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date: 16 September 2019

(p. 849) Index

(p. 849) Index

Abbott, Grace, 770
Abortion, 223–26, 832
sex selective abortion (SSA), 789
Abortion and Women's Choice (Petchesky), 226
Abu Ghraib, 836
Abzug, Bella, 465
Acceptance model, feminist jurisprudence, 583
Accountability of representatives, 504–5
Accumulation, regime of, 270–73
Active-passive dimension, citizenship, 759
Activism and activists, gendered, 394–406
antifeminist movements, 404–6
division of labor within social movements, gendered, 397–99
far-right hate movements, 405
framing, 399–406
goals, 395
mainstream political movements, 401–2
mobilization, gendered bases of, 394–96
and motherhood, 404
political opportunities, 399–406
resource mobilization, 399–406
stages of participation, 397
subsidiary roles in male-dominated organizations, 398–99
suffrage movements, 400
“Add women and stir” scholarship, 11
Advocates, political representation, 502
Aeschylus, 217–18
Africa
political opportunities, 444
postindependence autocracies, 522–23
African Americans
civil rights movement, 395, 397, 400
feminists, 95–96, 614–15
gender bias experiences, 142–43
history of global feminist organizing, 439
intersectionality, 67, 146, 426
African Commission on Human and People's Rights, 587
African National Congress, 542, 818
Agenda-setting approach, gender mainstreaming, 711
Agriculture
farming systems, households, 300
sexual division of labor, 341–42
Akayesu decision, 589
Alexander, Jacqui M., 203–4, 278
Al-Hibri, Azizah Y., 785
Allen, Amy, 114
Altman, Dennis, 203
Alvarez, Sonia, 382–83, 422
American Birth Control League, 223
American Black Women's Caucus, 216
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 585
American Political Science Association, 9
American Psychiatric Association, 191
American Psychological Association, 191
Amnesty International, 247
Amsterdam Treaty, 207
article 13, 772
Analytic category, gender as, 47–49
Anderson, Benedict, 806
Andrew, Caroline, 642
Androcentric policy making, 691
Anglo-American disciplines, 6–7
Anthony, Susan B., 439
Antiapartheid movement, South Africa, 400–401
Antiessentialist theory, 582
Antifeminist movements, 404–6
Antiracist feminism, 97
Antrobus, Peggy, 471
Anzaldúa, Gloria, 96
Arab nationalism, 821–22
Arab Spring, 13, 530
Arendt, Hannah, 120, 806
Argentina
civil society, 376
marianismo, 814
party politics, 545
Aristophanes, 390–91
Aristotle, 6, 182
Armanda, Asja, 238–39
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 618
Asia, time spent on household tasks by sex, 1999–2008, 353
Association of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, 376
Atwood, Margaret, 228
(p. 850) Australia
feminist engagement with the state, 616
women's policy agencies and state feminism, 660
Authoritarian regimes, 519
Bacchi, Carol, 685–86
Bachan, Harbans Rai, 813
Bachelet, Michele, 5
Baldez, Lisa, 422
Balkati auraten, 498
Banaszak, Lee Ann, 400, 402–3, 422, 616–17
Women's Movement Facing a Reconfigured State, 609–10
Bangladesh, Independence of, 139, 148
Banks, Olive, 439
Baron, Beth, 811
Barrig, Maruja, 381
Barry, Brian, 739
Bartky, Sandra Lee, 125–26, 178–79
Bashevkin, Sylvia, 542
Bateman, Carole, 238
Bauböck, Rainer, 765
Beckwith, Karen, 398, 422, 542, 613
Women's Movement Facing a Reconfigured State, 609–10
Bedford, Kate, 206
Beijing, World Conference on Women, 215, 245, 443, 473, 477, 706
Platform of Action, 618, 654
Bellamy, Richard, 760
Beltran, Cristina, 96
Benhabib, Seyla, 102, 729, 794–95, 797, 798n14
Benjamin, Jessica, 119
Berlant, Lauren, 789–90
Bernstein, Elizabeth, 191
Bharatmata, 812–14
Bhaskaran, Suparna, 203
Bias
gender bias, 142–43
policy making
construction of a gender bias in policy making, 685–87
male bias of the policy context and process, 684–85
voters, 556
Western bias as preventing global research, 657–58
Billig, Michael, 806
Biological dimorphism, 34
Biological functions, body and politics, 169–70
“Biologically based femininity,” 35
Bjarnegard, Elin, 543
Black feminists, 94–96
Blee, Katherine, 405
Bodies that Matter (Butler), 182
Body and politics, 165–88
biological functions, 169–70
distinctive approaches to the body, analysis of, 169–85
biological functions, 169–70
deconstructions of the flesh, 178–81
existential phenomenology, 171–75
genealogies of the flesh, 178–81
lived corporeality, 171–75
otherwise gendered bodies, 182–85
poststructuralism, 178–81
sexed rules, 169–70
écriture feminine, 176–77
embodiment, 167
existential phenomenology, 171–75
feminist thought, development of, 163
genealogies of the flesh, 178–81
hybrid body, 183
and identity, 185–86
intersectional theory, 184–85
lived corporeality, 171–75
male body, 182–83
materialist Foucauldians, 178–79
nature-culture opposition, 171
poststructuralism, 178–81
reproductive rights, 163
sexed roles, 169–70
sexuality as category of political analysis and form of power, 163
theorizing the body, 166–69
troubling gender, 179–82
and violence, 163–64
Western culture, 167–68
Body politic, generally, 161–64. See also Body and politics
Bolshevik Revolution, 523–24
Bordo, Susan, 37, 125–27, 178
Borevi, Karen, 760
Boserup, Esther, 264
on family change, 300
Women's Role in Economic Development, 269
Bosia, Michael, 193
Bosnia, wartime rape, 832, 839
Boulding, Elise, 835
boundaries and intersectionality, 61–62, 64–65
Bourdieu, Pierre, 63, 175
Breadwinner model, 352
Brennan, Deborah, 638–39
Bretton Woods system, 274
Bringing the State Back In (Skocpol), 663
British Conservative Party, 8, 544
British Equal Rights Act, 504
British Labour Party, 542
Brownmiller, Susan, 116
Brown v. Board of Education, 585
Brown, Wendy, 92, 607
Brubaker, Rogers, 806
Bumiller, Kristin, 243
Bush, George W., 836, 840, 841
Butler, Judith
Bodies that Matter, 182
and gender norms, contesting, 127
Gender Trouble, 43–45, 125–26, 179–82
on gender violence, 238
on kinship, 293
on multiculturalism, 798n14
Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, 443
“Cairo Programme of Action,” 215–16
Calhoun, Cheshire, 38
California, University of at Irvine
“Under-Examined Intersectionalities” workshop, 72
Cameron, David, 544
Campbell, Rosie, 538
Campesinos, 644
Canada
jurisprudence, feminist, 585–86
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) participation in, 202
Women's Bureau, 655
Canada Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 589–90
Canadian Charter of Fundamental Rights (1982), 585–86
Canadian Psychiatric Association, 191
Capillary power, 125
Capitalism
households, families, and social reproduction, 294–98
Capitalist Patriarch and the Case for Socialist Feminism (Eisenstein), 268
Care chains and sexual division of labor, 345
Carpenter, R. Charli, 837
Carr, Edward H., 804
Case studies, comparative case study design, 150–51
Castration, 219–20
Catholic Church, 521–22, 714
Center for Constitutional Rights, 585
Center for Women's Global Leadership, 474
Central America, political opportunities, 444
Chadya, Joyce, 818
Chang, Kimberly A., 205
Chavez, Hugo, 199
Chepp, Valerie, 498
Chicana feminism, 96
Child care, 319–20, 328
and multilevel governance, 638–39
Chile, Pinochet regime, 422
China, human rights activists, 219
Chowdhury, Elora, 147
Chowdhury, Najma, 421
Christian Coalition, 405
Citizenship, 756–80
active-passive dimension, 759
care, conceptions of, 315–16
civic republicanism, 758
classical national citizenship models, 757–63
gendering citizenship, 760–63
regimes, contextualizing, 759–690
and cosmopolitanism, 768
diversity, 771–74
debate between multiculturalism and gender equality, 765–67
future research, 774–76
Europe, 758, 771–74
and feminist organizing, 440–42
formal and legal basis for, 760
future research, 774–76
gender equality, debate between multiculturalism and, 765–67
gendering citizenship, 760–63
generally, 729
and global age, 767–69
globalization, challenge from, 763–64
introduction, 756–57
liberalism, 758
methodological nationalism, 776n4
migration, challenge from, 763–64
multiculturalism, 764–67
debate between multiculturalism and gender equality, 765–67
and diversity, 764–67
political multiculturalism, 765
political cultural horizontal dimension, 760
polity dimension, 760
postnationalism, 768–69
public-private dimension, 759
regimes, contextualizing, 759–690
transnationalism, 768–69
feminist approaches, 769–74
feminist approaches to, 771–74
future research, 774–76
universalism, false, 762
“Citizenship and Social Class” (Marshall), 757–59
Citizenship: Feminist Perspectives (Lister), 762
Civic republicanism, 758
Civil rights movement, 395, 397, 400
Civil society
boundaries, 384
comparative study of women's movements, 411–36
definitions, 363–64, 369–71
Enlightenment, 369
and family, 370–71, 385–86n1
and feminist organizing, 365, 437–61
and gendered spheres, 371–78
international varieties of civil society, 374–78
separate spheres, 371
United States, 372–74
(p. 852) international varieties, 374–78
and self-mobilization, 375–76
introduction, 363–65
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) participation in, 379–81
men's participation in, 377
and movements, 364–65
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 383
organizing around gender identities, 390–410
and self-mobilization, 375–76
sex, gender, and civil society, 368–89
“soft power” of voluntary action, 363
structure of, 364
unintersectional approaches, 381
universality of, 380–83
violence within, 379–80
women's global organizing, 462–84
and women's movements, 364–65
women's participation in civil society, generally, 377–78
Cixous, Hélene, 122, 175–77
Clinton, Hillary, 5, 74
Cobban, Alfred, 804
Coercion, power as, 114
Cohen, Cathy, 197
Cohn Carol, 842
Colen, Shellee, 231
Collins, Patricia Hill, 498
Colonias, 638
Colonized male and female, 810
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), 465, 635, 655
Comparative case study design, 150–51
Comparative State Feminism, 661
Comparative study of women's movements, 411–36
categories of comparison, 418–21
cross-movement strategy, 423
defining women's movements, 412–18
actors, defined by, 414
definitional utility, 417–18
and identity claims, 414
as part of larger category, 414–15
persistence of women's movements, 415–16
social networks, reliance on, 416
terminologies, 412–13
and denaturalizing, 427
different structural arrangement, movements across, 419–20
institutions, 419
and intersectionality, 424–27
introduction, 411–12
logics of comparative women's movements across movements, 422–23
perspective, comparative, 418–27
categories of comparison, 418–21
cross-movement strategy, 423
and intersectionality, 424–27
logics of comparative women's movements across movements, 422–23
and women's interests, 421–22
single region, comparison within, 418
social welfare state, 420–21
women's interests, issue of, 421–22
women's movement, definition, 412
Competition, party politics, 541–45
Complexity, concern with, 62
Concrete others, multiculturalism and identity, 794–95
Conditional cash transfer (CCT) schemes, 307
Conference on Environment and Development, 473
Conflict and security. See Security, conflict, and militarization
Connell, Raewyn, 612–13
Connell, Robert W., 45–47, 124, 842–43
Connolly, Clara, 819
Conscientización, 243
Constitutionalism, gender and, 589–92
Construction of gender, state and, 611–15
substantive gender, 611–12
Consumption, regime of
gender and international political economy (GIPE), 270–73
Contraceptive information, 223–24
Convention 177 on Home Work, 632
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
establishment of, 466, 500
and gender violence, 245
generally, 579, 587, 591
implementation in Finland and Chile, 477
importance of, 618
optional protocol provisions, 632
and policy outputs, 707
Convention on the Nationality of Women, 469
Cooper, Davina, 191–92
Co-optation, feminist organizing, 448–49
Corea, Gena, 228–29
Cornell, Drucilla, 226
Correa, Rafael, 204
Cosmopolitanism, 768
Council of Europe (COE), 246, 711
Courts, judicial politics and. See Judicial politics and the courts
Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 103, 582, 791
Critical multiculturalism. See Multiculturalism and identity
Critical race theory, 582
Croatia, Ministry for Renewal, 812
Cross-dressing, 181
CsQCA, 666
Cuenca, gay activists, 204
Cultural fields and intersectionality, 63
(p. 853) Cultural identity, equality and universalism, 737
Cumann na mBan, 817
Cvetkovich, Ann, 644–45
Czechoslovakia, sterilization, 219
Daly, Mary, 318, 319, 329
Davis, Kathy, 70–71
D'Costa, Bina, 139, 148
Declaration of Sentiments, 468
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, 245–46, 466
Deconstructions of the flesh, 178–81
de Beauvoir, Simone, 91, 227
The Second Sex, 171–75, 214
Defense of Marriage Acts (DOMAs), 202, 209n3
Delanty, Gerard, 768, 775
Democracy
quantitative study of, 139
women's policy agencies and state feminism, 664–65
Democracy in America (de Tocqueville), 372–74
Democratic Party, 545, 547
Democratic politics and intersectionality, 72–76
Descriptive representation, 492, 506
de Tocqueville, Alexis, 372–74
Deveaux, Monique, 787
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), 465, 471
The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution (Firestone), 170, 227
Dietz, Mary, 114
Difference approach, judicial politics and the courts, 588
Differentiated state, 606–9
Dill, Bonnie Thornton, 58, 73–74
Disability, critical feminist disability studies, 98
Discipline and Punish (Foucalt), 178
Discourse analysis, 148
Displacement
feminist strategy of, 14
policy, 712
Dispossession, accumulation through, 272
Diversity
and citizenship, 771–74
debate between multiculturalism and gender equality, 765–67
future research, 774–76
households, families, and social reproduction, 292
Division of labor. See Sexual division of labor
Dixit, Narayani, 812–13
Doing Feminist Research (Ackerly and True), 136
Dolhinow, Rebecca, 638, 641
Domestic sphere, politicization of, 816–17
Domestic workers, income, 2
Dubois, Ellen, 468
Dutch Labor Party, 540
Duyvendak, Jan-Willem, 202
Dworkin, Andrea, 228–29
Dworkin, Ronald, 226, 734
East and Southeast Asia, family change and continuity, 303–6, 309
Eastern Europe, state socialism informer, 523–25, 527–28
Ebert, Teresa, 118
Economics of care, 322–23
Écriture feminine, 168, 175–77
Edwards, Michael, 369–70
Eichenberg, Richard C., 836
Einwohner, Rachel, 394–95
Eisenstein, Zillah, 268
Elderly, policies for care of, 319, 322, 329
Electoral institutions, 554–78
ballot structure, 563–64
bias, voter, 556
candidate emergence, 554–59
dynamics of candidate selection, 556–57
electoral gender quotas, 557–59, 563–68
reserved seats, international aspects, 558
democratic politics, 564–67
citizen effects, 566–67
dynamics of, 554
legislator behavior, 564–65
district and party magnitude in outcomes, 562–63
electoral gender quotas, 557–59, 563–68
future research, directions for, 567–69
intersectionality, 568
introduction, 554–55
legislator behavior, 564–65
outcomes of elections, 554, 559–64
ballot structure, 563–64
district and party magnitude, 562–63
electoral formulas, 560–61
PR systems (proportion to votes received), 560–61, 563, 569n3
SMDP system, 562, 563, 569n3
PR systems (proportion to votes received), 560–61, 563, 569n3
reserved seats, international aspects, 558
SMDP system, 562, 563, 569n3
El Salvador, campesinos, 644
Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 835
Elson, Diane, 279, 295, 301
Embodiment, 167
(p. 854) Emmet, Dorothy, 120
Employment
informalization, sexual division of labor and, 344–46
Empowerment, 29
definitions, 122–23
and mothering, 121
Engels, Friedrich, 268
Enlightenment, 369
Enloe, Cynthia, 270, 810, 833, 835
Epistemology of the Closet (Sedgwick), 38
Equality and Anti Discrimination Directives of the European Union, 504
Equality and universalism, 731–55
capability approach, 749
concept of equality, 734–41
recognition, 735–40
redistribution, 734–37
representation, 740–41
cultural identity, 737
gender equality, 741–44
mainstreaming, 743
policy agencies, 743–44
quotas, 742–43
intersectionality, 746–48
introduction, 731–33
liberal egalitarians, 750
mainstreaming, 743
multiculturalism, equality and, 744–46
nondistributive issues of social structure, 736–37
overview, 748–51
policy agencies, 743–44
quotas, 742–43
recognition, 735–40
cultural identity, 737
nondistributive issues of social structure, 736–37
reification, problem of, 739
redistribution, 734–37
reification, problem of, 739
representation, 740–41
Equality, citizenship, and nation
citizenship, 729, 756–80
equality and universalism, 731–55
multiculturalism and identity, 781–802
nationalism and nations, 803–27
overview, 728–30
security, conflict, and militarization, 828–45
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 395, 405, 422
Eroticism, 37
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, 299
Ethics
of care, 91
feminist research ethic, 144–45
Eugenic sterilization, 219–23
and intersectionality, 63
Europe
citizenship, 758, 771–74
Gendered Citizenship in a Multi-cultural Europe, 777n11
electoral gender quotas, 558
family change and continuity, 298–99
jurisprudence, feminist, 586–87
segregation, gender, 349
top ten “gender-biased” occupations on average in Europe and the United States, 347
European Commission, 246, 633
European Community, 844
European Consortium for Political Research, 9
European Convention on Human Rights, 586
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), 586–87, 632, 714
European Court of Justice (ECJ), 633
European Journal of Women's Studies, 67
European Parliament, 249–50
Resolution on Violence Against Women, 246
European Union (EU)
care and welfare, 326–27
and citizenship, 769, 773–74
Employment Equality Directive, 207
Equality and Anti Discrimination Directives, 504
and gender violence, 245, 246, 249–50
jurisprudence, feminist, 587
multilevel governance, 628–29
policy making, 683
Pregnant Workers Directive, 326
regional governance agenda, 206–7
“Everyday politics,” defined, 73
Ewig, Christina, 469
Existential phenomenology, 171–75
Export Processing Zones (EPZs), 271, 278
Falklands War, 836
Family. See also Households, families, and social reproduction
and civil society, 370–71, 385–86n1
and political systems and gender, 520–21
Farming systems, households, 300
Far-right hate movements, 405
FEMCIT, Gendered Citizenship in a Multi-cultural Europe, 777n11
The Feminine Mystique (Friedan), 113
Feminine principles, 94
Feminism Unmodified (MacKinnon), 115
Feminist International Network for Resistance to Reproductive and Genetic Engineering (FINRRAGE), 228–30
Feminist organizing, 437–61
challenges, changing, 445–49
and citizenship, 440–42
co-optation, 448–49
generational conflict, possible, 447–48
strategic decisions, 446–47
(p. 855) co-optation, 448–49
defined, 437
embedded organizers, 550
generational conflict, possible, 447–48
history of global feminist organizing, 438–45
citizen, from chattel to, 438–40
citizenship, 440–42
intersectionality, 442
lesbians, challenges by, 441–42
political opportunity structures, 443–45
self-determination, 440–42
self-help, 441
suffragists, 439
transnational aspects, 438–40
utopian socialists, 438
idiom of failure, 448
insider strategies, 550
intersectionality, 442
lesbians, challenges by, 441–42
neoliberalism, 449
NGOization, 446
and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 441
NGOization, 446–47, 474, 639
political opportunity structures, 443–45
and self-determination, 440–42
self-help, 441
transnational aspects, 438–40
women's movements, defined, 437
Feminists and feminism. See also Feminist organizing; Women's movement, U.S.
African Americans, 95–96
antiracist feminism, 97
black feminists, 94–96
body and politics, 169–70
Chicana feminism, 96
contemporary feminist themes and debates, 90–102
differences among women, 94–98
equality as sameness or difference, 91–94
sex and gender debates, 98–102
critical feminist disability studies, 98
defined, 437
differences among women
African Americans, 95–96
antiracist feminism, 97
black feminists, 94–96
Chicana feminism, 96
critical feminist disability studies, 98
indigenous feminists, 96–97
third world feminism, 95
white feminists, 97–98
écriture feminine, 168, 175–77
equality as sameness or difference, 91–94
feminine principles, 94
feminism from above idea, 660
feminist thought, development of, 163
first appearance of term, 88
futures of feminism, 105
gender and politics scholarship. See Gender and politics scholarship
Great Britain, first appearance of term, 88
indigenous feminists, 96–97
institutionalists, 607–8
and intersectionality, 103
jurisprudence, feminist, 580–84
key aspects, 89
lesbian feminists, 123
liberal feminism
described, 93
emergence of, 91
resource, power as, 112–13
and state and governance, 605–6
male feminism, 93
Marxist feminism
and contingency, 168
criticisms of, 118
described, 92–93
families and women's subordination, 295, 297
and gendered international political economy, 268–69
and power of women, 142
and social reproduction, 266
and state and governance, 605
and women's liberation, 169
materialist feminists, 118
meanings of, 30
methodology and value of knowledge, 8
methods of inquiry, 90
mobilizing, impact of multilevel governance on, 639–41
multiculturalism versus feminism debate, 781
and political systems and gender, 521
poststructural feminism, 99
and power, 30
queer theory, 100
radical feminism
and contingency, 168
criticisms of, 118
described, 92–93
and power of women, 123
research ethic, feminist, 144–45
as research paradigm, 29
sex and gender debates, 98–102
poststructural feminism, 99
queer theory, 100
transfeminism, 100–101
two-spirited people, 101
socialist feminism
authors, 268
described, 92–93
state, engagement with, 616–20
constitutional realm, 617–18
judicial realm, 617–18
state feminism, 616
state feminism and women's policy agendas. See Women's policy agencies and state feminism
(p. 856) and subject of women, 102–5
“death of the subject,” 102
terrain of, 88–90
theories of state and governance. See The state and governance
third world feminism, 95
transfeminism, 100–101
two-spirited people, 101
types of, 88–110. See also specific type
United States, first appearance of term, 88
violence, theories on, 237–40
white feminists, 97–98
white solipsism, 118
Feng Xu, 95
Ferber, Abby L., 395–96
Ferguson, Michaele, 104
Fernandez de Kirchner, Cristina, 5
Ferree, Myra Marx, 469
Finance sector, sexual division of labor, 343
Finland, gender violence in, 239
Firestone, Shulamith, 37, 115
The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution, 170, 227
First Blood (film), 842
The First International Women's Congress, 467
Fisher, Bernice, 314
Florida, Gender Bias Study, 142
Follett, Mary Parker, 120
Forced prostitution, 246
Forum shopping, multilevel governance, 644–46
Foucalt, Michel, 125, 128, 219
Discipline and Punish, 178
on gender violence, 238
The History of Sexuality, 178
materialist Foucauldians, 178–79
4Sho4Kids, 76
Framing
activism and activists, gendered, 399–406
policy outputs, issue framing, 712–14
women's policy agencies and state feminism, 665
France, Study Group on women's Work, 655
Fraser, Nancy, 181, 320–21, 739–41
Freedom House, 517, 525, 531n3
Freeman, Jo, 545
French écriture feminine, 168, 175–77
French, Marilyn, 116
French Workers Party, 220
Freud, Sigmund, 37
Friedan, Betty, 113, 402
Friedman, Elisabeth J., 477–78
Friedman, Marilyn, 786
Friendship, gay and lesbian communities, 292
Gaitskell, Deborah, 808
Gamson, Joshua, 202
Gamson, William, 664–65
Garfinkel, Harold, 32
Gatens, Moira, 179
Gavanas, Anna, 329
The Gay and Lesbian Atlas, 200
Gay and lesbian communities, friendship, 292–93
Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Employees (GLOBE), 205–6
Geiger, Susan, 818
Gellner, Ernest, 803–5
Gender. See specific topics
Gender analysis, 146–47
Gender and Citizenship (Siim), 519
Gender and governance, generally, 609–11
Gender and politics scholarship, 9–15
inclusion project, 9–11
intersectionality, future directions, 16
poststructuralism, 14–15
sexuality, 14–15
study of gender regimes, gendered states, and institutions, 13–14
study of women on their own terms, 11–13
Gender and politics, structure of the handbook, 18–19
Gender and Power (Connell), 45–47, 124
Gender bias, 142–43
Gender, care, and welfare, 313–36
analytical concept, care as, 316–21
child-care, 319–20, 328
mainstream frameworks, 316–17
policy analysis, 317–18
societal division of care, 318
care across borders, 326–29
emerging transnational care policies, 326–27
global migration and care, 327–29
care policies
the economics of care, 322–23
explaining, 321–25
national insurance schemes, 323
outcomes of, 320–21
the politics of care, 323–25
work-family policies, 324
and citizenship, 315–16
comparative research on the care dimension, 318–20
conceptions of care and the concept of care, 314–16
and citizenship, 315–16
elevation of care, 315
interpersonal nature of care, 314
social reproduction, 314–15
the economics of care, 322–23
elderly, policies for care of, 319, 322, 329
elevation of care, 315
explaining care policies, 321–25
migration and care, 327–29
outcomes of care policies, 320–21
policy analysis, 317–18
(p. 857) the politics of care, 323–25
societal division of care, 318
transnational care policies, 326–27
welfare states, care dimension of, 316–21
analysis of welfare states, 317
child-care, 318–20, 328
comparative research on the care dimension, 318–20
Gender, defined, 146
Gender discrimination, 706–8
Gendered Citizenship in a Multi-cultural Europe, 777n11
Gendered international political economy (GIPE), 260, 263–88, 268–70
accumulation, regime of, 270–73
consumption, regime of, 270–73
Export Processing Zones (EPZs), 271, 278
gaps in the literature, 277–79
global private capital, dominance of, 280
governance, regimes of, 273–75
introduction, 263–66
key themes of, 260–61
production, regime of, 270–73
reform, struggles for, 275–77
sexual division of labor, 261
social reproduction, 261, 266–68
structural adjustment policies (SAPs), 270–71
transformation, struggles for, 275–77
Gendered political economy (GPE), 259–61
gender and international political economy (GIPE), 263–88
gender, care, and welfare, 313–36
gendered international political economy (GIPE), 260, 268–70
households, families, and social reproduction, 289–312
sexual division of labor, 337–61
Gendered spheres, civil society and, 371–78
international varieties of civil society, 374–78
separate spheres, 371
United States, 372–74
Gendered states, gender and politics scholarship, 13–14
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), 705
Gender gap
foreign policy attitudes, 836
party politics, 537–38
Gender identities, 40
Gender, Institutions, and Development Database (GID-DB), 705
Gender mainstreaming (GM), 207
Gender quotas, 151
Gender regimes, gendered states, and institutions, 13–14
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI), 705
Gender scholarship, intersectionality, 66–72
Gender, sex and sexuality, 29, 31–56
“Gender skepticism,” 37
Gender studies, survey on, 58
Gender Trouble (Butler), 43–45, 125–26, 179–82
Gender violence, 236–58. See also Sexual violence
civil society, from state to, 242–45
definition, 237
feminist theorists on violence, 237–40
forced prostitution, 246
global politics, 245–51
introduction, 236–37
and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 242–44
sex industry, 248–49
state interventions, 240–42
Women of Color Against Violence, 243–44
Zero Tolerance, 252
Gender, work, and the sexual division of labor
breadwinner model, 352
impact of, 351–55
Asia, time spent on household tasks by sex, 1999-2008, 353
time spent on household tasks by sex, 1999-2008, 353
unpaid work, time spent on, 353, 354, 355
segregation, gender
distribution of female status in employment, 2007, 349
explanations, 350–51
time spent on household tasks by sex, 353
unpaid work, time spent on, 354
Genealogies of the flesh, 178–81
Genocide, Serbia, 238–39
German Christian Democratic Party, 544
Women's Union, 545
Gilligan, Carol, 581
Gilmore, Ruth Wilson, 638
Ginsberg, Ruth Bader, 581, 585
Global Gender Gap Index, 517, 517, 530–31n1
Global North
political opportunity structure, 443
sexual division of labor, 343
Global political institutions, heteronormativity and sexuality, 204–7
Global private capital, dominance of, 280
Global South
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) participation in, 200, 203, 206
political opportunity structure, 443
sexual division of labor, 343, 345
Gosine, Andil, 205–6
Gould, C. Carol, 771
Governance
gender and international political economy (GIPE), 273–75
and the state. See The state and governance
Gradin, Anita, 245
(p. 858) Gramiscian theory, 269
Gramsci, Antonio, 792
Grassroots, defined, 463
Green, Joyce, 96
Habermas, Jürgen, 807
Habitus, 175
The Hague, 467, 771, 832
Hale, Brenda, 588
Hall, Stuart, 278–79
Hamilton, Alice, 770
The Handmaid's Tale (Atwood), 228
Hankivsky, Olena, 91–92
Haraway, Donna, 790
Harding, Sandra, 48–49, 136, 138, 829
Harm, jurisprudence, 583–84
Harris, Angela, 582
Hartmann, Heidi, 296
Hartsock, Nancy, 117, 121, 128
Hawkesworth, Mary, 621, 682
Hayes, Carlton B., 804
Heads of state, women as, 5
Heater, Derek, 768
Hegemony, 120
heterosexuality, 190
Held, David, 768
Hélie-Lucas, Marieme, 465
Henry, Marsha, 834
Hens Do Crow (Tamale), 149
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 823n1
Hernes, Helga Maria, 218–19, 660, 761, 776n2
Herzog, Dagmar, 193
Heteronormativity and sexuality, 15, 39, 189–213
category of analysis, sexuality as, 190–95
global political institutions, 204–7
hegemonic heterosexuality, 190–91
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) activism and studies
emergence of movement, 194
generally, 9, 189
identities, 198
legislation, 199
political processes, participation in, 199–204
social movements, participation in, 199–204
politics, relationship of sexuality to, 195–99
power, sexuality as a form of, 190–95
public policies, 204–7
sexual citizenship, 198–99
Heterosexuality
hegemonic, 190
male power, relation to structures of, 38
matrix, 126
and sex differences, 43
Higate, Paul, 834
Hip-hop music, 76
Hirschmann, David, 378
The History of Sexuality (Foucalt), 178
HIV/AIDS pandemic, 192
funding of projects, 206
and politics, 196
Hoad, Neville, 192
Homophobia, 38–39, 193
Homosexuality
exclusion from public life, 197
lesbians, differentiation from male homosexuality, 38
Honig, Bonnie, 785
Hooper, Charlotte, 842–43
Households, families, and social reproduction, 287–312
biology-recognizing plurality and difference, decentering, 291–94
capitalism, 294–98
diversity, 292
families and households, overview, 291–94
families, social reproduction, and women's subordination, 295–98
family change and continuity, 298–306
East and Southeast Asia, 303–6, 309
Europe, 298–99
farming systems, 300
in global periphery, 300–301
Southern Africa, 301–3, 308–9
sub-Saharan Africa, 300–301
weaker patriarchies, 300
family, defined, 290
family in one place ideology, 293
family policies, 306–8
introduction, 289–90
Japan, 306
Korea, 305–6
Latin America, 292
marriage squeeze, 304
nuclear household, generally, 291
oppression of women, 294–98
private sector, 295
public sector, 295
social reproduction, overview, 294–98
Taiwan, 305
women's subordination, 295–98
Howell, Jude, 369, 379, 385–86n1
Htun, Mala, 522
Hull House, 770
Human capital, sexual division of labor, 350–51
Human Rights Act of 1998, 586
Human rights, gender and, 589–92
Human Rights Watch, 247
Human trafficking, 249–50, 833, 838
Hybrid body, 183
Hybrid regimes, 518, 525–27, 529, 531n4
(p. 859) Identity
body and politics, 185–86
gender identities, organizing around. See Organizing around gender identities
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) activism and studies, 198
multiculturalism and. See Multiculturalism and identity
patriotism and national identity, 809–10
and women's movements, 414
Idiom of failure, feminist organizing, 448
Imig, Doug, 630
Immigrants, “good” and “bad,” 197
INCITE!, 640–41
Inclusion policy, 712
Inclusion project, 9–11
“Incomplete revolution,” 3–10
Independence of Bangladesh, 139, 148
Independent Women's Forum (IWF), 405–6
India
Independence of Bangladesh, 139, 148
nationalism, 819–20, 823n4
Indiana, eugenic sterilization law, 221
Indiana University, 82n10
Indian Penal Code, 203
Indigenous feminists, 96–97
Indonesia, market trading, 4
Industry, sexual division of labor, 342–44
Inequality, gender. See Policy outputs
Inferential statistical methods, 152
Informalization, sexual division of labor, 344–46
Informational approach, judicial politics and the courts, 588
Information technology (IT), sexual division of labor, 343–44
Ingelhart, Ronald, 203
Insider-outsider strategy, women's global organizing, 465
Institutional approach, multiculturalism and identity, 788
Institutionalists, feminists, 607–8
Institutions
comparative study of women's movements, 419
future research, 17
gender and politics scholarship, 13–14
and multilevel governance. See Multilevel governance, institutions and
party politics, 541–45
and political representation, 500–502
Integrationist approach, gender mainstreaming, 711
Interactive universalism, multiculturalism and identity, 794–95
Inter-American Commission of Women, 247, 469
Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women, 247
Inter American Court of Human Rights, 632
International Alliance of Women (IAW), 468
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), 475
International Congress of Women (ICW), 468, 771
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 250
International, defined, 463
International Feminist Journal of Politics, 67
International Labour Organization (ILO), 338, 340, 348–49, 468, 632
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 5
International Political Science Association
Study Group on Sex Roles and Politics, 9
International relations (IR), 139
International Women's Health Coalition (IWHC), 475
International Women's Socialist Association, 439
International Women's Tribune Center, 474
International Women's Year (IWY), 412, 655, 661
Inter-Parliamentary Union, 515, 531n3
Intersectionality, 57–87
African American women, 67
analysis, 146–47
body and politics, 184–85
and boundaries, 61–62, 64–65
and comparative study of women's movements, 424–27
complexity, concern with, 62
conceptual framework, 59–65
and boundaries, 61–62, 64–65
complexity, concern with, 62
contours of different standpoints, 61
and cultural fields, 63
and eugenics, 63
knowledge projects, 63–65
and power systems, 60
relationality and relational processes, 60–61
and social locations, 60
and sociology, 63–64
contours of different standpoints, 61
and cultural fields, 63
and democratic politics, 72–76
distinguishing features, 58
electoral institutions, 568
equality and universalism, 746–48
and eugenics, 63
and feminism, 103
feminist organizing, 442
feminist scholarship, 49
future directions, 16
and gender and politics, 69–76
and democratic politics, 72–76
women's studies, and gender scholarship, 66–72
and gender, close alignment with, 71–72
gender scholarship, 66–72
generally, 29–30
(p. 860) introduction, 57–59
knowledge
sociology of, 81n2
through framework of, 59–65
knowledge projects, 63–65
challenges confronting contemporary, 77–80
and popular culture, 75–76
and power systems, 60
relationality and relational processes, 60–61
separate and different approach, 81n6
and social justice, 77–79
and social locations, 60
and sociology, 63–64
sociology of knowledge, 81n2
“Under-Examined Intersectionalities” workshop, 72
women of color, 66–68
women's studies, and gender scholarship, 66–72
Interview data, use of, 148–50
In the Valley of Elah (film), 842
Intra-American court of Human Rights, 587
Ireland, Cumann na mBan, 817
Irigaray, Luce, 122, 175–77
Irish Republican Army, 816–17
Irving, Helen, 590–91
Islam. See also Muslims
fundamentalism, 472
and multiculturalism, 793
Islamic Action Front, 545
“Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?” (Okin), 97, 746, 766
Jain, Devaki, 465
Japan, family change and continuity, 306
Jennings, Asha, 76
Jim Crow era, 441
Johnson, Janet Elise, 247–48
Judicial politics and the courts, 579–98
constitutionalism, gender and, 589–92
courts, gender and, 584–88
difference approach, 588
informational approach, 588
representational approach, 588
“trap of essentialism,” 588
difference approach, 588
human rights, gender and, 589–92
informational approach, 588
introduction, 579–80
jurisprudence, feminist, 580–84
law, gender and, 580–84
mobilization processes, 580
representational approach, 588
“trap of essentialism,” 588
Jurisprudence, feminist, 487–88, 580–84
acceptance model, 583
antiessentialist theory, 582
Canada, 585–86
critical race theory, 582
difference versus sameness, 581
Europe, 586–87
and harm, 583–84
litigation, 584–87
and pregnancy, 583
sameness approach, 581
United Kingdom, 586
Justice and the Politics of Difference (Young), 175
Kahane, David, 93
Kaldor, Mary, 820–21
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 497
Kantola, Johanna, 773
Kappeler, Susanne, 239–40
Katzenstein, Mary, 395, 396, 618–19, 635
Kedourie, Elie, 804
Kenney, Sally, 588
Keys, Ellen, 440
Khomeini, Ayatolla, 798n12
Kimmel, Michael S., 395–96
Kinsella, Helen, 836
Kirby, Dean, 200
Kittilson, Miki, 496
Kleitz, Gilles, 206
Knowledge, intersectionality and, 59–65
knowledge projects, 63–65
politics, relationship, 70
sociology of knowledge, 81n2
Kohn, Hans, 804
Kollontai, Alexandria, 223
Koopman, Ruud, 760
Korea, family change and continuity, 305–6
Kristeva, Julia, 175–77
Krook, Mona Lena, 150–51, 496–97
Kukathas, Chandran, 784, 785
Kymlicka, Will, 737–38, 766, 797n1
Multicultural Citizenship, 764–65, 782–84
Laclau, Ernesto, 792
Ladner, Kiera, 634
Lapouge, Georges Vacher de, 220
Latin America
antidiscrimination clauses, 195
bureaucratic authoritarian regimes in Latin America, 521–22
Catholic Church, 714
electoral gender quotas, 558
gay activists, 204
gender violence, 241–47
conscientgización, 243
and NGOs, 243
(p. 861) households, families, and social reproduction, 292
intersectionality, 442
multilevel governance, 637–38
party politics, 544
sexual citizenship, 198–99
Law of male sex-right, 116
League of Nations, 440, 468, 469
Lees, Sue, 251–52
Leftist parties, 543–44
Leghorn, Lisa, 121
Legislator behavior, electoral institutions, 564–65
Leidholdt, Dorchen, 249
Lesbians
differentiation from male homosexuality, 38
feminists, 123
history of global feminist organizing, 441–42
Lesotho Highlands Water Project, 840
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 180
Lewis, Jane, 318, 319
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer)
Canada, 202
civil society, within, 379–81
emergence of movement, 194
generally, 189
Global South, 200, 203, 206
identities, 198
legislation, 199
political processes, participation in, 199–204
Libal, Kathryn, 247
Liberal feminism
described, 93
emergence of, 91
resource, power as, 112–13
and state and governance, 605–6
Liberalism
citizenship, 758
theory of, 91
Liberal multiculturalism. See Multiculturalism and identity
Liebert, Ulrike, 771–72
“Lineages of Citizenship rights, Belongings and Participation” (Bellamy et al), 760
Ling, L. H. M., 205
Lister, Ruth, 762
Lived corporeality, the body and politics, 171–75
Li Xiaojiang, 95
Lloyd, Moya, 178
Locke, John, 7
London, women's shelters, 239
Lorde, Audre, 38–39
Lovenduski, Joni, 536
Luibhéid, Eithne, 197
Lysistrata, 406–7
Maastricht Treaty, 207
MacKinnon, Catharine, 115–17, 226, 237–38, 581–83, 585
Towards a Feminist Theory of the State, 604
Mahmood, Saba, 793
Mainstream feminism and multiculturalism, 791
Mainstreaming, 743
gender mainstreaming, 711–12
nationalism, 809
Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Europe (MAGEEQ), 686, 692
Mainstream political movements, 401–2
Male body, 182–83
Male domination over women, 115
Male feminism, 93
Mansbridge, Jane, 422, 494, 505
Marcovich, Malka, 246
Marianismo, 814
Marriage squeeze, 304
Marshall, Susan, 404–5
Marshall, T. H., 757–59
Marxist feminism
and contingency, 168
criticisms of, 118
described, 92–93
families and women's subordination, 295, 297
and gendered international political economy, 268–69
and power of women, 142
and social reproduction, 266
and state and governance, 605
and women's liberation, 169
Marx, Karl, 270
Masculinity, militarization and, 841–44
Materialist Foucauldians, 178–79
Matriarchal power, 121
“Mature sexuality,” 38
McDonagh, Eileen, 614
McDonnell, Kathleen Keyes, 816–17
McKay, Fiona, 635
McLaren, Margaret, 127
Merkel, Angela, 836
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 171
Messner, Michael, 396
Methodological nationalism, 776n4
Methods and methodologies, 135–59
comparative case study design, 150–51
debates, 137
defining feminist methodology and methods, 135–38
democracy, quantitative study of, 139
discourse analysis, 148
feminist research ethic, 144–45
gender analysis, 146–47
research and, 138–39
inferential statistical methods in gender and politics, 152
(p. 862) international relations (IR), gender and, 139
intersectional analysis, 146–47
interview data, 148–50
key developments and debates, 141–43
method, definition, 135–36
theoretical developments, 137
tools of methodology and methods, 144–47
feminist research ethic, 144–45
gender analysis, 146–47
intersectional analysis, 146–47
Mexico City, World Conference on Women, 470, 743
Migration
and care, 327–29
sexual division of labor, 344–46
Miller, Jean Baker, 121–22
Millett, Kate, 7, 92, 115–17, 171
Mill, John Stuart, 4, 91
Minorities within minorities debate, 781
Misra, Joya, 324–25
Mitchell, Juliet, 116
MLG (multilevel governance). See Multilevel governance, institutions and
Mobilization
feminist mobilizing, impact of multilevel governance on, 639–41
gendered bases of, 394–96
“Mobilization of bias,” 27
Modood, Tariq, 765
Moghadam, Valentine, 465, 472, 475
Mohanty, Chandra, 95, 205
Moi, Toril, 184–85
Money, Sex and Power (Hartsock), 117
Monolithic state, 604–6
Montoya, Celeste, 241, 246
Mookherjee, Monica, 748
Moraga, Cherrie, 96
Mosmiller, Thomas E., 396
The Motherless State (McDonagh), 614
Mothers and motherhood
and activism, 404
empowerment and mothering, 121
and nationalism
motherland (bharatmata), 812–13
symbolism-mothers of the nation, 811–15
vehicle of oppression vs. emancipation, 813–15
voluntary motherhood, reproductive rights, 223–24
Mott, Lucretia, 439, 468
Multicultural Citizenship (Kymlicka), 764–65, 782–84
Multiculturalism
and diversity, 764–67
and equality, 744–46
external restrictions, 766
and gender equality, debate between, 765–67
internal restrictions, 766
political multiculturalism, 765
unitary approaches, 767
Multiculturalism and identity, 781–802
concrete others, 794–95
contextualist approach, 788–89
critical multiculturalism, 781–82, 789–91
hegemonic practices, 792–94
standpoints and intersections, 791–92
democratic approach, 787–88
feminism, multiculturalism as bad for, 783–85
feminism versus multiculturalism debate, 781
hegemonic practices
concrete others and interactive universalism, 794–95
subjectivity, new figurations of, 792–93
transversal politics, 793–94
institutional approach, 788
interactive universalism, 794–95
introduction, 781–82
liberal multiculturalism, 782–89
contextualist approach, 788–89
democratic approach, 787–88
feminism, multiculturalism as bad for, 783–85
generally, 781
institutional approach, 788
principle-driven liberalism, 785–87
and mainstream feminism, 791
minorities within minorities debate, 781
principle-driven liberalism, 785–87
subjectivity, new figurations of, 792–93
THP, policies against, 796–97
transversal politics, 793–94
Multiculturalism (Modood), 765
Multidimensionality of gender, 17
Multilevel governance (MLG), 601
institutions and, 622–53
and child care, 638–39
colonias, 638
denaturalizing scales of government, 642
feminist mobilizing, impact of multilevel governance on, 639–41
forum shopping, 644–46
gender equality politics, 631–37
gender scholars, relevance to, 628–31
INCITE!, 640–41
introduction, 622–23
overview, 628–31
political architecture, 631–37
the political economy of multilevel governance, 637–39
(p. 863) The Revolution Will Not Be Funded, 640
scale attribution, 641–43
Museveni government (Uganda), 526
Muslims. See also Islam
history of global feminist organizing, 439
in Switzerland, 636
Women Living Under Muslim Law (WLUML), 465
“Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma” (Gamson), 202
Myth of disposability, 342
Nairobi, conference on women, 245, 246, 471, 477
Napels, Nancy, 463
Narayan, Uma, 746
National American Woman Suffrage Association, 373
National Front of Indigenous Leaders, 382
Nationalism and nations, 803–27
domestic sphere, politicization of, 816–17
en(gendering) nationalism, 807–15
motherhood as vehicle of oppression vs. emancipation, 813–15
motherland (bharatmata), 812–13
sexual and national identities, 810–11
symbolism-mothers of the nation, 811–15
historical understandings, 804–7
introduction, 803–4
mainstreaming, 809
methodological nationalism, 776n4
motherhood as vehicle of oppression vs. emancipation, 813–15
motherland, 812–13
symbolism-mothers of the nation, 811–15
patriotism and national identity, 809–10
politicization of women's lives, 815–18
domestic sphere, politicization of, 816–17
public sphere, politicization of, 817–18
public sphere, politicization of, 817–18
and religion, 818–21
soul, nation as, 806
and violence, 818–21
Nationalism (Kedourie), 804
Nationalisms and Sexualities (Parker), 811
National Organization for Women, 402
National Women's Party, 373, 469
Navin, Bal Krishna Sharma, 813
Nazi Germany, 193
Sterilization Law, 221
Nelly (rapper), 76
Nelson, Barbara J., 421
Nenadic, Natalie, 238–39
Neoliberalism, feminist organizing, 449
Netherlands, “pillarization,” 202
New Household Economics (NHE), 309n2
New institutionalism, 663
The New Politics of Equality (Squire), 771
New York Tenant Movement, 397–98
New York Times, 368–69, 384
NGOization, 446–47, 474, 639
Nicaraguan Constitution, 589–90
“Nimble Fingers Make Cheap Workers (Elson and Pearson), 271
Nobel Prize, 5
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
and civil society, 383
and feminist organizing, 441
and gender violence, 242–44
United Nations, relationship, 472
women's global organizing, 474–76, 639
Nordic welfare state, 606
“Normal femininity,” 35
Norris, Pippa, 536
Nousiainen, K., 773
Nuclear deterrence, 842
Nussbaum, Martha, 276, 786
Obama, Barack, 74–75
Okin, Susan Moller
on abortion rights, 238
and feminism and multiculturalism, 783–85, 797n4
on gender violence, 252–53n2
“Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?”, 97, 746, 766
on multiculturalism, 728
on power and distribution, 113
Oneida, formal politics, 4
O'Neill, Onora, 276
On Female Body Experience (Young), 175
Opportunity structure, women's global organizing, 464
Oppression. See also Power, politics, domination, and oppression
households, families, and social reproduction, 294–98
use of term, 81n3
Oresteia (Aeschylus), 217–18
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 326–27
Gender, Institutions, and Development Database (GID-DB), 705
and policy making, 686
and policy outcomes, 719
and sexual division of labor, 338, 340, 343, 348–49, 352–53
list of OECD countries, 357n3
Organization of American States (OAS), 247
Organizing
feminist organizing. See Feminist organizing
and gender identities. See Organizing around gender identities
women's, 12–13
(p. 864) women's global organizing. See Women's global organizing
Organizing around gender identities, 390–410
activism and activists, gendered, 394–406
antifeminist movements, 404–6
division of labor within social movements, gendered, 397–99
framing, 399–406
mobilization, gendered bases of, 394–96
political opportunities, 399–406
resource mobilization, 399–406
stages of participation, 397
gender ideology, 392
introduction, 390–94
lysistrata, 406–7
social movements, 393. See also Activism and activists, gendered
The Origins of Family, Private Property and the State (Engels), 268
Orloff, Anna Shola, 520
Ostrom, Elinor, 5
Otto, Diane, 472
“Outline of a Theory of Citizenship” (Turner), 759
“Outline of a Theory of Human Rights” (Turner), 768
Palin, Sarah, 75
Pan-American Conference, 469
Parekh, Bhikhu, 784
Parekh, Serena, 247
Paris Peace Conference, 468
Parker, Andrew, 811
Parker, Katherine, 121
Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar, 328
Participation and representation, 579–98
electoral institutions, 554–78
jurisprudence, feminist, 487–88
overview, 485–88
party politics, 536–53
political parties, 487
political representation, 489–513
political systems, 486–87
and gender, 514–35
Party politics, 536–53
attachments to party, men and women's, 537–39
factionalism, 545
gender gap, 537–58
introduction, 536–37
organizational structures of party, gendered, 539–45
competition, 541–45
inside the party organization, 539–41
institutions, 541–45
recruitment of women as party supporters, 540
and women's movements, 540
party change, 545–47
Quota Database, 544
recruitment of women as party supporters, 540
Pateman, Carole, 116, 379, 757, 762
The Sexual Contract, 761
Patriarchal family form, 4
Patriarchal power, 115–17
Patriotism and national identity, 809–10
colonized male and female, 810
Paxton, Pamela, 139
Penttinen, Elina, 834
Petchesky, Rosalind Pollack, 226
“Phallic” forms of power, 122
Philippines domestic workers, 2
Phillips, Anne
on decision making, 494
on multiculturalism, 745–46, 765–67, 788–89
and political and economic concerns, 740
The Politics of Presence (Phillips), 490–91
on public spheres, 226
Pinochet regime, 422
Pitkin, Hanna F., 490–92, 504, 664–65
Planned Parenthood, 223
Policy agencies, equality and universalism, 743–44
Policy agendas, women's. See Women's policy agencies and state feminism
Policy conflict, women's policy agencies and state feminism, 665
Policy making, 679–702
androcentric policy making, 691
bias
construction of a gender bias in policy making, 685–87
male bias of the policy context and process, 684–85
bringing women in, 681–82
construction of a gender bias in policy making, 685–87
equal treatment policies, 690
feminist issues and state politics, 682–84
introduction, 679–80
mainstreaming gender into policy making, 687–89
male bias of the policy context and process, 684–85
recent feminist approaches, 689–91
“what's the problem? represented to be approach,” 685–86
Policy outputs, 703–26
agenda-setting approach to gender mainstreaming, 711
displacement policy, 712
inclusion policy, 712
inequality, gender
displacement policy, 712
gender discrimination, 706–8
gender mainstreaming, 711–12
(p. 865) inclusion policy, 712
measuring, 704–5
positive actions, 708–9
and public policy, 705–6
reversal policy, 712
typologies, 706–11
integrationist approach to gender mainstreaming, 711
issue framing, 712–14
policy adoption, 715–16
policy debate, 713
policy discourse, 713
policy implementation, 716–19
policy outcomes, 719–20
reversal policy, 712
stages of the policy process, 712–20
issue framing, 712–14
policy adoption, 715–16
policy debate, 713
policy discourse, 713
policy implementation, 716–19
policy outcomes, 719–20
The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context, 320
Political cultural horizontal dimension, citizenship, 760
Political, defined, 73
Political dichotomies, security and, 830–35
individual-collective, 833–34
national-international, 831–33
public-private, 834–85
Political institutions, heteronormativity and sexuality, 204–7
Political multiculturalism, 765
Political opportunities
activism and activists, gendered, 399–406
structure, 664
Political parties, 487
partisan divide, 2
Political processes
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) participation in, 199–204
Political representation, 489–513
accountability of representatives, 504–5
and advocates, 502
balkati auraten, 498
concepts of representation, feminist development of, 491–93
and democracy, 490
democracy, influence of, 515–16
demographic distortions, 498
descriptive representation, 492, 506
effectiveness of, 506–7
elected legislatures, 501
how the substantive representation is done, 502–3
institutional analysis, 506–7
and institutions, 500–502
introduction, 489–491
legislators, 501–2
national parliaments, 1997 and 2010, 495
operationalizing women's interests, 499
overlooked interests argument, 494
reasons women should be represented, 493–94
substantive representation, 492, 507
venue for the representation of women, 500–502
when representation takes place, 503–4
women, representatives of, 494–97
national parliaments, 1997 and 2010, 495
women who are represented, 497–500
Political systems and gender, 486–87, 514–35
attitudes, 516
authoritarianism, 521–25
Africa, postindependence autocracies, 522–23
Eastern Europe, state socialism in, 523–25, 527–28
Latin America, bureaucratic authoritarian regimes in, 521–22
regimes, authoritarian, 518, 519
Soviet Union (former), state socialism in, 523–25, 527–28
democracies, 519–21
and family policy, 520–21
feminism, importance of, 521
hybrid regimes, 518, 525–27, 529, 531n4
introduction, 514–8
cross-national research, 514–15
outcomes, 517
political representation, influence of democracy, 515–16
regime change, 527–29
retime types, delineating, 518–19
semiauthoritarian regimes, 518–19
South Korea, 529
“status policies,” 516
variations in gender equality policies, 516–17
Politicization of women's lives, 815–18
domestic sphere, politicization of, 816–17
public sphere, politicization of, 817–18
Politics
defined, 7, 28
and knowledge, relationship, 70
sexuality, relationship to, 195–99
use of term, 6
Politics & Gender, 67
The Politics of Presence (Phillips), 490–91
Politics of State Feminism: Innovation on Comparative Research (McBride and Mazur), 666–67
Polity dimension, citizenship, 760
Popular culture and intersectionality, 75–76
Pornography, 249
as cultural practice, 252–53n2
Positivists, definition, 8
Postmaterialist values, 203
Postnationalism, citizenship, 768–69
(p. 866) Poststructuralism, 14–15
body and politics, 178–81
feminism, 99
Power. See also Power, politics, domination, and oppression
distribution of, women's policy agencies and state feminism, 665
and feminism, 30
heterosexuality, relation to male power, 38
sexuality as a form of, 190–95
Power over, 114
Power, politics, domination, and oppression, 111–34
capillary power, 125
coercion, power as, 114, 116
disciplinary power, 125
law of male sex-right, 116
male domination over women, 115
matriarchal power, 121
patriarchal power, 115–17
“phallic” forms of power, 122
political power, need for, 113
power as capacity or power to, 120–23
power as domination or power over, 114–20
law of male sex-right, 116
male domination over women, 115
patriarchal power, 115–17
sexual dominion, 115
power over, 114
productive, power as, 124–28
“resource,” power as, 112–14
sexual dominion, 115
Power systems and intersectionality, 60
Pregnancy, jurisprudence, 583
Pregnant Workers Directive, 326
Primary health centers (PHCs), 382
Private sector
households, families, and social reproduction, 295
Private spheres, sexual division of labor, 337
“Proclamation of Tehran,” 215
Production, regime of, 270–73
PROFAM project, 206
Progress of the World's Women (United Nations), 352
Prostitution, forced, 246
PR systems (proportion to votes received), 560–61, 563, 569n3
Puar, Jasbir, 197–98
Public policies, heteronormativity and sexuality, 204–7
Public/private dimension, citizenship, 759
Public/private spheres
citizenship, 759
political dichotomies, security and, 834–85
separation of, 7
Public sector
households, families, and social reproduction, 295
Public spending on family policies, 307
Public spheres
politicization of, 817–18
sexual division of labor, 337
Putnam, Robert, 370
“Putting women back in,” 17
Quality in Gender+ Equality Policies (QUING), 686, 688, 692, 713–14
Queer theory, 100
Quota Database, 544
Quotas, 151, 742–43
electoral gender quotas, 557–59, 563–68
Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection (Krook), 150–51
Radical feminism, 92–93, 118, 123, 168
and contingency, 168
criticisms of, 118
described, 92–93
and power of women, 123
Rape
marital rape, 632
nature of crime, 237–39
and war, 139, 148, 832, 839
Rapp, Rayna, 293–94
Rawls, John, 91, 226, 734–35
Raymond, Janice, 228–29
Reaganism, 472
Recognition, equality and universalism, 735–40
Redistribution, equality and universalism, 734–37
Redstockings Manifesto, 115
Reform, gender and international political economy (GIPE), 275–77
Regional patterns of women's policy agencies, 658–59
Reification, problem of, 739
Relationality and relational processes, 60–61
Religion, nationalism and nations, 818–21
Religious Rights (U.S.), and gay activists, 201
Renan, Ernest, 805–6
Representation
equality and universalism, 740–41
and participation. See Participation and representation
women's policy agencies and state feminism, 664–65
Representational approach, judicial politics and the courts, 588
Reproductive justice, 216
Reproductive rights, 214–35
abortion, 223–26
and castration, 219–20
contraceptive information, 223–24
eugenics, 219–22
feminist mobilizations and reproductive freedom, 223–26
(p. 867) the gender politics of new reproductive technologies, 201
introduction, 214–16
reproductive justice, 216
sex education, 223–24
state control and reproductive agency, 216–23
and sterilization, 219–23
stratified reproduction, 231
voluntary motherhood, 223–24
Research Network on Gender and the State (RNGS), 500, 601, 616, 655–58
background of, 682–83
study, 659–67
the evolution of concept of state feminism, 659–62, 660–62
origins of, 660–62
theoretical foundations for the state feminism framework, 663–66
theory of state feminism, 665–67
Resnick, Judith, 642–43
Resource mobilization, 664
activism and activists, gendered, 399–406
“Resource,” power as, 112–14
Reversal policy, 712
The Revolution Will Not Be Funded, 640
Rice Condoleezza, 836
Rich, Adrienne, 38, 116, 219, 226
Rinaldo, Rachel, 392
Robeyns, Ingrid, 735
Robnett, Belinda, 398
Rodriguez, Dylan, 640
Roe v. Wade, 225
Rohnda, Margaret, 469
Roman Catholic Church, 395
Romanticism, 37
Rome Statute, 618
Roussef, Dilma, 5
Rucht, Dieter, 609–10
Ruling Passions: Sexual Violence, Reputation and the Law (Lees), 251–52
Rupp, Leila, 437–38, 468
Rushdie, Salman, 793–94
The Satanic Verses, 798n12
Russia, gender violence, 247–48
Rutgers-Newark Women's rights Litigation Clinic, 585
Rwanda, women representatives of, 494–95
Sandoval, Chela, 105
Sanger, Margaret, 223
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 171
Sarvasy, Wendy, 770–71
Sassen, Saskia, 205
The Satanic Verses (Rushdie), 798n12
Savage, Mike, 605
Scale attribution, 641–43
Schachar, Ayelet, 788
Schaffner, Laurie, 191
Schiller, Nina Glick, 776n4
Scott, Joan, 47–48
The Second Sex (de Beauvoir, Simone), 171–75, 214
Security, conflict, and militarization, 828–45
gendered referent objects, 838–41
the individual-collective, 833–34
introduction, 828–30
key political dichotomies, security and, 830–35
the individual-collective, 833–34
the national-international, 831–33
the public-private, 834–85
masculinity, militarization and, 841–44
the national-international, 831–33
nuclear deterrence, 842
peaceful subjects, women as, 835–38
the public-private, 834–85
women as peaceful subjects, 835–38
Sedgwick, Eve, 38
Segregation
gender segregation, sexual division of labor. See Sexual division of labor
Self-determination and feminist organizing, 440–42
Self-Employed Women's Association, 632
Self-help and feminist organizing, 441
Self-mobilization and civil society, 375–76
Semiauthoritarian regimes, 518–19
Sen, Amartya, 786
Separate and different approach, intersectionality, 81n6
Separation of public and private spheres, 7
Serbia, genocide, 238–39
Service sector, sexual division of labor, 343
Seth, Kamala, 819
Seth, Raghunath Lal, 819–20
Seth, Somnath, 819–20
Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family under Latin American Dictatorships (Htun), 522
Sex discrimination, 706–8
Sexed rules, body and politics, 169–70
Sex education, 223–24
Sex, gender, and civil society, 368–89
definitions of civil society, 369–71
gendered spheres, 371–78
international varieties of civil society, 374–78
men's participation in civil society, 377
United States, 372–74
women's participation in civil society, generally, 377–78
reinforcing gendered norms, 378–80
universality of civil society, 380–83
Sex, gender, and sexuality, 29, 31–56
analytic category, gender as, 47–49
connections between, 41–46
differentiating sex, gender, and sexuality, 39–41
(p. 868) embodiment to analytic category, 32–33
gender, 36–37
innovative approaches, 50–52
sex, 33–35
sexuality, 37–39
Sex industry. See also Prostitution
gender violence, 248–49
Sex selective abortion (SSA), 789
Sexual citizenship, 195, 198–99
Sexual Contract (Pateman), 116
The Sexual Contract (Pateman), 761
Sexual dimorphism, 35
Sexual division of labor, 261, 337–61
activism and activists, gendered, 397–99
agricultural sector, 341–42
care chains, global, 345
feminization of employment
agricultural sector, 341–42
distribution of employment by sector (sectoral employment as percentage of total employment), by sex and region, 2008, 341
employment sectors, 340–44, 341
finance sector, 343
global, 339–40
industrial sector, 342–43
information technology (IT), 343–44
myth of disposability, 342
new international division of labor, 339
service sector, 343
finance sector, 343
Global North, 343
Global South, 343, 345
human capital, 350–51
industrial sector, 342–43
informalization, 344–46
information technology (IT), 343–44
introduction, 337–39
migrant labor, 344–46
migrations, labor, 344–46
myth of disposability, 342
private spheres, 337
productive, work as, 337
public spheres, 337
segregation, gender, 346–51
hierarchical segregation, 347
horizontal segregation, 347
human capital, 350–51
implications, 348–50
sociological research, 351
top ten “gender-biased” occupations on average in Europe and the United States, 347
vertical segregation, 347
service sector, 343
sociological research, 351
unproductive, work as, 337
Sexual dominion, 115
Sexuality, gender and politics scholarship, 14–15
Sexual Politics (Millett), 7, 115–16, 170
Sexual violence, generally, 224. See also Gender violence; Rape
Shalfer, Boyd, 804
Shiga, Glenda, 809–10
Shiva, Vandana, 94
Siim, Birte, 519
Sikkink, Kathryn, 464–65, 473
Singh, Kushwant, 820
Single-member district plurality (SMDP) system, 562, 563, 569n3
Sirleaf, Ellen Johnson, 5
Sixth Pan-American Conference, 469
Skocpol, Theda, 323, 663
Smith, Andrea, 96
Smith, Anthony, 804–5
Smith, Howard, 504
Smith, Miriam, 636
Smith, Rogers, 373
Smith, Valerie, 72
Snyder, Louis, 804
Social construction of whiteness, 82n9
Socialism and political opportunities, 445
Socialist feminism, 92–93, 268
authors, 268
described, 92–93
Socialist Women's Alliance (SWA), 468
Social justice and intersectionality, 77–79
Social locations and intersectionality, 60
Social movements
LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) participation in, 199–204
organizing around gender identities, 393. See also Activism and activists, gendered
Social movements, gendered political economy, 276
Social networks, women's movements and, 416
Social reproduction, 261, 266–68. See also Households, families, and social reproduction
and care, 314–15
defined, 266–67
Social welfare state, comparative study of women's movements, 420–21
Sociology
and intersectionality, 63–64
of knowledge, 81n2
sexual division of labor, 351
Somerville, Siobhan, 197
Soul, nation as, 806
South Africa
African National Congress, 542
antiapartheid movement, 400–401
constitutional reforms, 195
Women's Budget Initiative, 688
South African Customary Marriage Act, 787
(p. 869) South America, political opportunities, 444
Southern Africa, family change and continuity, 301–3, 308–9
Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference, 844
South Korea
political opportunities, 445
political systems and gender, 529
Soviet Union (former)
All-Union Central Committees, 525
Councils of Ministers, 525
state socialism in, 523–25, 527–28
Spain, Women's Institute, 718
Spelman College, 76
Squires, Judith, 771–73
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 468
State and governance, 603–26
construction of gender, state and, 611–15
the differentiated state, 606–9
feminist engagement with the state, 616–20
feminist theories, 603–11
gender and governance, 609–11
the monolithic state, 604–6
State feminism, 616
and women's policy agendas. See Women's policy agencies and state feminism
State, governance, and policy making, 679–702
gender equality policies, 602
multilevel governance, institutions and, 622–53
multilevel governance (MLG), 601
overview, 599–602
policy outputs, 703–26
The state and governance, 603–26
Women's policy agencies (WPAs), 600–601
Statistical methods
inferential statistical methods, 152
Stereotypes, challenges, 10
Sterilization, 219–23
Stöcker, Helen, 440
Stopes, Marie, 223
Stratham, Paul, 760
Stratified reproduction, 231
Strolovitch, Dara, 378
Structural adjustment policies (SAPs), 270–71
Study of women on their own terms, gender and politics scholarship, 11–13
The Subjection of Women (Mill), 4
Subjectivity and multiculturalism, 792–93
Sub-Saharan Africa
family change and continuity, 300–301
nationalism, 817–18
Subsidiary roles in male-dominated organizations, 398–99
Substantive gender, 611–12
Substantive representation, 10, 492, 507
Suffragists, 400, 439
Sweden
gender violence in, 239
sterilization, 220, 223
Switzerland, sterilization, 221
Taiwan, family change and continuity, 305
Tamale, Sylvia, 149–50
Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), 818
TARGET, 688
Tarrow, Sidney, 465, 630
Taylor, Charles, 737, 741
Tea Party movement, 75
Tehran, “Proclamation of Tehran,” 215
Thailand
domestic workers, income, 2
party politics, 543
Thapar, Raj Kumar, 820
Thatcherism, 472
Thatcher, Margaret, 836
Third world feminism, 95
Title IX, 406
Towards a Feminist Theory of the State (MacKinnon), 604
Towards a New Psychology of Women (Miller), 121–22
Transfeminism, 100–101
Transformation
gender and international political economy (GIPE), 275–77
Transgender, use of term, 208n2
Transnational activism, women's global organizing, 464–66
Transnational, defined, 463
Transnationalism, citizenship, 768–69
feminist approaches to, 769–74
Transphobia, 208n1
Transversal politics, multiculturalism and identity, 793–94
“Trap of essentialism,” judicial politics and the courts, 588
Treaty of Rome, Article 119, 631–32
Treaty on the Equality of rights between Men and Women, 469
Tripathi, Kalka Prasad, 812–13
Tripp, Aili Mari, 469–70
Tristán, Flora, 439
Tronto, Joan, 314
Turner, Bryan S., 759, 767
Two-spirited people, 101
Uganda
Domestic Relations Act, 526
gay activists, 201
Gender and Growth Assessment Coalition, 526
Museveni government, 526
political system, 525–27
Succession Act, 526
women's political representation, 149–50
UN Decade for Women (1975-1980), 471
“Underbelly” of globalization, 204
(p. 870) “Under-Examined Intersectionalities” workshop, 72
UN Economic and Social Council (UNESCO), 470
UNICEF, 527
UN INSTRAW, 688
United Kingdom, feminist jurisprudence, 586
United Nations
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), 465, 635, 655
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, 245–46, 466
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), 705
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI), 705
Human Rights Commission, 250
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 250
Inter-Parliamentary Union, 515, 531n3
multilevel governance, 632
Nairobi, conference on, 245, 471, 477
Nairobi, convergence on, 246
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), relationship, 472
Plans of Action, 668
political opportunity structure, 443
Progress of the World's Women, 352
skepticism towards, 472–73
United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women. See Beijing, World Conference on Women
United Nations Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Employees (UNGLOBE), 206
United Nations International Conference on Human Rights
“Proclamation of Tehran,” 215
United Nations International Conference on Population and Development
“Cairo Programme of Action,” 215–16
United Nations Research Institute on Social Development (UNRISD)
The Political and Social Economy of Care in a Development Context, 320
United States v. Morrison, 642
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 470
Universalism
equality and. See Equality and universalism
false, 762
multiculturalism and identity, 794–95
Universal rights, 33–34
UN Security Council
Resolution 1325 “Women, Peace and Security,” 476, 479, 829, 836, 841
Unterhalter, Elaine, 808
Urban Institute
The Gay and Lesbian Atlas, 200
Utopian socialists, 438
Vaginal orgasm, 37–38
Vaud law (Switzerland), 221
Verloo, Mieke, 711, 772
Verma, Mahadevi, 813
Vienna Conference on Human Rights, 443, 473–74, 478
Vienna Treaty, 246
Vietnam War, 842
A Vindication of the Rights of Women (Wollstonecraft), 4, 269, 438
Violence. See also Gender violence; Sexual violence
body and politics, 163–64
civil society, within, 379–80
nationalism and nations, 818–21
Violence Against Women Act (1994), 642
Violence against Women (VAW), 714
Voluntary motherhood, 223–24
Voters, bias, 556
Walby, Sylvia, 519–20, 808–9
Walker, R. B. J., 831
Walsh, Shannon Drysdale, 241–42
Warner, Michael, 789–90
War, rape and, 139, 148, 832, 839
War tribunals, 472–73
Waylen, Georgina, 609
Weiss, Meredith, 193
Weldon, S. Laurel, 241, 494, 615
Welfare. See also Gender, care, and welfare
reform, 198
Welfare state, comparative study of women's movements, 420–21
Welfare States and Woman Power: Essays in State Feminism (Hermes), 660
Western bias as preventing global research, 657–58
Whisnant, Rebecca, 249
White feminists, 97–98
Whitehead, Stephen, 126–27
Whiteness, social construction of, 82n9
White solipsism, 118
(p. 871) Why Women Protest (Baldez), 422
Wiliarty, Sarah, 545
Williams, Fiona, 329
Williams, Wendy, 581, 583
Wimmer, Andreas, 776n4
Witz, Anne, 605
Wollstonecraft, Mary
on citizenship, 757, 761
and liberal feminism, 91
A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 4, 269, 438
on women's emancipation, 4
Women Against Fundamentalism (WAF), 794
Women as peaceful subjects, 835–38
Women, Environment, and Development Organization (WEDO), 465
Women Living Under Muslim Law (WLUML), 465
Women-Nation-State (Yuval-Davis), 807–8
Women of Color Against Violence, 243–44
Women of color, intersectionality, 66–68
Women's Alliance
Women's Declaration on Policies, 475
Women's Bureau (Canada), 655
Women's Bureau (United States), 655
Women's Christian Temperance Union, 468
Women's Declaration on Policies, 475
Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights (WGNRR), 473
Women's global organizing, 462–84
framing concept, 465–66
global, defined, 463
from the global to the local, 476–79
grassroots, defined, 463
insider-outsider strategy, 465
international, defined, 463
local, defined, 463
local to global, 466–76
1900–1950s, 467–70
1970s and 1980s, 470–73
1990s, 473–76
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 474–76
opportunity structure, 464
rooted cosmopolitans, 464–66
transnational activism, 464–66
transnational, defined, 463
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 440, 835
Women's Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF), 586
Women's liberation, emergence of, 169–70
Women's Movement Facing a Reconfigured State (Banaszak et al.), 609–10
Women's movements
and civil society, 364–65
defined, 437
and party politics, 540
U.S., 68–69
Women's policy agencies and state feminism, 654–78
assumptions, 656–59
Comparative State Feminism, 661
debunking conventional wisdom, 667–72
agencies as symbolic, 668–69
era of agencies is over, 671–72
resources, lack of, 670–71
responsibilities of feminist leaders, 670
tools of patriarchy, agencies and leaders as susceptible to, 669–70
issues, 656–59
origins of the RNGS state feminism framework, 660–62
policy agencies worldwide, 655–56
the three waves of women's policy agencies, 655–56
regional patterns of women's policy agencies, 658–59
Research Network on Gender and the State  (RNGS) study
the evolution of concept of state feminism, 659–62
origins of, 660–62
theoretical foundations for the state feminism framework, 663–66
theory of state feminism, 665–67
state feminism as synonym for women's policy agencies, 557
theoretical foundations for the state feminism framework, 663–66
democracy, 664–65
framing, 665
institutionalism and the state, 663
new institutionalism, 663
policy conflict, 665
political opportunity structure, 664
representation, 664–65
resource mobilization, 664
social movements and women's movements, 663–64
theory of state feminism, 665–67
Western bias as preventing global research, 657–58
Women's policy agencies (WPAs), 13, 600–601, 619. See also Women's policy agencies and state feminism
Women's Role in Economic Development (Boserup), 269
Women's shelters, London, 239
Women's studies, and gender scholarship, intersectionality, 66–72
Women's subordination and families, 295–98
“Women's Voices ‘94,” 475
Wood, Elizabeth, 644
Work, sexual division of labor. See Sexual division of labor
(p. 872) World Bank, 205–6, 297, 355, 633, 643–44
PROFAM project, 206
World Citizenship (Heater), 768
World Conference on Human Rights (Austria), 246
World Conference on Women (Beijing), 215, 245, 443, 473, 477
World Conference on Women (Mexico City), 470, 743
World Economic Forum
democracy and Global Gender Gap Index, 517, 517, 530–31n1
Global Gender Gap Index, 517, 517, 530–31n1
World Trade Organization (WTO), 273–74
World War II, 841
Wright, Melissa, 342
X chromosome, 35
Yeates, Nicola, 328
Yeatman, Anna, 114, 119
Yemini Reform Group, 545
Young, Iris Marion, 113, 122–23
On Female Body Experience, 175
and gendered political economy, 276
Justice and the Politics of Difference, 175
Moi, Toril, conversation with, 184–85
and multiculturalism, 797n1
politics of difference, 741
on recognition, 736
on redistribution, 735
Young, Lisa, 542
Yuval-Davis, Nira, 219, 770, 777n6, 793–94
Women-Nation-State, 807–8
Zero Tolerance, gender violence, 252
Zetkin, Clara, 439
Zizek, Slavoj, 797n8