t
candidate gene associations in heritability, 375–80, 376–79t
cardiac vagal activity, 362–65, 370
cardiovascular disease, 357, 380–81
catecholamines, 361t, 374t
contractility, 367–68, 373
cytokines, 381–82
fight or flight response, 358, 359
function generally, 358–59
galvanic skin responses, 366
genetic covariance, 368–70
genetic pleiotropy, 381
genome-wide association studies, 380
haplotype blocks, 380
heart rate variability, 360t
heritability, 369–80, 371–74t, 376–79t
LF/HF ratio, 362t, 367, 371–73t
measurement, 359–62, 360–62t
Mendelian randomization, 381
microdialysis, 360t, 362–63
norepinephrine, 359, 365–66
parasympathetic activity, 358–59, 360t, 362–65, 371–73t, 375–80, 376–79t
parasympathetic microneurography, 360t
Pdc deletion, 375–79
pharmacological blockade, 360–61t, 363, 366
physiological stress response, 358
preejection period, 367–68, 373–75, 374t
regional norepinephrine spillover, 361t
regulatory DNA elements, 381–82
respiratory sinus arrhythmia, 360t, 363–64, 370, 371–73t, 380
salivary α-amylase activity, 361–62t, 366–67
skin conductance, 361t
SNPs, 380
stress reactions, 357–58
sympathetic activity, 359, 360–62t, 365–68, 373–80, 374t, 376–79t
sympathetic microneurography, 360t, 365–66
systolic time intervals, 362t
twin studies, 369–70, 373–75, 374t, 380
ultra-low-frequency (ULF), 364, 373t
very-low-frequency (VLF), 364, 373t
Autry, A. E., 218
Avinun, R., 147, 190
Ayalew, M., 184
B2ESS, 197–98, 198f
Baas, D., 193
Baier, A., 33
Bakken, T. E., 182
Bales, K. L., 93
Barefoot v. Estelle, 423
Barker, D. J. P., 312
Barron, A., 42
Bartels, M., 399
Bartolomucci, A., 217
Basson, J., 174
Bech, P., 260
Behavioral traits generally. see also specific traits by name
adoption studies, 17
candidate gene studies, 18–19
common variant/common trait model, 19
complex traits, 16
DNA sequencing, 20–21
epigenetics, 21–22
exome sequencing, 20, 21
genetic association studies, 18–19
genetic epidemiology, 17
genetic linkage studies, 17–18
genome sequencing, 21
genome-wide association studies, 19–21
heritability, 16
imaging genetics, 18–19
odds ratios (ORs), 16
pharmacogenetic studies, 18
population genetics, 17
positional cloning, 17
risk alleles, 16, 19, 20
twin studies, 17
Bejjani, B. P., 265
Benjamin, D., 179, 182, 196
Bifidobacteria infantis, 299
Bifidobacterium longum, 300
Biogenic amines, 30–32, 43–44
Biomarkers
aggression, 124
major depressive disorder, 277, 278
positive emotionality, 399
Bipolar disorder
16p11.2 duplication, 246–47, 249
22q11.2 deletion, 248, 254
copy number variation, 246–47, 251–52
genome-wide association studies, 19
glutamate receptors, 268
GRM7, 252
heritability, 251–52, 254
HPA axis, 271
LARGE, 252
parasites, 298
pathway analysis, 174
singleton deletions, 252
TNFα, 296
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 147
Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, 252
Bisceglia, R., 147
Bonding. see social bonding
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), 122, 129, 188
Borna disease virus (BDV), 301, 303
Boyden, E. S., 431
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
early life experiences, 322
major depressive disorder, 272–73
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 211, 216–18
positive emotionality, 395, 397, 399
Brain Genomics Superstruct Project, 225
Bravo, J. A., 299, 300
Brown, G. L., 123
Brunner, H. G, 126, 127
Buckholtz, J. W., 230
Burmeister, S. S., 60
Calboli, F., 399
Camerer, C. F., 186
Candidate gene studies
African cichlid fish (A. burtoni), 58–59t
autonomic nervous system, 375–80, 376–79t
behavioral traits, 18–19
positive emotionality, 392
social cognition, 170–71, 175–76
social environment regulation, 58–59t
Canli, T., 428
Cannon, D. M., 265
Cao, X., 345
Capuron, L., 274
Carola, V., 216, 219
Caronia, United States v., 441
Carpenter, J. P., 185
Carroll, J. C., 215
Carter, S., 83
Cases, O., 133
Caspi, A., 5, 21, 127, 215, 226, 261, 401
Cauffman, E., 436
CB1 methylation, 9
Certel, S. J., 33
Chagas disease, 297–98
Channelrhodopsins, 350–51, 433
Chen, C. C., 66
Chen, F. S., 158
Chen, Y., 194
Chiao, J. Y., 185
Child Behavioral Checklist inventory (CBCL), 157
Chlamydophila trachomatis, 301
Choi, J. S., 341
CHRNA2, 8
Chtarto, A., 430
Clem, R. L., 344
Cloninger, R., 392–93, 395
Cognition. see social cognition
COMT Val158Met (rs4680), 225, 230, 233–34, 394–95, 400–401, 428, 435
Conduct disorder, 5
(p. 451) Connectome genetics, 435–36
Conrad, D., 252
Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics (CNP), 183–84
Copy number variation (CNV)
1q21.1 deletion, 246, 247
15q11–13 duplications, 249, 250
15q11.2 deletion, 246
15q13.3 deletion, 246, 247
16p11.2 duplication, 246–47, 249, 252
22q11.2 deletion, 246–48, 250, 252, 254
ADHD, 251
autism, 246–51
bipolar disorder, 246–47, 251–52
CNTNAP family genes, 250
code number, 252–54
definitions, 243–44
depression, 252
DOCK4 genes, 250–51
functional impacts, 252–53
G×E interaction, 21
genome-wide association studies, 20, 243, 245
GRM7, 252
IMMP2L genes, 250–51
LARGE, 252
microarrays vs. karyotyping, 254
in neuropsychiatric disorders generally, 244–45, 253–55
nomenclature., 244, 244t
NRXN1 (neurexin 1), 247–50
schizophrenia, 245–48
screening predictive value, 253–54
SHANK family genes, 250
singleton deletions, 252
technological advances, 243, 253, 254
Corticosterone
early life experiences, 312–16, 320, 324, 327
major depressive disorder, 270
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 214, 216, 218
social bonding, 87–89
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)
early life experiences, 312–16, 321, 322, 324, 327
GxE interactions, 106–10, 112
Cortisol
early life experiences, 312–13
GxE interactions, 6, 114–16
major depressive disorder, 270–72
neurogenetics, 227–28, 231f, 233
oxytocin response, 158–59
social environment regulation, 64–65, 68
Costa, B., 159
Costa, P. T. Jr., 392
Crane, Kansas v., 421
Crawley, L., 440
CRFR2 methylation, 9
Criminal responsibility
abnormal causation, 419
capacity, 414, 417, 418, 420–22
causal knowledge, 418–19
compatibilism, 416–17
compulsion, 414, 417, 419, 421
criteria, 413–15, 419
determinism, 410–11, 415–17
excuse, 414, 417–22
folk psychology, 411–13
free will, 415–17
fundamental psycholegal error, 418–19, 422
future dangerousness, 423
G×E interactions, 409, 411, 418–24
genetic predisposition, 409–10, 418
incompatibilism, 416
intentionality, 413, 414
interventions, 424
justification, 414
legal insanity, 414, 417, 419
legal psychology, 411–13
MAOA, 409, 419, 421
mental states, 419–20
mitigation, 423
negligence, 414, 420
No Action Thesis/Victims of Neuronal Circumstances, 417
partial responsibility doctrine, 422
rationality, 413, 417, 418, 420–22
reality constraint, 415
recklessness, 414, 420
rehabilitation, 424
retribution, 411
sentencing, 409–10, 412, 422–24
Cystic fibrosis, 17–18
Cytokines
autonomic nervous system, 381–82
depression, 259
interferons, 273–74, 275, 296–97, 299
interleukins, 273–74, 276, 295–99
major depressive disorder, 259, 273–75, 295–99
TNF-α, 274, 275, 295–97, 299
Darwin, C., 178, 391
Davis, M., 339
De Almeida, R. M. M., 129
Dean, B., 296
de Bruijn, E. R., 193
Declerck, C., 193
deCODEme, 439, 441
De Dreu, C. K. W., 193
Deisseroth, K., 431
Dekin, M. A., 28
Delgado, M. R., 188
Del Guerra, F. B., 301
Depression. see also major depressive disorder (MDD)
16p11.2 duplication, 252
22q11.2 deletion, 252
aggression, 122–24, 128
copy number variation, 252
cytokine hypothesis, 259
drug development, 95
early life experiences, 313–14, 318
fear memory, 344, 351
G×E interactions, 210–11, 214–16, 218
gene regulation mechanisms, 7–8
glutamate hypothesis, 267–70
GxE interactions, 5–6, 21, 106–7, 110–12
neurogenetics, 226–27, 236
neurotrophic theory, 259, 272–73
oxytocin (OXTR), 152–53t, 158–59, 195
therapygenetics, 437, 438
TREK1, 236
Desbonnet, L., 299
Desjardins, J. K., 67
Dewsbury, D. A., 80
Dias, B. G., 10
Dierick, H. A., 36
Dietz, D. M., 9
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies, 429, 438–41
DISC1, 18
Domschke, K., 437
Dopamine
aggression, 135
COMT Val158Met (rs4680), 225, 230, 233, 394–95, 400–401, 428, 435
DRD1/3/5, 396
major depressive disorder, 260, 261, 264–66, 275, 298–99
neurogenetics, 225, 230
neuromodulation, 31–33, 38, 40–44
positive emotionality, 394–97, 401
schizophrenia, 170–71, 264
viral vectors, 346–48, 347t, 429–30
Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4)
ADHD, 171, 428
altruism (prosocial behaviors), 198
novelty seeking, 4, 185, 428
parenting behavior, 194
political beliefs, 195–96
positive emotionality, 396, 400
reward-related ventral striatal reactivity, 230
risk taking, 185–86
ultimatum game behavior, 191
Dreber, A., 185
Drug dependence, 20, 148, 149, 160
Dyakonova, V. E., 36
Early life experiences
ACTH, 312–14, 320, 324
aggression, 127–28, 134
anxiety, 313–14
BDNF, 322
choline deficiency, 326
cognitive functions programming, 316–19, 323–26
corticosterone, 312–16, 320, 324, 327
corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), 312–16, 321, 322, 324, 327
cortisol, 312–13
depression, 313–14, 318
(p. 452) developmental origins of health and disease, 312
developmental windows, 326, 327
dietary intervention, 326
DNA methylation alterations, 322, 326
DNMT expression, 326
emotional function, 323–24
enriched EL environments, 314–17, 319
epigenetics, 322, 326, 327
glucocorticoids, 312–16, 320–21, 324, 327
hippocampus, 313, 315–19, 321, 325, 326
HPA axis, 312–15, 324, 325, 327
hypothalamus, 313, 314
maternal care, 313–15, 319–20, 324
memory, 318, 323, 325
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 212–14
neuroendocrine stress axis impacts, 313–14, 326–27
neurogenesis, 317–19
neurogenetics, 227–29, 229f
neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF), 322
nutritional programming, 323
nutrition/malnutrition, 322–26
perinatal stress, 324–25
plasticity, 316–19, 325
postnatal stress, 313–14, 318–19
predictive adaptive response, 312
prenatal stress, 313, 318
programming, 311–12
programming molecules, mechanisms, 319–22, 320f
resilience, 314–16
social bonding, 91–94, 92f
spatial learning, 318, 323, 325
stress hormone regulation, 313
stress-related emotional disorders, 312–13
vasopressin, 314, 322, 324
Eaves, L. J., 169
Ebstein, R. P., 190
Egan, M. F., 172, 225
Egawa, J., 155
Eisenegger, C., 185
Ekman, P., 393
Eley, T. C., 437
Elia, xxx, 251
Emanuele, E., 191
ENCODE Project, 21
ENIGMA Consortium, 225, 435
Enoch, M. A., 395
Epigenetics
behavioral traits, 21–22
early life experiences, 322, 326, 327
GxE interactions, 114, 115f
neurogenetics, 224, 233–34
social cognition, 170
transgenerational, 9–10
Epistasis
neurogenetics, 229–30
positive emotionality, 401
social cognition, 173–75
Estelle, Barefoot v., 423
Ethics. see under neurogenethics
Eysenck, H-J., 392, 401
Falconer, D., 254
Fanselow, M., 339
Farahany, N. A., 441
Fava, M., 260
Fear memory
adeno-associated virus (AAV), 347t, 351, 429–31, 433
adenovirus, 347t
allatostatin, 350
AMPARs, 340, 343–44, 346
amygdala, 339–43, 340f, 345
basolateral nucleus (BLA), 339, 342, 345, 346
benefits, limitations, 338
αCAMKII, 345, 346
cannabinoid system, 341
channelrhodopsins, 350–51, 433
classical conditioning, 338–39
conditioned inhibition, 339
CREB, 346–50, 347t
CS-evoked potentiation, 340–42
deep brain stimulation (DBS), 351
depression, 344, 351
diphtheria toxin, 349
extinction, 339, 341–43, 350
extinction vs. forgetting, 343–45
formation, 339–40
GABAA receptor agonist, 342, 343
genetic, protein manipulation, 345–46
hippocampus, 342–43
HSV, 347t, 348–50
5-HTTLPR, 7
long-term potentiation, 340
major depressive disorder, 267
MAPK/ERK signaling, 341
mediodorsal thalamus (mdTh), 342
muscimol, 342, 343
neural circuitry, 339–40, 340f
neuroimaging studies, 339
NMDARs, 341–44
odor sensitivity, 10
optogenetics, 351
PKMzeta, 346
PLCβ4 pathway, 342
prefrontal cortex, 341–43
reconsolidation, 344–45
reduction, inhibition of, 339
retrovirus, 347t
synaptic processing, 340–41
TAM (4-hydroxytamoxifen), 346–50, 347t
viral manipulation, 346–50, 347t
viral vectors, 346–48, 347t, 429–31
µ-opioid receptors, 341
Fehr, E., 186
Feldman, R., 157, 195
Fernald, R. D., 66, 67
Florida, Graham v., 421
fMRI studies
history, 5, 7, 10–11
neurogenethics, 435, 436
social cognition, 192, 197
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 148
Fountoulakis, K. N., 294
Fowler, J. H., 195
Fraga, M. F., 170
Freud, S., 28
Furman, D. J., 160
GABA
major depressive disorder, 267–70, 299–300
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 216
neuromodulation, 30
Galton, F., 369, 391–92
Gatt, J. M., 211
Gene-environment (GxE) interactions
adaptive behaviors, 105–6, 106f, 111–14, 113f
aggression, 109, 110, 111–13, 113f, 134–35
alcohol, 107–14, 113f
alternative haplotypes, 112
antisocial behavior, 109
anxiety, 106–7, 110, 112
in behavioral traits generally, 21
corticotrophin-releasing hormone, 106–10, 112
cortisol, 6, 114–16
criminal responsibility, 409, 411, 418–24
epigenetic mechanisms, 114, 115f
game theory, 105
gene–environment correlation (rGE), 226
gene expression regulation, 114–16
glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), 114–16
hawk-dove model, 105–6, 113–14
history, 5–7
5-HTTLPR, 4–7, 21, 109–12, 114, 435
5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid (5-HIAA), 107, 112
imaging gene-environment interactions (IG×E), 227–29, 228–29f
impulsivity, 108–9, 111–12
induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), 116
major depressive disorder, 261, 302
measurement error, 181
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR), 109
mood disorders ( see mood disorders, G×E interactions)
naltrexone, 18, 108
neurobiological substrates studies, 106–7
neuropeptide Y, 110–11
OPRM1 SNPs, 108, 112–13, 113f
peer rearing, 107, 109–11
(p. 453) primates, 106, 107
psychopathology, 111–14, 113f
PTSD, 110
reward sensitivity, 108
rodent studies, 110
selective pressure, 106, 111–13, 113f
sexually dichotomous, 113–14
social cognition, 169
stress effect models, 107–8
stressful life events (SLEs), 6–7
stress reactivity, 109–12
temperament differences studies, 106
variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), 109
whole-genome linkage, 114
μ-opioid receptor, 108
Gene methylation, 7–9, 134, 156, 322, 326, 435
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS)
autonomic nervous system, 380
behavioral traits, 19–21
bipolar disorder, 19
copy number variation, 20, 243, 245
neurogenethics, 428–29, 439, 440
nicotinic receptors/nicotine dependence, 20
oxytocin (OXTR), 156, 160
positive emotionality, 392, 398–401
schizophrenia, 19–20
social cognition, 172–76, 179–80, 196–97
substance dependence, 20
Getting, P. A., 28
Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), 430
Glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), 114–16, 134
Glucocorticoids
early life experiences, 312–16, 320–21, 324, 327
major depressive disorder, 270–72
Glutamate
bipolar disorder, 268
major depressive disorder, 267–70
neuromodulation, 30
Gneezy, U., 194
Goldman, D., 400
Good, C. D., 131
Gottesman, I. I., 254
Govindarajan, A., 218
Grace, A. A., 340
Graham v. Florida, 421
Gray, J., 392, 401
Green, R. C., 441
Greenspan, R. J., 36
Gregory, S. G., 156
Grisso, T., 431
Grozeva, D., 252
Guo, W., 38–39
Ham, B.-J., 131
Hammock, E. A., 90
Han, X., 433
Hannestad, J., 296
Hardy, J., 429
Hariri, A. R., 5
Hashimoto, R., 395
Hasler, G., 265
Hatemi, P. K., 169, 196
Hebb, D. O., 340
Heck, A., 398
Heiming, R. S., 215
Hennig, J., 394
Heritability
aggression, 121–22, 125–26
autism spectrum disorders, 248, 254
autonomic nervous system, 369–80, 371–74t, 375–80, 376–79t
behavioral traits, 16
bipolar disorder, 251–52, 254
candidate gene associations, 375–80, 376–79t
major depressive disorder, 302–3
phantom, 173
positive emotionality, 392, 399–400
schizophrenia, 245, 254
social cognition, 168–69, 173–74, 182
Hinshaw, S. P., 436–37
Hippocampus
aggression, 131
early life experiences, 313, 315–19, 321, 325, 326
fear memory, 342–43
glucocorticoid receptor methylation, 435
HPA axis, polymorphism effects, 231f, 233
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 217, 218
optogenetics studies, 10–11
postmortem studies, 8–9
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 148
History
animal studies, 7, 9
behavior, 5–10
brain GxE, 6–7
CpG gene methylation, 7–8
endophenotypes, 4–5
fear conditioning studies, 7, 10
fMRI studies, 5, 7, 10–11
gene regulation mechanisms, 7–10
genetics imaging studies, 4–5
GxE interactions, 5–7
human studies, 7–8
individual differences, 5–7
microarray studies, 7–8
optogenetics, 10–11
polymorphism/behavioral trait relationships, 4–6
postmortem studies, 8–9
social defeat paradigm studies, 9–10
tonic model, 5
transgenerational epigenetics, 9–10
HIV, 301–2
Hofmann, H. A., 65
Homer, N., 440
Hornig, M., 301
Houle, D., 183
Hoyer, S. C., 33
HPA axis
bipolar disorder, 271
early life experiences, 312–15, 324, 325, 327
hippocampus, polymorphism effects on, 231f, 233
major depressive disorder, 270–72, 274, 276, 299
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 214
neurogenetics, 227–28, 230–33, 231f
5-HT1A, 235–36, 261–63
5-HT1b, 129–32, 134
5-HT2A, 398, 400
5-HT2A receptors, 262, 263
5-HT2C receptors, 262, 263, 294
5-HTTLPR
aggression, 128–29, 131, 132, 135
fear memory, 7
GxE interactions, 4–7, 21, 109–12, 114, 435
major depressive disorder, 261–63
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 210–11, 215–17
neurogenetics, 224–27, 232–33, 235
positive emotionality, 397–98, 400, 401
social cognition, 185, 186
therapygenetics, 437–38
Huff, M. L., 432
Huganir, R. L., 344
Huitinga, I., 271
Human Connectome Project, 435–36
Human Hapmap Project, 400
Hünnerkopf, R., 395
Huntington’s disease, 17–18, 253
5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid (5-HIAA)
aggression, 123–26, 129
GxE interactions, 107, 112
major depressive disorder, 299
mood disorders, G×E interactions, 216
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, 53, 56–57, 57f, 58–59t, 60–64, 63f, 67, 72
Hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis, 68–71, 70–71f
Hypothalamus
early life experiences, 313, 314
major depressive disorder, 263
oxytocin (OXTR), 160
Ibarguen-Vargas, Y., 218
Illes, J., 426, 436
IMAGEN, 225
Imaging gene-environment interactions (IG×E), 227–29, 228–29f
Imaging genetics
aggression, 130–31
behavioral traits, 18–19
neurogenethics, 428, 434–37
(p. 454) Immediate early gene (IEG), 62–64, 63f, 66–68, 71–72, 73f
IMS Health, Sorrell v., 441
Inoue, H., 132
Insel, T. R., 176
Interferons, 273–74, 275, 296–97, 299
Interleukins, 273–74, 276, 295–99
International Schizophrenia Consortium, 184, 246
Ioannidis, J. P., 171, 175
Israel, S., 158, 193
Iwasaki, M., 36
James, W., 3
Jedema, H. P., 131
Jensen, K. P., 130
Johnson, B. R., 36
Jones, S., 436
Kahneman, D., 176, 177, 196
Kaminsky, E. B., 254
Kamphuis, W., 271
Kansas v. Crane, 421
Kaufman, D. J., 438
Kaufman, J., 6
Kazantseva, A., 395
Kennedy, J. S., 44
Kessing, L. V., 271
Ketamine, 269, 272, 295
Khor, C. C., 197
Kim, H. S., 157
Kim, S. Y., 431
Kirov, G., 248
Kirsch, I., 294
Knafo, A., 147, 148
Knorr, U., 271
Kogan, A., 157
Kolber, A., 433, 434
Konermann, S., 11
Koscik, T. R., 188
Kosfeld, M., 158, 188
Krueger, F., 188
Krugel, U., 297
Krushinkskii, A. L., 36
Kuhnen, C. M., 185
Kwon, J. T., 341
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 299–300
Laine, T. P., 395
Lander, E., 173
Langley, xxx, 358
LeDoux, J., 339
Lee, B.-T., 131
Lee, H. J., 396
Lee, S. S., 342, 440
Lesch, K.-P., 4, 251, 397, 428
Lester, K. J., 437
Levinson, D. F., 247
Levran, O., 148
LeWitt, P. A., 431
Li, J., 397
Light-inducible transcriptional effectors (LITEs), 11
Likhtik, E., 341
Linnoila, M., 123
Liu, X., 432
Lockett v. Ohio, 423
Loewenstein, G., 177
Lowenstein, P. R., 430
Luthi, A., 342
Maes, M., 300
Major depressive disorder (MDD). see also depression
agomelatine (Valdoxane), 294–95
amantadine, 301
amygdala, 261–63, 299–300
animal models, 277
antidepressants, 261–66, 268, 272, 274, 275, 293–97
bacteria, 295, 299–301
BDNF, 272–73
benzodiazepines, 269–70
biomarkers, 277, 278
bupropion, 263, 264
catecholamines, 259, 264, 265
circadian rhythms, 276
cognitive/affective symptoms, 262–63, 265, 267, 269, 275–76
convergent molecular theory, 278–79
corticosterone, 270
cortisol, 270–72
COX-2, 296
cytokines, 259, 273–75, 295–99
depression contagion, 303–4
desipramine, 266
dexamethasone, 270–71
diagnosis criteria, 258, 260, 293
divergent molecular theory, 277–78
dopamine, 260, 261, 264–66, 275, 298–99
emotional memory, 267
etanercept, 297
d-fenfluramine, 262, 263
final common molecular pathway (FCMP), 259
fluoxetine, 263, 266, 275, 294
GABAa receptor, 268, 270
genomics, 302–3
glucocorticoids, 270–72
glutamate, 267–70
GxE interactions, 261, 302
haloperidol, 298
hedonic processing, 265, 274–76
heritability, 302–3
homeostatic/vegetative symptoms, 263, 274–75
horizontal gene transfer, 303
hormones, 275–77
HPA axis, 270–72, 274, 276, 299
5-HT1A receptors, 261–63
5-HT2A receptors, 262, 263
5-HT2C receptors, 262, 263, 294
5-HTTLPR, 261–63
5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), 299
11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11-HSD), 270
hypothalamus, 263
ICAM-1, 296
illness behavior, 295–97
imaging studies, 263–66, 268, 300
imipramine, 297
as infectious disease, 295, 304
inflammatory markers, 295–97
interferons, 273–74, 275, 296–97, 299
interleukins, 273–74, 276, 295–99
ketamine, 269, 272, 295
“leaky gut” hypothesis, 300
MDMA, 262, 263
measures, 260
monoamine hypothesis, 259, 260
motivation/behavior symptoms, 265–66
nefazodone, 294
neuromodulators, 260, 275–76
neuropeptides, 260, 275–76
neuropeptide Y, 276
neurotransmitters, 259, 260, 275–76
neurotrophins, 259, 272–73
NMDA receptor, 268, 269, 272, 295
norepinephrine, 260, 261, 264, 266–67
nutrition/brain activity relationships, 300
odds ratios (ORs), 301
oxytocin, 271
parasites, 295, 297–99, 303
paroxetine, 274, 294
pathogens generally, 297
pharmacological approaches critique, 293–95
polymorphisms, 260, 261–62, 273
pramipexole, 266
prevalence, 258–59, 275–76, 293
probiotics, 300
rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, 263, 271–72, 275
reboxetine, 267
research challenges, 259–60
reserpine, 259, 260, 273
retroviruses, 303
selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), 266–67, 293–95
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 261–66, 268, 272, 274, 275, 293–97
serotonin, 260–63, 275, 301–2
SERT, 261–63
subtypes, 260
symptoms, 258, 260, 276–77
TNF-α, 274, 275, 295–97, 299
TrkB, 272–73
tryptophan depletion, 262–64, 274, 299
vasopressin, 271, 314
(p. 455) vegetative/homeostatic symptoms, 267, 271–73
venlafaxine, 294
viruses, 295, 300–304
volitional/behavioral symptoms, 269–70, 276
Malnutrition/nutrition, 300, 322–26
Maren, S., 339
Marian, A. J., 173
Marlowe, F. W., 189
Marsh, A. A., 157
Marshall, C., 248, 250
Mattick, J. S., 428
McCarthy, S., 246
McCrae, R. R., 392
McFarland, D., 28
McGowan, M. L., 438
McGowan, P. O., 8
McQuillin, xxx, 252
McWhirter, R. E., 426
MDGA2, 399
Meaney, M., 233
MeCP2 methylation, 9
Memory dampening, 431–34
Methylation (gene), 7–9, 134, 156, 322, 326, 435
Meyer-Lindenberg, A., 148, 190, 428, 436
Miguel-Hidalgo, J. J., 296
Miller, G. E., 271
Miller, J., 198
Miller v. Alabama, 421
Moffitt, T. E., 124
Moller, H. -J., 294
Monfils, M. H., 344
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)
aggression, 123, 126–28, 131–35
criminal responsibility, 409, 419, 421
GxE interactions, 109
major depressive disorder, 259, 260
polymorphisms in behavioral traits, 5, 9
social cognition, 185–86
Montag, C., 156
Montague, P. R., 188
Mood disorders, G×E interactions
adult environment, 214–16, 218
AMPA, 217
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 211, 216–18
chronic psychosocial stress, 214–16, 218
corticosterone, 214, 216, 218
cross-fostering, 213
depression, 210–11, 214–16, 218
differential housing, 215
double-mothering, 213
early deprivation, 213
early environment, 212–14
early handling, 213, 219
early life stressors, 211, 217–18
early weaning, 213
GABA, 216
genome manipulation, 211–12
hippocampus, 217, 218
HPA axis, 214
5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter), 210–11, 215–17
humanization, 212
5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid (5-HIAA), 216
knockin mice, 212
knockout mice, 212, 215–19
MAPK signaling, 217
maternal environment, 213, 215
maternal prenatal stress, 212, 215
maternal separation, 213
mouse models, 211–15
neurotrophin signaling, 217
perinatal environment, 212–14
resident/intruder paradigm, 214, 216
risk mechanisms, 211, 216–17
sensory contact paradigm, 214, 216
serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A), 218–19, 235–36
social anxiety, 219
social environment, 213–14
transgenic mice, 212, 217, 218
unpredictable chronic mild stress, 214
Val/Met allele, 211
MR rs5522 Val allele, 227–29, 229f
Mueller, A., 6
Mullis, K., 392
Munafo, M. R., 6
Myers, K. M., 344
Nader, K., 346
Naltrexone, 18, 108
National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap initiative, 183–84
Navigenics, 439, 441
Nemobius sylvestris, 297
Neurexin 1 (NRXN1), 247–50
Neurodevelopmental Genomics Project, 225
Neurogenethics
antisocial behavior prediction, prevention, 436–37
bioethics, 426
brain-directed gene therapy, 429–31
cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 437
COMT Val158Met (rs4680), 225, 230, 233, 394–95, 400–401, 428, 435
connectome genetics, 435–36
direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies, 429, 438–41
entrepreneurism, 440
ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI), 427, 427f, 440–41
fMRI, 435, 436
gene expression, 427–28
gene methylation, 7–9, 134, 156, 322, 326, 435
gene therapy, 428–31
genome-wide association studies, 428–29, 439, 440
identity recreation, 433–34
imaging genetics, 428, 434–37
memory dampening, 431–34
molecular level of analysis, 427–29, 427f
moral responsibility, 433–34
neuroethics, 426
neuropeptide Y, 437
optogenetics, 428, 431–34
origins, 426–27
problem space, 427–29, 427f
social media, 440
therapygenetics, 437–38
viral vectors, 346–48, 347t, 429–31
Neurogenetics
ACTH, 231f
amygdala reactivity in mood disorders, 224–25, 227–29, 229f, 232, 235
benefits, 224
clinical relevance, 235–36
COMT Val158Met (rs4680), 225, 230, 233–34, 394–95, 400–401, 428, 435
cortisol, 227–28, 231f, 233
CRH, 231f
depression, 226–27, 236
dopamine, 225, 230
early life experiences, 227–29, 229f
emotional neglect, 227–29, 229f
epigenetics, 224, 233–34
epistasis, 229–30
gene–environment correlation (rGE), 226
genetic polymorphisms, 224, 226, 230, 231f
GxE interactions, 224–29, 228–29f
HPA axis, 227–28, 230–33, 231f
5-HT1A, 235–36
5-HTTLPR, 224–27, 232–33, 235
imaging gene-environment interactions (IG×E), 227–29, 228–29f
individual variability, 223–24
interaction complexity, 226–27
molecular mechanisms, 223–24, 227–32, 228–29f
MR rs5522 Val allele, 227–29, 229f
multilocus profiles, 230, 231f
orthologous genetic variants, 232
plasticity, 226
primate models, 224, 226, 232–33
rs951436, 230
small effects, 224–25
stressful life events (SLEs), 226–27, 233
studies, data pooling protocols list, 225
studies guidelines, 183
study design, 227
working memory, 225
Neuromodulation
aggression, 31–36
AmDOP1 receptor genes, 41–42
aminergic neurons, 31
behavioral gregarization, 37–40, 39f
behavioral thresholds, 36, 37f
biogenic amines, 30–32, 43–44
calcium signaling, 44
carbon monoxide (CO), 28
cGMP, 42
chlordimeform (CDM), 35
cocaine, 43
(p. 456) co-transmitters, 44
crayfish, 36
crickets, 31–36
Crustacea, 28
CSP, 38–39
cVA, 35
Cyp6a20, 35
dedicated circuits, 28
division of labor, 40–43
dopamine, 31–33, 38, 40–44
Drosophila, 32–36, 44
experience-dependent modulation, 32–36
extrinsic, 29
fight or flee response, 36, 37f
flight effect, 33
foraging, 38, 42–43
GABA, 30
glutamate, 30
histamine, 31
homovanillyl alcohol (HVA), 41
honeybees, 34, 40–43
insects as social behavior model, 27–28
ion channels alteration, 29
learning, 33, 34
locusts, 36–40, 39f
marine mollusc (Aplysia), 29
marine snail (Tritonia), 28
mechanisms, 28–30
memory, 33, 34, 38
naloxone, 36
neural circuitry alterations, 38–39
neural pathways/gregarization, 38, 39f
neuromodulators, 28–30
neuropeptide F, 36
neuropeptide Y, 36
nitric oxide (NO), 28, 30, 36, 42
octopamine, 30–34, 42–44
pacemaker (burster) activity, 29
phase change function, 40
plateau potentials, 29–30
polymorphic networks, 28
postinhibitory rebound, 30
protein kinases, 38, 42
QMP pheromone, 40–42
receptor molecules, 30–31, 41
residency effect, 34
RNA-interference (RNAi), 38–39
serotonin, 29, 31–33, 35–36, 38, 39f, 42–43
social defeat, 35–36
social isolation, 34–35
swarming, 37–40, 39f
synaptic strength alteration, 29
takeout, 38–39
task switching, 42
tyramine, 43
VUMmx1, 34
winner effect, 33–34
worker sterility, 40, 41
Neuropeptide Y
GxE interactions, 110–11
major depressive disorder, 276
neurogenethics, 437
neuromodulation, 36
Neurturin, 430
Nicotinic receptors/nicotine dependence, 20
Nisbett, R. E., 180
NKAIN2, 399
Noble, E. P., 396
Novelty seeking, 4
NR3C1 promoter methylation, 8–9
NRXN1 (neurexin 1), 247–50
Nutrition/malnutrition, 300, 322–26
Nyman, E. S., 396
Oberlander, T. F., 7
O’Connell, L. A., 65
Octopamine, 30–34, 42–44
O’Dushlaine, C., 174
Ohio, Lockett v., 423
Olfr151, 10
Ophiocordyceps, 297
Opioid system, 86, 87, 88f, 108, 341
OPRM1 SNPs, 18, 108, 112–13, 113f
Optogenetics
fear memory, 351
history, 10–11
neurogenethics, 428, 431–34
OT receptor (OTR), 84, 85, 87, 90, 92, 94–95
Ott, S. R., 38
Oxley, D. R., 196
Oxytocin (OXTR)
ADHD, 153t, 155
aggression, 135, 150t, 154t, 159–60
alcohol dependence, 153–54t, 159–60
amygdala, 151t, 160, 161, 172, 192–93
anterior cingulate cortex (ACG), 160, 161
anxiety, 151–52t, 158–59
autism spectrum disorders, 149–56, 150–52t, 154t, 157
behavioral effects generally, 145–46, 149, 161–62
bonding behaviors (attachment, attachment anxiety), 150–51t, 156–57
brain structure, function, 151–52t, 160–61
cooperativeness, 154t
cortisol response, 158–59
depression, 152–53t, 158–59, 195
drug dependence, 160
emotional regulation, 152t
emotional support seeking, 152t
emotion recognition, 154t
facial emotion processing, 158
flip-flop associations, 156
genetic variants, 150–54t, 155f
genome-wide association studies, 156, 160
harm avoidance, 153t, 159
hypothalamus, 160
impulsivity, 198
intelligence, 153t
intranasal treatment, 158, 193
major depressive disorder, 271
maternal sensitivity, 152t
moral judgments, 154t
negative emotionality, 154t
novelty seeking, 154t
optimism, 153t
OT receptor (OTR), 84, 85, 87, 90, 92, 94–95
pair bonding, 80, 83–95, 88f, 91f, 150t, 156–57
parent-child interactions, 150t, 153t, 157, 194–95
parenting, 194–95
personal control, 153t
physiological reactivity, 153t
positive emotionality, 153t
prisoner’s dilemma, 192–93
promoter methylation, 156
prosocial behaviors (altruism), 151–52t, 154t, 157–58, 190–91, 193–94
schizophrenia, 150–51t, 153t, 156
self-esteem, 153t
separation anxiety, 152t, 159
social auditory processing, 153t
social bonding, 150–51t, 156–57
social cognition, 153t, 157–58, 172, 176
stress response, 152–53t, 158–59
trust behaviors, 190
trust game, 188–89
voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM), 160–61
Pagani, M., 367
Pagnamenta, A. T, 250
Pain, S. P., 44
Pair bonding, 80, 83–95, 88f, 91f, 150t, 156–57
Panksepp, J., 393
Paragordius tricuspidatus, 297
Parker, L. S., 438
Parkinson’s disorder, 264–66, 430–31
Pavlov, I. P., 3, 341
Payne, R. J. H., 35
Pearson, M., 194
Pinto, D., 252
Pitman, R., 344
Plasticity
early life experiences, 316–19, 325
neurogenetics, 226
social bonding, 84, 86, 92f
social environment regulation, 52–54, 53f, 60, 64, 68–71, 70–71f
Positive emotionality
BDNF, 395, 397, 399
“Big Five” personality theory, 392
biomarkers, 399
candidate gene approach, 392
clinical relevance, 393–94
COMT Val158Met (rs4680), 225, 230, 233, 394–95, 400–401, 428, 435
DARPP-32, 396–97
dopamine transporter (DAT), 395
DRD1/3/5, 396
DRD4, 396, 400
epistasis, 401
final common pathway of reward theory, 393–94
functionality, demonstrating, 400–401
genome-wide association studies, 392, 398–401
heritability, 392, 399–400
historical background, 391–92
5-HT2A, 398, 400
5-HTTLPR, 397–98, 400, 401
MDGA2, 399
memory dampening, 433–34
neurotransmitter systems, 392
NKAIN2, 399
oxytocin (OXTR), 153t
personality assessment, 392–93
personality traits, 391, 393–94
pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), 401
reinforcement sensitivity theory, 392
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 397
serotonin, 397–98
SNPs, 400–401
sociobiological theory, 392–93
twin studies, 392, 393, 399
“Warrior-Worrier” Model, 400
yin-yang hypothesis, 395
Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 437
CRH system, 110
drug development, 95
G×E interaction, 21
glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, 345
GxE interactions, 110
hydrocortisone treatment, 345
inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory, 345
propranolol treatment, 344–45
reconsolidation therapy, 344–45, 432
Prader-Willi syndrome, 249
Prainsack, B., 440
Pramipexole, 266
President’s Council on Bioethics, 433–34
Prichard, Z. M., 147
Prosocial behaviors
dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), 198
oxytocin (OXTR), 151–52t, 154t, 157–58, 190–91, 193–94
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 147, 149, 190–91, 193
Provencal, N., 8
Racine, E., 426
Radke, S., 193
Ramirez, S., 432
Ramocki, M., 250
Razzoli, M., 218
Red-activatable ChR (ReaChR), 433
Reserpine, 259, 260, 273
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, 360t, 363–64, 370, 371–73t, 380
Ressler, K. J., 10
Reuter, M., 394
Rhesus macaque. see under gene-environment (GxE) interactions
Rietveld, C. A., 182
Rillich, J., 34
Rilling, J. K., 192
Ring v. Arizona, 423
Risch, N., 6
Robinson, G., 42
Rodrigues, S. M., 158, 159
Roe, B. E., 186
Roper v. Simmons, 418, 421, 422
Rosenkranz, J. A., 340
Roskies, A. L., 426
RU 38486, 345
Rucker, J. J., 252
Rush, A. J., 260
Sabol, S. Z., 127
Samochowiec, J., 395
Sanacora, G., 269
Satkoske, V. B., 438
Schimanski, L. A., 343
Schipper, B. C., 194
Schizophrenia
1q21.1 deletion, 246, 247
15q11.2 deletion, 246
15q13.3 deletion, 246, 247
16p11.2 duplication, 246–47
22q11.2 deletion, 246–48, 254
ANK3, 172
brain connectivity, 436
CNV screening predictive value, 253
COMT Val158Met (rs4680), 225, 230, 233, 394–95, 400–401, 428, 435
copy number variation, 245–48
dopamine hypothesis, 170–71, 264
DRD2, 395–96
drug development, 95
ERBB4, 245
exome sequencing, 20
FISH studies, 248
genetic association studies, 18
genome-wide association studies, 19–20
heritability, 245, 254
International Schizophrenia Consortium, 184, 246
NRXN1 (neurexin 1), 247–48
oxytocin (OXTR), 150–51t, 153t, 156
pathway analysis, 174
social cognition, 190
TNFα, 296
Schizophrenia Psychiatric GWAS Consortium, 172–73
Schizotypy, 190
Schroeder, J. W., 7–8
Schulz, D., 42
Schutz, G., 346
Searle, J., 412
Sebat, J., 249
Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), 266–67, 293–95
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 261–66, 268, 272, 274, 275, 293–97, 397
Separation anxiety, 152t, 159
Serotonin
aggression, 122–26, 130
5-HT1A receptors, 235–36, 261–63
5-HT2A, 398, 400
5-HT2A receptors, 262, 263
5-HT2C receptors, 262, 263, 294
5-HTTLPR ( see 5-HTTLPR)
major depressive disorder, 260–63, 275, 301–2
neuromodulation, 29, 31–33, 35–36, 38, 39f, 42–43
positive emotionality, 397–98
social cognition, 191–92
whole-blood levels in aggression, 124
Serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A), 218–19, 235–36
Serotonin transporter. see 5-HTTLPR
Serretti, A., 400
SERT
aggression, 128–29, 131, 132
major depressive disorder, 261–63
Shelton, R. C., 296
Shibuya, N., 395
Shifman, S., 398
Sierra-Mercado, D., 342
Silva, A., 346
Simmons, Roper v., 418, 421, 422
Singleton, A., 429
SLC6A4, 18, 21, 128, 210, 397
Smith, A., 178
Smith, M., 105
Social anxiety, 219
Social bonding
adrenocorticotropin releasing hormone (ACTH), 87, 89
aggression, 85, 86
alloparenting, 80, 84, 85, 89, 93, 94
amygdala, 86, 88, 89, 90
animal models, 95
anterior hypothalamus (AH), 85
anxiety, 89, 92–94
autism, 95–96
Avpr1a, 82, 90, 94–95
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), 82, 83, 85, 88, 89, 92–94
caudate putamen (CP), 83f, 85
chemical imprinting, 93
comparative studies, 81, 83
corticosterone, 87–89
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), 87–89, 93
D-cycloserine, 95
dopaminergic signaling, 85–87, 88f
drug development, 95
(p. 458) early life experiences, 91–94, 92f
environmental variation, 90–91, 94
Fos expression, 84
HPA axis, 87, 92
lateral septum (LS), 86, 89, 93
maternal odor, 94
memory, 86, 90
monogamy, 79–80, 81f, 84–86, 91
mother-infant bond, 82, 93–94
neuropeptide circuitry, species differences in, 82–83, 83f
nucleus accumbens (NAcc), 82, 83f, 84–87, 90
opioid system, 86, 87, 88f
OT receptor (OTR), 84, 85, 87, 90, 92, 94–95
oxytocin (OXTR), 82–87, 83f, 88f, 89, 93–96, 150–51t, 156–57
pair bonds, 80, 83–95, 88f, 91f, 150t, 156–57
partner preference, 80–81, 81f, 83–84, 87, 88f, 91
prairie vole as model, 80–81, 81f
prefrontal cortex, 84, 85
reward, 85–87, 90
social cognition, 82, 86–87, 94–96
social isolation, 88–89
stress axis, 87–89
territoriality, 90
transmission, 93
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 82–87, 83f, 88f, 89, 91, 94–96, 146–47, 149
vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR), 82–84, 83f, 86, 87, 89–90, 91f, 92, 147, 149, 94146
wandering, 89
within-species variability, 89–94, 91–92f
Social cognition
abortion, gay rights attitudes, 169–70
ADHD, 191
altruism, 178, 181, 189–93
altruistic fairness, 192
Alzheimer’s disease/ SORL1 relationships, 171
amygdala, 186, 187f, 188
association studies, 170–72
B2ESS, 197–98, 198f
behavioral economics, 175, 177–78
biases, 176–77
candidate gene studies, 170–71, 175–76
competitiveness, 194
composite phenotypes, 180
concepts, definitions, 176
decision making, 167–68, 174, 176–83, 185–94, 187f, 197
dichotomous vs. continuous traits, 179–80
dictator game, 189–92, 198
diminishing valuation sensitivity hypothesis, 186, 187f
dopamine, 185, 186, 195–96
educational attainment, 182, 196–97
epigenetic studies, 170
epistasis, 173–75
experimental economics, 177–78
fairness, 190–92
fMRI, 192, 197
G×E interactions, 169
genetics, 168, 169
genoeconomics, 178–83, 185
genome-wide association studies, 172–76, 179–80, 196–97
global genotyping approaches, 182
heritability, 168–69, 173–74, 182
5-HTTLPR, 185, 186
imaging genomics, 172, 182–83, 186
individual decision making, 185–86
ingroup vs. outgroup paradigm, 193–94
International Schizophrenia Consortium, 184, 246
mate selection, 169–70
measurement error, 181
molecular brain mechanisms, 167–68
molecular mechanisms, 176
monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA), 185–86
narrow vs. broad phenotype definition, 180–81
neuroeconomics, 178
neurogenetic studies guidelines, 183
next-generation sequencing (NGS), 173
omega-3 fatty acids, 191
oxytocin (OXTR), 153t, 157–58, 172, 176 (see also oxytocin (OXTR))
parenting, 194–95
pathway analysis, 174–75
phantom heritability, 173
phenomics, 183–84
phenotyping, 179
political attitudes, 195–96
prisoner’s dilemma, 192–93
prospect theory, 176, 186, 187f
quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, 173–74, 179–81, 183
reciprocity, 189–90
religiosity, 169
risk attitude, 185–86, 197
risk neurochemical model, 186
schizophrenia dopamine hypothesis, 170–71
Schizophrenia Psychiatric GWAS Consortium, 172–73
schizotypy, schizophrenia, 190
second-party punishment, 189–90
serotonin, 191–92
sex hormones, 194
social attitudes, 169–70
social bonding, 82, 86–87, 94–96
strategic fairness, 192
student populations studies, 180
study base, 180–82
study replication, 182–83
system 1/system 2 decision making, 176–77, 196
translational convergent functional genomics (CFG), 184
trust game, 188–89, 198
tryptophan depletion, 192, 262–64, 274, 299
twin studies, 168–70, 182
ultimatum game, 189, 191–92
vasopressin (AVPR1A), 147, 172, 176 (see also vasopressin (AVPR1A))
Social defeat paradigm studies, 9–10, 35–36
Social environment regulation
African cichlid fish (A. burtoni) as model, 54–60, 55f, 57f, 58–59t
arginine vasotocin (AVT), 58t, 69, 70f
behavior, 52–55, 53f, 55f
brain regions, response, 52–54, 53f, 58–59t, 65, 67, 68–71, 70–71f, 73f
candidate genes mRNA levels, 58–59t
communication, 55–56
cortisol, 64–65, 68
courtship behavior, 65
CRF system, 58–59t, 68–71, 70–71f
dominance behaviors, 56, 60, 61–62f, 66–68
dominance gene expression, 68–71, 70–71f
dominance hierarchy, 53–54, 72
dominance physiology, 56–59, 57f, 58–59t, 62–65, 63f
female gene expression, 71–72
GnRH1 neurons, 56–57, 57f, 58–59t, 60–67, 63f, 72
hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, 53, 56–57, 57f, 58–59t, 60–64, 63f, 67, 72
hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis, 68–71, 70–71f
immediate early gene (IEG), 62–64, 63f, 66–68, 71–72, 73f
kisspeptin signaling system, 68–69
mesolimbic reward system, 66
multifarious selection hypothesis, 56
plasticity, 52–54, 53f, 60, 64, 68–71, 70–71f
reproduction, 54–56, 55f
reproductive physiology, 56–59, 57f, 58–59t
sensory cues, 66–67
sex-steroids, 56–57, 57f, 63f, 64–66, 68–72, 70–71f
social ascent paradigm, 53–54, 57f, 60, 61–62f
social behavior network, 63f, 65–67, 71–72, 73f
social decision-making network, 63f, 65–66
social descent, 67
social learning, 67–68
social set point hypothesis, 64
social status, 65, 69–70
somatostatin, 69
spatial information, 68
subordinate behaviors, 54, 55f, 60, 61–62f, 66–68
(p. 459) subordinate gene expression, 68–71, 70–71f
subordinate physiology, 56–59, 57f, 58–59t, 62–65, 63f
testes, 57f, 59t, 64, 67
transcription, 66–68
Sorrell v. IMS Health, 441
Springer, S. A., 302
Stanley, D. A., 188
Stefansson, H., 246
Stein, M. B., 395
Stetler, C., 271
Stevenson, P. A., 34
Strawson, G., 415
Stressful life events (SLEs)
gene methylation studies, 8–9
GxE interactions, 6–7
neurogenetics, 226–27, 233
Substance dependence, 20, 148, 149, 160
Swaab, D. F., 271
Tairyan, K., 436
Takahashi, H., 191
Tansey, K. E., 146, 155
Teen Alcohol Outcomes Study, 225
Terracciano, A., 399
Tesser, A., 170
Thanos, P. K., 10–11
Therapygenetics, 437–38
Thomas, F., 297
Thompson, P. M., 435–36
Tillisch, K., 300
Tiwari, H. K., 180
TNFRSF21, 8
TNF-α, 274, 275, 295–97, 299
Tomitaka, M., 396
Tonelli, L. H., 295
Tost, H., 160
Toxoplasma gondii, 298–99, 301
TPH2 G(-703)T polymorphism, 7
Tranel, D., 188
Transgenerational epigenetics, 9–10
Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), 6
Trivedi, M. H., 260
Tronel, S., 345
Trypanosoma cruzi, 297–98
Tryptophan depletion, 192, 262–64, 274, 299
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), 129, 131, 132
Tsien, J. Z., 433
Tsuchimine, S., 396
Turner, E. H., 294
Tutton, R., 440
Tversky, A., 176, 177
23andMe, 440, 441
23andWe, 440
Twin Offspring Study (TOSS), 156, 157
Twin studies
autonomic nervous system, 369–70, 373–75, 374t, 380
behavioral traits, 17
positive emotionality, 392, 393, 399
social cognition, 168–70, 182
Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD), 156, 157
Uher, R., 260
United States v. Caronia, 441
Ursini, G., 428
Van den Bos, W., 188
Van den Hove, D. L., 215, 217
Van den Oord, E. J., 399
Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., 189
Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)
aggression, 127–28, 132, 134
DRD4 in social cognition, 171, 191
GxE interactions, 109
Vasopressin (AVPR1A)
aggression, 135, 147–49
amygdala, 148, 172, 192–93
autism spectrum disorders (ASD), 146, 149, 190
behavioral effects generally, 145–46, 161–62
bipolar disorder, 147
bonding behavior (pair-bonding), 146–47, 149
brain function, 148
drug dependence, 148, 149
early life experiences, 314, 322, 324
flip-flop phenomena, 148
fMRI, 148
hippocampus, 148
intranasal treatment, 146, 193
major depressive disorder, 271, 314
maternal behavior, 147
parenting, 194–95
primers in study design, 148–49
prisoner’s dilemma, 192–93
prosocial behaviors, 147, 149, 190–91, 193
RS1/RS3 polymorphisms, 146–49, 190
social bonding, 82–87, 83f, 88f, 89, 91, 94–96
social cognition, 147, 172, 176
vasopressin receptor 1A (V1aR), 82–84, 83f, 86, 87, 89–90, 91f, 92, 94, 146, 147, 149
Vassos, E., 253
Velocardio-facial syndrome, 248
Verweij, K. J., 399
VGLUT3, 429
Vinberg, M., 271
Violence. see aggression
Viral vectors, 346–48, 347t, 429–31
Virginia, Atkins v., 422
Walsh, T., 245, 248
Walum, H., 147
Wang, K., 156
Wang, S.-S., 271
Wang, X., 300–301
Weaver, I. C., 7
Weiland, S., 189, 192
Weiss, L. A., 248, 249
Weissman, A., 349
Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, 252
Wermter, A. K., 156
Wetterslev, J., 271
Williams, S. M., 251
Wisniewski, S. R., 260
Witt, D. M., 83
Wojczynski, M. K., 180
Wong, M. Y., 181
Wood, A. C., 180
Wu, S., 155
Wundt, W., 3
Wylie, K. M., 302
Xu, B., 245–46
Yamasue, H., 160
Yang, S. Y., 146
Zhang, D., 252
Zhang, X., 129
Zhong, S., 191
Zhou, C., 33
Zhou, J.-N., 271
Zhou, Y., 350
Zoghbi, H., 250
Zouk, H., 130